Dictionary of Ichthyology

Brian W. Coad and Don E. McAllister

Revised: 09 August 2014
© Brian W. Coad (www.briancoad.com)

Introduction

The following dictionary defines terms used in the study of fishes (= ichthyology in its widest sense). It includes terms not specific to that discipline but commonly used by it.

There seems to be various ways of presenting words in an alphabetical sequence. A consistent style is followed here and is fairly obvious. Abbreviations appear as though they were words, e.g. TAC (total allowable catch) appears before tackle, not at the beginning of the letter T. Abbreviations are also gathered together in a separate section. Hyphenated words precede non-hyphenated words. In the latter case, some sources hyphenate words while others combine two words as one. If a term comprising two words is not found it may be lower down in the Dictionary as a hyphenated word or a single word. Note also that many terms may be preceded by the word "fish", e.g. fish gig can appear as such or under gig; most such terms occur in both forms.

The urge to link all terms within definitions was resisted as broken links are frustrating to the reader and tedious for the lexicographer. Similarly, extensive links to websites are not given (the URLs change frequently); various search engines can give access to sites with more information than the definitions here.

Generally, terms that are defined by another term have a definition in parentheses copied from the other term to save the need to scroll tediously. Some terms may have q.v. after them, indicating that this term is related to another term but implying this is too long or distracting to insert here. Occasionally, related terms are indicated by See...., compare...., or cf.... for compare.

Words in italic are from the Latin (or Latinised Greek) and generally are scientific names of species, terms used in nomenclature, or some Latin words and phrases commonly used in English and scientific works, for example et alii meaning "and others". Latin names of bones and muscles are not italicised (usage differs and there is a trend not to use italics, except of course for scientific names). Here italics are used (other than in scientific names) to separate terms and their meanings more clearly without having to state repeatedly that the terms are in Latin. Note that many anatomical terms have both English and Latin versions, the latter less used today but appearing in older works and in some comprehensive studies. Not all Latin versions of terms are included here but most are easily translatable although grammar differs, e.g. ductus endolymphaticus is endolymphatic duct. Plurals are given of Latin and Greek based words as these may not be intuitively familiar to readers of a non-European background or to younger European readers (!).

Spellings of words vary between American and English English. The latter may favour (favor) the letter "s" over the letter "z" and the "ae" combination over the simpler "e". Readers should be aware of these possible variant spellings. English spellings are followed here with some variant forms in American English included as an aid to the British and those whose first language is neither form of English. Note that the æ and œ formats are variably used for ae and oe throughout this work. Latin words often use the more archaic form unless they are in common ichthyological use in English.

A number of terms are simply English words, used in a special sense in ichthyology, but having another meaning; in some cases both definitions are given for clarity. Sometimes they are compounded from correct but obscure English words, prefixes and suffixes, e.g. obbasal. Some words have common roots in Latin or Greek and can easily be understood by those with some familiarity with these languages, e.g. vermiform, vermifuge, vermivore - for non-Eurocentric readers such similar words are defined here although not unique to the study of fishes.

Some entries have fish examples cited, given as the Latin name. The names are either the scientific name (in italics; taxonomy may be dated is some cases - see "Catalog of Fishes" for name changes), the family name (ending in -idae) or the order name (ending in -iformes) (the latter two not in italics). A few other higher groupings are mentioned, particularly Amphioxi (Cephalochordata or lancelets, which are not "fishes" but share some anatomical characters), Myxini (the hagfishes), Petromyzontiformes (lampreys), Holocephali (chimaeras), Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates and relatives), Teleostomi (all the bony fishes), Dipnoi or Dipneusti (lungfishes), Actinopterygii (the ray-finned bony fishes), Teleostei (or teleosts, all the ray-finned bony fishes except Polypteriformes, Acipenseriformes and Amiiformes), and Ostariophysi (usually in the old sense of Cypriniformes, Characiformes, Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes; now including Gonorynchiformes). Nelson (2006) and earlier editions of his work can be consulted for those unfamiliar with fish diversity, as well as web sites such as www.fishbase.org.

Families and species of fishes are not described in this Dictionary. Scientific names of fishes are best accessed through the website of the "Catalog of Fishes" at the California Academy of Sciences while common names are best found in regional works (see Coad (1995) in the References, for example). Some unusual common and scientific names may be included in the Dictionary for reasons of clarification and education.

Illustrations of certain terms will be added over the long term. They are linked through the term and are highlighted and underlined in blue. Illustrations are not included in the text file so that it loads more quickly. Images taken from older works have an abbreviated author and title, e.g. Boulenger's "Fishes of the Nile", and, as a complete citation, can be found in the "Catalog of Fishes".

Some terms cited here are also used, or originate, in genetics, marine biology, oceanography, limnology, systematics, palaeontology, parasitology, ecology, hydrology, fisheries, museum studies, angling, aquaculture, slang, dialects of English, folklore, etymology, literature, fish processing, fish technology, fishing vessels, cooking, veterinary science, popular culture, etc., and the choice of terms to include from such diverse fields is eclectic. Since it could be argued that a Dictionary of Ichthyology is not needed by a competent ichthyologist, terms from neighbouring disciplines are included for such exemplary people. These are necessarily selective, for example structures associated with nets on fishing vessels are listed but not structures that are found generally on ships. Further entry into these fields may be found through the References herein and Wikipedia.

Certain areas of the English-speaking world were famous for their fisheries and these have contributed many words, e.g. Newfoundland. Other areas also have extensive vocabularies but these are in languages other than English and have not, generally, become familiar to, or used in, English, with some exceptions, e.g. Japan.

Many terms refer to a fisherman or fishermen as, at the time these terms were in common use, the industry at sea and work in fresh waters was almost entirely carried out by men. The politically correct fisher is then anachronistic and incorrect.

A list of references referred to in the text is given. Most terms are widely used and do not require documentation. This reference list is not meant to be exhaustive, nor does it track terms to their origin.

A book by S. D. Nandy and S. N. M. Kazmi (Eds.) published in 2009 (Technical Encyclopaedia of Ichthyology. Dominant Publishers, New Delhi. xxxii + 845 pp., in three volumes) is copied from this Dictionary, without permission, when it had about 14,000 entries.

The entries are continually being refined and corrected. Corrections and new terms are welcome. A literature source for any new term is requested as documentation. Refer to www.briancoad.com for contact information.

-:-

Don E. McAllister (1934-2001) - see Cook et al. (2001; 2002), Cook and Coad (2002), Coad (2011) and Cook et al. (2011) for obituaries. Don had the original concept for a Dictionary of Ichthyology in the 1960s and bequeathed it to me. At his death, the Dictionary contained 2003 entries, including several hundred added by me in 1972 as part of a graduate student course (I seem to recall receiving an A+). It now contains over 24,500 terms and over 610 illustrations.
 


A

A = abbreviation for acre.

A = abbreviation for anal fin (rays).

A = annual total mortality rate (the number of fish which die during a year divided by the initial number. Also called actual mortality rate, coefficient of mortality (Ricker, 1975)).

a or a = abbreviation for annum, meaning year. Usually used in combination, e.g. Ma, meaning million years.

A1 = abbreviation for first anal fin (rays).

A2 = abbreviation for second anal fin (rays).

A30 = number of anal fin rays anterior to the 31st vertebra, e.g. in Carapidae.

A100 = number of anal fin rays anterior to the 201st vertebra, e.g. in Nemichthyidae.

a posteriori classification = a classification made based on the results of experimentation.

a priori classification = a classification made prior to experimentation.

a- (prefix) = lacking, absence of, not, without; but see below, a-fishing.

A-B direction = in net making, the direction parallel to a rectilinear sequence of mesh bars, each from adjacent meshes.

a-fishing = in the act or process of fishing; gone fishing.

A-ft = acre-foot (one acre of surface covered with 1 foot of water (1,233,500 L, 1233.5 m3, 325,850 gal).

A-grade = a freshness grade for fish used in the European community.

a.k.a. = also known as.

aalpricken = a small eel, gutted, fried and packed in a fine edible oil (Germany).

aav(e) = the small round net by which boys pick up herrings that fall from the nets as these are being hauled in (Scottish dialect).

ab = abbreviation for aberration.

ab- (prefix) = from, away from.

Abaia = a large and mythic eel that lives at the bottom of lakes in the Fiji, Solomon and Vanuatu islands. The Abaia protects all other creatures in the lakes. Anyone trying to catch fish is overwhelmed with a large wave caused by its thrashing tail.

abaxial = at a point away from, or distant from, the axis; opposite of adaxial.

abbreviate heterocercal = type of caudal fin in which the vertebral column extends only a short way into the upper lobe of the fin (which is longer than the lower lobe); a heterocercal caudal fin approaching the homocercal type, e.g. Lepisosteidae, Amiidae.

abbreviation = a shortened form of a word or title. In zoological works genus-group names cited in binomial names of species are often abbreviated to one or two letters for convenience, e.g. Salmo trutta may be abbreviated to S. trutta, the abbreviation always being followed by a full stop (or period). The abbreviation should not be used on the first mention of a name. Similarly specific names cited in trinomial names of subspecies may be abbreviated.

ABC = allowable biological catch (a term used by a management agency which refers to the range of allowable catch for a species or species group. It is set each year by a scientific group created by the management agency and is the subjectively estimated amount of catch of a given species from a given region. The agency then takes the ABC estimate and sets the annual total allowable catch (TAC)).

abdomen = 1) the part of the body containing the viscera (intestine, liver, kidney, reproductive organs, etc).

abdomen = 2) the lower part of the body of fish, the belly.

abdominal = pertaining to the abdomen. Pelvic fins are said to be abdominal when they lie behind the posterior tip of normally developed pectoral fins.

abdominal cavity = the part of the body containing the viscera or guts, liver, ovaries, testes, kidneys, etc.

abdominal dropsy = oedema, an accumulation of excess fluid in the abdomen, causing abdominal swelling and marked protrusion of scales. Also called pinecone disease, q.v.

abdominal fishes = those bony fishes having pelvic fins in the abdominal position.

abdominal pore = an external aperture near the vent communicating with the abdominal cavity. Found in Cyclostomata, Elasmobranchii, and in some Teleostomi, e.g. Salmonidae.

abdominal ridge = paired dermal ridges running from pectoral to pelvic fin bases in sharks.

abdominal serra = an abdominal spine, formed from a scale in the ventral region of the fish body. A series of these serrae form a saw-like edge and their numbers can be used in identification of some Clupeidae and Serrasalmidae.

abdominal vertebra = one of the anterior vertebrae bearing ribs but lacking the haemal arch, canal and spine of caudal vertebrae, q.v.

abducens nerve = cranial nerve VI, innervating the lateral rectus eye muscle which rotates the eyeball laterally and the retractor bulbi muscles in part. See cranial nerves.

abduction = movement away from the medial axis of the body, or of two parts away from each other, cf. adduction.

abductor = a muscle that draws a part away from the axis of the body, or separates two parts.

Aberdeen cut = a cut of fish from a frozen block, rhombus-shaped with the sides often squared off or cut with a tapered edge. Usually breaded and battered. Also called diamond cut and French cut.

Aberdeen hook = a hook shape characterised by a slightly-squared round bend and a wide gape used for baiting with minnows

aberrant = adjective for aberration.

aberration = 1) a term used to denote a class of individuals within a species. A name which explicitly refers to an aberration unequivocally treated as an infrasubspecific entity is unavailable.

aberration = 2) an aberrant fish, deviating from the usual or natural type in colour, form, behaviour, etc.

abioseston = non-living components of the seston, q.v.

abio- = without a living, starving.

abiotic = referring to non-living structures, substances, factors, environments, etc.

abnormal = not normal; contrary to the usual structure, position, behaviour or rule.

abnormal host = accidental host.

abnormality = any condition not found naturally in most fishes. Unusual conditions arising during processing fish as food are called defects, q.v.

aboral = opposite or away from the oral or mouth area/cavity. May be used in the sense of opposite to a biting tooth surface where this aboral end of a tooth is not a root, e.g. tooth plates in Chimaeriformes and pavement teeth, q.v., in some rays, skates and sharks.

aboriginal fishery = a fishery by native peoples for food, commercial, social and ceremonial purposes.

aborted name = nomen abortivum (a name contrary to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as the Code existed at the time of publication. Abbreviated asnom. abort.).

abortive = remaining or becoming imperfect.

abraded = worn or frayed, e.g. fins of fish after spawning.

Abramis brama = 1) the common bream, a cyprinid found from the British Isles across Europe north of the Pyrenees and Alps eastwards to the Black, Caspian and Aral sea basins.

Abramis brama = 2) a Swedish rock band that even a had an album with a line drawing of the fish on it.

abruptotype = an unofficial and joke name for the type of a taxon described in haste to meet some deadline such as for a grant or project.

absolute abundance = the total number of a kind of fish in the population. Usually estimated from relative abundance as it is rarely known.

absolute conversion rate of food = an index calculated by dividing the quantity of food distributed by the extra growth believed to have been obtained only from that food.

absolute fecundity = total number of eggs in a female.

absolute growth rate = the actual increase in size of an individual, stock or population over a given time span and under specified conditions.

absolute recruitment = the number of fish which grow into the catchable size range in a unit of time (usually a year) (Ricker, 1975).

absolute synonym = homotypic synonym (a synonym based on the same nomenclatural type).

absolute tautonym = the identical spelling of a generic or subgeneric name and the specific or subspecific name of one of its originally included nominal species or subspecies.

absolute tautonymy = the action of producing an absolute tautonym.

absorptive feeding = nutrient acquisition during fish ontogeny from an ovarian secretion via flaps, trophotaenia, or trophonemata, or from the environment via body surfaces or special external gut and finfold structures.

abstracting journal = a journal which gives abstracts or summaries of scientific papers, books, theses, etc. published elsewhere.

abundance = degree of plentifulness. The total number of fish in a population, stock, other group or on a fishing ground. Can be measured in absolute or relative terms and may be number per area or per unit fishing effort.

abundance index = data obtained from samples or observations and used as a measure of the weight or number of fish which make up a stock, a segment of a stock such as spawners or in a given area. Most indices are relative units (as opposed to measuring absolute abundance), and simply indicate relative changes in abundance over time. The data is obtained from scientific surveys or inferred from fisheries data.

abyss = water below 4000 metres or 2000 fathoms (= 3660 metres), down to 6000 metres, where light does not penetrate. Occasionally used for depths below 2000 metres. A constant environment with temperatures usually 0-2°C or temperatures are uniform. From the Sumerian abzu, meaning primordial sea.

abyssal = adjective for abyss.

abyssal benthic = pertaining to the ocean floor below 400-600 fathoms (730-1100 metres).

abyssal depth = see abyssal for oceans; in fresh water it may mean the maximum depth or the depth at which water temperature remains uniform.

abyssal floor = abyssal plain.

abyssal plain = the area of the generally flat ocean floor excluding ocean trenches below 2000 fathoms (3660 metres, presumably an older version based on fathoms) or 4000 metres. Very flat with a slight slope.

abyssal zone = the middle zone of the deep sea between 3700 and 6000 metres.

abyss- (prefix) = bottomless.

abyssalpelagic zone = the abyssopelagic area of the ocean.

abyssobenthic = the depth zone of the ocean floor between 4000 and 6000 metres, or from about 3700 m downward, or below the 4°C isotherm.

abyssopelagic = living in the water column at 4000 to 6000 metres (or 2500-4000 metres, or 4000-7000 metres, sources differ), seaward of the continental shelf-slope break. See also abyssalpelagic zone.

AC = a series of ventro-lateral photophores extending between a vertical at the anal fin origin and the end on the caudal peduncle. The AC row may begin posterior to the anal fin origin if it is offset from other ventro-lateral photophores.

ac = abbreviation for acre.

ac ft = acre-foot.

acantho- (prefix) = with spines.

acanthoid = spiny or spine-like.

acanthotrich = a spiny dorsal or anal fin ray.

acanthotrichia = plural of acanthotrichium.

acanthotrichium (plural acanthotrichia) = acanthotrich.

acanthostedion = postlarval stage of the Peristediidae characterized by long parietal spines and development of rostral exsertions.

acaudal = lacking a tail.

acceptable biological catch = subjectively estimated amount of catch of a given species from a given region. The sustainable harvest used to set the upper limit of the range of potential annual total allowable catch. Also called allowable biological catch.

acceptable catch estimate = an approximate estimate of the catch of a given species that could be taken from a stock in a given region. Also called allowable catch estimate.

acceptable impact = a negative, or potentially negative, alteration of the fishery resulting from human activities. The impact is acceptable since it represents a low risk to the resource. As it is under continuous review, it may be revoked.

acceptable name = 1) a name in accordance with the Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

acceptable name = 2) an established name that is not a (non-conserved) later homonym and thus may potentially be an accepted name (q.v.).

accepted = a scientific manuscript that has been through the peer review process, revised, approved for publication by the editor of the journal, and is ready to be sent to the printer or website. The date when the manuscript was accepted often appears in the printed or online version.

accepted name = 1) a name adopted by an author as the correct name for a taxon where names are in dispute.

accepted name = 2) the acceptable name (q.v.) that must be adopted under the rules of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

access = 1) the means by which a person enters a water body, usually with a boat.

access = 2) access right.

access right = the authorisation given to a user, e.g. a vessel owner, by a fishery management authority or by legislation, to exploit a resource, a particular species, or a share of a total allowable catch. Access rights may be free of charge or require payment and are usually conditional and used under constraints specified in a management plan.

accessibility = the condition of fish occupying a locality where they can be caught using the appropriate gear.

accession = 1) the formal acceptance into museum custody of a specimen or a collection of fishes, and the recording of such.

accession = 2) a specimen(s) acquired by a museum for its permanent collection.

accession = 3) the act of recording and processing an addition to a permanent collection.

accession list = a document in which accessions are recorded, usually chronologically by date of receipt; may be a bound volume and/or a computer file.

accession number = a unique number assigned to an accession, usually sequentially in chronological order of receipt.

accessioning = accepting legally a fish collection, containing one to many specimens and species, with date of receipt, ownership, donor, etc.

accessory breathing organ = labyrinth organ (a much folded suprabranchial accessory breathing organ found in Anabantoidei. Formed by vascularised expansion of the epibranchial of the first gill arch. Used for respiration in air).

accessory caudal ray = one of a series of short, procurrent rays on the upper and lower margins of the of the caudal peduncle.

accessory dorsal branch = a lateral line branch found in some flatfishes, running from the head for varying lengths below the base of the dorsal fin.

accessory growth centre = a growth centre outside the core of the fish otolith from which new growth may occur. May result from metamorphosis. Also incorrectly called accessory primordia.

accessory lateral line = accessory dorsal branch.

accessory male = a male fish which attempts to fertilise eggs of a breeding female at the expense of a dominant male.

accessory olfactory sac = olfactory ventilation sac (an extension of the olfactory cavity, often characteristic of inactive bottom dwellers living in still water such as flatfishes, dipnoans, and eels but also found in clupeids, salmonids, mugilids and scombrids. Primarily used for ventilation but also produce mucus. There may be up to four sacs, usually the additional sacs are smaller but in Osmeridae the sole accessory sac is larger than the main sac).

accessory pectoral scale = accessory scale.

accessory pelvic appendage = a tapered fleshy lobe above the base of the pelvic fin. May be covered by a scale.

accessory primordium = an additional growth centre outside the otolith core but lacking primordial granules. Accessory growth centre is preferred.

accessory respiratory organ = a superficial or internal organ which complements the gills in exchange of gases with the environment when the fish is in poorly oxygenated water or in air. In some cases it may also function as a hydrostatic organ.

accessory scale = axillary scale (a small triangular appendage or a modified scale at the upper or anterior base of a paired fin. Also called fleshy appendage and inguinal process. Functions apparently to streamline the fin when held against the body while swimming).

accidental catch = other fishes caught during a fishery directed to a target species. The fish may be taking bait meant for other fish, chasing the target species or are swept up by the gear used. Also called incidental catch or by-catch.

accidental host = a fish serving as a host for a variable length of time for a parasite of another animal. Also called abnormal host.

accidental parasite = a parasite which has infected an unusual host.

accidental species = normally marine species occasionally found in fresh waters but not in any regular or predictable manner. Records are usually few.

acclimation = the process by which fish become used to new circumstances. Often used in adjusting to changes in temperature, water quality, lighting regimes, being netted, etc. in aquaculture or aquaria. Fish may be more susceptible to pathogens and eat poorly while acclimating.

acclimation pond = a pond or temporary structure used for rearing juvenile fish, acclimating them to specific conditions and, for migratory fish, imprinting the water of a particular stream.

acclimatisation = adaptation to a new environment by a population by selection.

Acclimatisation Society = an organisation in Australia in the mid-nineteenth century set up to introduce familiar European species, e.g. roach, Rutilus rutilus, a cyprinid.

acclivous = having a gentle upward slope.

accommodation = changing the focus of the eye; in fishes the lens moves back and forth in relation to the retina like a camera.

accumulated lethality = F-value (in food inspection, the total lethal effect of heat applied; the time/temperature process at the cold spot of the product. The value is expressed as equivalent minutes at a specific reference temperature (Tref) and a specific z-value, e.g. F (Tref = 65°C, z = 6.7 C°) = 5.9 minutes).

acentrous = without vertebral centra, with persistent notochord, e.g. Dipnoi, Holocephali.

acequia = an irrigation ditch or canal, often community run (southwest United States).

acetic acid = an organic acid, CH3COOH, used in diluted form in preparation of fish marinades, q.v.

achondral bone = dermal bone (any of the superficial bones in Teleostomi derived from the dermis and overlying the deeper elements of the skull. Primitive fishes have more dermal bones than higher ones, e.g. the armour of Ostracodermi. Dermal bones are a form of membrane bones, i.e. they arose directly from connective tissue membranes without the cartilaginous precursors which precede endochondral bones. They may be divided into laterosensory canal bones that develop in relation to the sensory canals, bones derived from mesenchymous tissue and anamestic bones (q.v.). Also called covering, membrane and investing bones).

achyliasis = an external fungal infection of fishes, genus Achyla.

acicular = needle-shaped.

aciculate = needle-like.

acid curing = marinating or preparing a marinade (a marinade is acidified brine, acetic acid, olive oil or vinegar with or without spices in barrels or special containers in which fish are soaked. The cured fish are packed in mild acidified brine variously with spices, sugar, wine, vegetables and flavourings, e.g. rollmops, Bismarck herring. Salt helps firm the flesh. Chilled marinades have a shelf life of 1-2 months, canned marinades much longer. The pH must not exceed 4.5 as below this spoilage does not occur and food poisoning bacteria do not grow. However some bacteria and enzymes are active and aid ripening, contributing to texture and flavour. Cold marinades are preserved by their acid and salt content, cooked marinades by this and by heat or pasteurisation).

acid death point = the pH at which fish die from acidity of water, usually about pH 4.0.

acid deposition = the addition of acidic material to the ground or water, usually from sulphur and nitrogen compounds emitted by factories and deposited far from this source. Wet deposition is also called acid rain, q.v., and is the result of rain, snow or fog while dry deposition results from particle fallout or acidic gases.

acid detergent fibre = the carbohydrates in an aquaculture feed that are not solubilised by acid detergent. This plant material is not easily used by fish. Abbreviated as ADF.

acid lake = any lake with a pH less than 6.0.

acid neutralising capacity = the property of water that reacts with an acid; formerly alkalinity. Abbreviated as ANC.

acid pickle = an acid solution for curing or marinating fish.

acid rain = rain falling through an atmosphere containing sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide pollutants thus making the rain acidic (pH less than 7.0); in lakes without the ability to neutralise the acid survival of fish eggs and young is compromised. Also referred to as acid deposition and wet deposition.

acid-cured fish = fish preserved or marinated in acidified brine with or without spices.

acidic stress index = a function of pH, calcium and inorganic monomeric aluminium conditions in natural waters; used in fish toxicity models.

acidity = a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, a pH less than 7.0, or the quantitative capacity to neutralise a base to a designated pH.

acidophile = fish from acid waters, like the Amazon and forest pools in West Africa, preferring a pH below 7.

acidophilous = having an affinity for or thriving in acidic conditions, e.g. in a bog or marsh. Also called acidophilic.

acidotrophy = waters where the hydrogen ion concentration is high, producing highly acidic reactions, and in which humic material is lacking.

acinaciform = slender sword, of scimitar-like form, e.g. acinaciform branchiostegal rays in Perciformes.

acini = plural of acinus.

acinus (plural acini) = a lobule of a secretory gland formed by a group of exocrine glandular cells, e.g. in the pancreas.

acipenserin = a toxic substance reputedly obtained from the gonads of sturgeon, Acipenser.

acker = the break or movement made by a fish in the water (English dialect).

acmic = referring to periods of seasonal change in an aquatic population.

acoustic = concerned with hearing or sound.

acoustic bait = a device making sounds or vibrations used to attract fish, e.g. shark rattles, q.v., beating the water surface, spraying the water surface with hoses in the tuna line fishery, croakwood, q.v., bells, etc.

acoustic device = 1) an acoustic harassment device.

acoustic device = 2) a pinger (a sound-emitting device. Attached to static nets to discourage dolphins and porpoises from their vicinity so that the mammals do not become entangled).

acoustic fish tag = a transmitter implanted or attached to a fish to monitor fish movement.

acoustic harassment device = an underwater device that generates sounds to deter marine mammal predators from salmon farms.

acoustic survey = a method of gathering information on fish availability and abundance by using echo sounders and sonar.

acoustic tag = a sound transmitter attached to a fish.

acoustico-lateralis system = the sensory system consisting of the lateral line and the inner ear.

acquisition = transfer of title for a specimen(s) to a museum. Acquisitions may be gifts, purchases, bequests, exchanges or the results of field work.

acre = 4046.9 m2, 0.405 ha, 43,560 ft2, 4840 yd2, 0.00156 mi2. There are 640 acres in a square mile. The metric version is the hectare, q.v.

acre-foot = one acre of surface covered with 1 foot of water (1,233,500 L, 1233.5 m3, 325,851 gal.). Used to measure volumes of water used or stored, such as in reservoirs. Abbreviated as ac ft or af in the U.S.A.

acriflavin = a chemical used in aquaria to combat protozoan and fungal infections and to disinfect fish eggs. It is orange or brown in colour and is a dye which stains the skin. Also spelled acriflavine.

acrodin = tissue forming a cap on teeth found in ray-finned fishes.

acrodont = type of tooth ankylosed to the jaw along the midline of the jawbone, rather than to the inner edge, the condition in most fishes. Attachment is by connective collagenous tissue with impregnated calcium salts and, in maxillary and mandibular teeth, by a bony piece between the tooth and the bone.

acronurus = postlarval stage of Acanthuridae.

acronym = any abbreviation using the initial letters of the words abbreviated. Museum collections of fishes are catalogued with an acronym and a number; these acronyms are listed in Leviton et al. (1985) and Leviton and Gibbs (1988).

acrosome = a cap over the nucleus of spermatozoan heads having enzymes involved in sperm penetration of the egg and possibly fusion of egg and sperm. Absent in most Teleostei.

acrylic = a plastic material used in aquaria construction and for aquarium accessories such as filters.

act, nomenclatural = a published act which affects the nomenclatural status of a scientific name or the typification of a nominal taxon; available nomenclatural act is one that is published in an available work; invalid nomenclatural act is any nomenclatural act which is not valid under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; unavailable nomenclatural act is one published in an unavailable work; valid nomenclatural act is one that is accepted under the provisions of the Code, i.e. the earliest available act not contravening any provision of the Code.

actiniariophil = a reproductive guild (q.v.) where adhesive eggs are deposited in a cluster at the base of a sea anemone. Parents guard the eggs and coat them with mucus as protection against nematocysts. Free embryos are phototactic, planktonic and early juveniles select the host anemone, e.g. Amphiprion allardi.

actic = pertaining to rocky shores; between the low and high tides; intertidal; littoral.

actinic = a type of lighting used in aquaria. It provides the blue end of the spectrum for photosynthesis.

actinophore = the pterygiophore(s) and the associated fin ray.

actinost = one of a series of endochondral bones in the pectoral and pelvic girdle on which the fin rays insert. Most teleosts lack or have greatly reduced pelvic actinosts. Teleosts have one row of actinosts between the fin rays and supporting skeleton (coracoid and scapula for the pectoral, basipterygia for the pelvic) while other fishes may have more rows, referred to as radials.

actinotrich = a slender, horny, flexible, unsegmented fibril which strengthens the embryonic fin fold and which may persist in the outer edge of the adult fin membrane or in the adipose fin. It develops intercellularly rather than cellularly. Persists in fins of Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, and sometimes in Teleostomi distal to the lepidotrichia that replace them. Actinotrichia are translucent, exhibit birefringence (double refraction) and are composed of a scleroprotein called elastoidine. They may be homologous with ceratotrichs found in cartilaginous fishes because of their horny or keratinous nature.

actinotrichia = plural of actinotrichium.

actinotrichium (plural actinotrichia) = actinotrich.

action = 1) the performance of a fishing rod while fighting a fish. Measured as the time elapsed between flexion and a return to a straight configuration. Action can be slow (the most flexion, 90% of the rod bends) to fast (30% of the rod bends); also referred to as stiff, parabolic, etc. May also refer to the rod strength, a light rod being limber and a heavy rod stout.

action = 2) the gear of fishing reels.

action = 3) the movement and performance of a fishing lure in the water.

action = 4) when fish are biting.

action = 5) dragging a fishing fly across the current resulting in an unnatural drift.

activated carbon = pure carbon in porous form used in aquaria to adsorb dissolved organic matter, chlorine, and yellowing compounds (and hence in the latter case keeps water clear). Must be changed regularly as it clogs and can release phosphates into the water which promote algal growth.

activated charcoal = activated carbon.

active = fish intent on feeding. Also called positive.

active capture gear = equipment used in active fishing, such as trawls.

active fishing = fishing with gear that is not stationary, e.g. trawls.

active forager = a predator that actively seeks its prey, cf. ambush predator.

activity coefficient = ratio of the metabolic activity of a fish at rest with that at maximum activity.

actomysin = a combination of actin and myosin, the two main proteins in all fish muscles.

actophilous = thriving on rocky shores.

actual mesh size = stretched mesh size of a net as determined by a standard process such as use of a mesh gauge, q.v.

actual mortality rate = annual mortality rate.

aculeate = bearing a sharp point.

aculeiform = needle-shaped, e.g. pipefishes.

acuminate = tapering gradually to a point, e.g. the tail of Anguilliformes.

acute = 1) ending in a sharp point

acute = 2) running a short and intense course as in toxicity or inflammation.

acyprinid zone = those regions lacking Cyprinidae - South America and the tropical Pacific Islands approximately east and south of Wallace's Line including Australia.

A.D. or AD = abbreviation for anno domini, or Year of the Lord, the Christian dating system. Common era or CE is used as a neutral version.

ad. = abbreviation for adult.

ad hoc = for the specific purpose, case or situation at hand and for no other.

ad int. = ad interim, meaning for the present, provisionally.

ad libitum = to the limit; often meaning fed until satiated.

ad muraenas = ponds for the culture of moray eels were common in Roman times and a punishment for recalcitrant slaves was throwing them in these pools as food for the morays.

ad- (prefix) = to, on the side of, toward.

Adam's special = an artificial dry fly used to imitate an adult mayfly.

adaptation = the process (or its results, e.g. a structure) wherein individuals, populations or species change to cope with their environment or changes in that environment.

adaptive management = a management process involving feedback to test performance and perhaps deliberate intervention to test the fishery system's response.

adaptive radiation = speciation of a taxonomic group to fill numerous previously vacant ecological niches, e.g. Cichlidae in the Great Rift Lakes of Africa, Cottidae in Lake Baikal of Russia.

adaxial = 1) towards the axis; opposite of abaxial.

adaxial = 2) the paraxial mesoderm subregion developing just adjacent to the chorda mesoderm or notochord rudiment.

added-value = processing of fish before export.

addersteean = adderstone.

adderstone = a stone (grey alum shale) with a hole through it, hung on fishing boats as a charm. Old spindle-whorls, reputedly made by adders (an English venomous snake).

adderstyen = adderstone.

additional catch = supplementary catch obtained either on purpose or by accident.

additional material = specimens other than those in the type series; these may be used to describe a new species but have no nomenclatural significance.

additive = any chemical added to fish for stability during storage, prevention of bacterial growth and toxin production, for colour and appearance to consumers, retention of moisture, prevention of off-flavours, etc. Additives include salt and ascorbic acid which are naturally present in foods and also other chemicals whose use is regulated.

adduction = movement towards the medial axis of the body, or of two parts together, cf. abduction.

adductor (plural adductores) = a muscle that brings one body part towards another.

adductor mandibulae = a muscle of the cheek area which acts to close the mouth and compress the lips. It is divided into four parts in the perch (Perca flavescens): part 1 has its origin on the dorsal half of the vertical arm of the preopercle and inserts at the centre of the maxillo-mandibular ligament (q.v.). It is a large muscle below the eye. A third part of the ligament serves as an origin for the fourth part of the muscle. Part 3 originates on the pterygoid bone and inserts with part 2 on the maxillo-mandibular ligament beneath the insertion of part 1. Part 2 is a large muscle below part 1. Part 4 originates on the internal portion of the maxillo-mandibular ligament and inserts on the ventral, internal part of the dentary and so is on the lower jaw.

adductor operculi = a muscle originating from the pterotic bone posterior and medial to the origin of the elevator operculi and inserting on the dorso-medial surface of the operculum ventral to the insertion of the levator operculi.

adductores = plural of adductor.

adelph- (prefix) = brother.

adelfophagy = feeding on retarded siblings within the uterus, e.g. Lamna nasus, Odontaspis taurus, Latimeria chalumnae, a form of uterine cannibalism. Also spelled adelphophagy.

adelfotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature referring to a topotype (q.v.) collected by the original collector of a taxon but one not forming part of the type series.

adelphophagy = adelfophagy.

adelphotaxa = sister taxa.

adeno- (prefix) = gland.

adenohypophysis = part of the pituitary organ of the lower brain involved in hormone control.

adenoid organ = a lymphoid structure in the lining of the oesophagus of Elasmobranchii.

adequate diet = balanced and fully sufficient feed in aquaculture or nature.

ADF = acid detergent fibre.

adfluvial = 1) living in lakes and migrating into streams to spawn; juveniles feed in streams but migrate to lakes as subadults for feeding.

adfluvial = 2) pertaining to flowing water.

adherent = attached (firmly); sticking; connected with. Strictly, means sticking to another organ, cf. coherent. Said of scales that do not detach easily, for example.

adhesion = connective tissue growth within and around an organ causing it to attach to the peritoneal or pericardial walls. Usually results from inflammation or parasite infestation.

adhesive = 1) sticking, as in eggs to the substrate or to other eggs.

adhesive = 2) sticking, as in structures used in attachment by fishes.

adhesive disc = adhesive disk.

adhesive disk = a sucker-like organ for clinging to various surfaces, e.g. the modified pelvic fins in Gobiesocidae and Liparidae, and the dorsal fin in Echeneidae. Also spelt adhesive disc and used for the adhesive organ.

adhesive egg = a fish egg that is deposited on sand, gravel, plants, etc. to which it sticks by means of the egg's sticky surface. In aquaculture situations this is inconvenient and the adhesiveness can be removed by milk or tannin.

adhesive head gland = adhesive organ.

adhesive organ = transient larval organs near the mouth used to attach the larvae to the substrate, e.g.in Protopterus, Lepidosiren, Acipenser, Esox, Macropodus.

adipocyte = a fat cell.

adipose = fat.

adipose clip = removal of the adipose fin in a hatchery-reared fish, indicating that it contains a coded-wire tag, q.v.

adipose eyelid = transparent membrane(s) over the anterior and posterior regions of the eye, e.g. in Scombridae, Clupeidae, Albulidae, Mugilidae. It serves for streamlining and protection and may cover much of the eye except for a small central opening.

adipose fin = a small fleshy fin lacking rays or spines but reinforced by actinotrichs posterior to the soft dorsal fins (rarely a hard ray or a few soft rays may be developed in the adipose fin of certain catfishes), e.g. in Salmonidae, Osmeridae, Argentinidae, Myctophidae, Ictaluridae, Percopsidae.

adit = a near horizontal shaft as a mine or for removing water from a mine. See also qanat for an adit fish habitat.

adjuvant = material added to a vaccine to enhance the immunological response.

admiral = 1) the master of the first English fishing vessel to reach a cove or harbour in Newfoundland, exercising certain privileges for the season.

admiral = 2) the master of an English fishing vessel, chosen weekly to exercise jurisdiction over European fishermen in a Newfoundland harbour.

admiral = 3) the fisherman who is in charge of the herring fleet (Manx).

Admiralty pattern anchor = the standard pattern of anchor, q.v., comprising two flukes (which dug into the sea bed), a shank and stock. In the eighteenth century a collapsible stock was introduced for easier storage.

admissible = the form of a name which can be validly published and the use of a name or epithet in accordance with the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

adnasal bone = a small dermal bone in front of the nasal bone in some fishes, e.g. the middle bone of three in the nasal region of Lepisosteus. Also called nasal bone.

adnate = closely attached to, joined along whole length without a free tip; conjoined; adhering, e.g. adipose fin in Noturus (Ictaluridae).

adnate eye = an eye joined by a membrane to the orbit.

adnexed = unattached, with a free edge, not united, flag-like e.g. the adipose fin in salmonids. Opposite of adnate.

adopt = to use an unavailable name as the valid name of a taxon in a way which establishes it as a new name with its own authorship and date.

adoral = close to the mouth.

adpressed = pressed flat against the body; appressed.

adrenal gland = absent in fishes but said to be present in sculpins (Cottidae). Interrenal cells associated with major blood vessels in the anterior kidney represent adrenal cortical tissue in fishes. Adrenal medullary cells are associated with sympathetic ganglia in clumps between the anterior kidney and spine or in the interrenal tissues.

adrenalin = a hormone causing the flight or fight behaviour in response to a sudden stress.

adrenaline = adrenalin.

adspersed = widely scattered or distributed.

adtidal = living immediately below the low tide level.

adult = a sexually mature animal; a fish that has reached the length or age of first maturity.

adult equivalent population = the number of fish that would have returned to an area, such as an estuary, in the absence of any prior harvest.

adult fish count = a count of adult fishes passing by a fish-viewing window. Such windows can be placed at the upstream end of fish ladders on dams. Observers count the number of fish according to pre-set criteria, e.g. by species and size, for 50 minutes of every hour for 16 hours per day. Extrapolations can then be made for times when fish are not observed. Separate counts can be made for adults and jacks (precocious male salmonids that can be identified by their smaller size).

adult habitat = an area that provides the necessities of life for an adult fish (angling).

adult period = this period begins with the first maturation of gametes and is characterised by spawning, either annually or only once, and by a slowed or arrested growth rate.

adult stage = attainment of full growth or sexual maturity.

adult stock = spawning stock (the mature part of the stock that is able to spawn; the number or biomass of all fish beyond the age or size class in which 50% of the individuals are mature).

adv. = advena, alien, introduced.

advanced = derived (a character or character state not present in the ancestral stock; apomorphic. The term should not be applied to organisms or taxa since they are a mix of plesiomorphic and derived character states).

advanced fry = a larval fish that has absorbed the yolk, correctly postlarva.

advena = alien, introduced. Abbreviated as adv.

adventitious = 1) accidental, occurring at an unusual locality, as in an adventitious visitor.

adventitious = 2) of or pertaining to a small stream entering directly into the main stem of a river.

adventive = an introduced species not yet established in the wild.

adventure = a commercial fishing enterprise. Also called venture.

adventurer = 1) a migratory English fisherman operating seasonally in Newfoundland (archaic).

adventurer = 2) a resident fisherman who fishes seasonally in coastal waters distant from his home port in Newfoundland.

advertisement = bright colours and conspicuous patterns shown by fishes. Used to indicate unpleasant taste, venom, sex and mood (paling when frightened, darkening when sexually excited).

advisory = a note addressed to the public when high concentrations of chemical contaminants have been found in local fish.

aeration = introduction of air into water.

aerator = 1) an air pump used to oxygenate aquaria.

aerator = 2) a battery-operated pump used to oxygenate water in a bait bucket by anglers.

aerator = 3) a device to oxygenate water in an aquaculture facility.

aerial fishing = the use of aerial traps (q.v.) to catch fish.

aerial redd survey = a method used to estimate numbers of spawners in a river by counting the number of redds visible from an airplane.

aerial stocking = releasing fish into a water body from a plane or helicopter. Usually fry are stocked in this way.

aerial survey = a method of gathering information on fish shoal movement and density by visual observation and photography from low-flying aircraft.

aerial trap = a trap used to take jumping fish, e.g. mullets and flyingfish. Fish are caught on the surface in boxes, rafts, boats and in such nets as veranda nets. The fish may be frightened into jumping out of the water.

aero- (prefix) = air.

aerobi- (prefix) = living in air.

aerobic pond = a shallow pond, 0.3 m deep, in which photosynthesis is at a maximum, aerobic conditions are maintained and wastes are processed by microorganisms.

aerofoil = modified pectoral and pelvic fins used for gliding.

aerophil = 1) a reproductive guild (q.v.) of a terrestrial spawner characterised by small adhesive eggs scattered over damp sod, by not being photophobic and having moderately developed respiratory networks, e.g. Brycon petrosus.

aerophil = 2) a reproductive guild (q.v.) of a terrestrial spawner where adhesive eggs are tended after deposition on the underside of structures above the water surface by the male splashing them. The embryos have cement glands, e.g. Copeina arnoldi.

aeropsammophil = a reproductive guild (q.v.) where eggs are hidden on a beach. Spawning occurs above the high tide mark and eggs and embryos hatch at the next high tide when surf action gives the cue, e.g. Leuresthes tenuis.

aesthetic fishing = capturing fish for display or other appreciation, not for food, sport or industrial reasons, cf. anaesthetic fishing.

aestival = of or pertaining to the early summer.

aestival pond = 1) a pond containing some water throughout the year but freezing to the bottom in winter, thus supporting only a temporary fish fauna.

aestival pond = 2) a pond existing only in summer.

aestivation = dormancy during the dry season or summer, e.g. in Dipnoi. Also spelled estivation.

af = acre-foot.

aff. = abbreviation for affinis (related to but not identical with, affinity, relationship, sometimes misleadingly employed as a synonym for phenetic similarity (or akin to)).

afferent = leading towards.

afferent branchial arteries = those arteries that receive blood from the ventral aorta, extending along the gill arches and sending capillaries into the gill filaments where they join branches which become the efferent branchial arches and so are involved in gaseous exchange.

affinis = related to but not identical with, affinity, relationship, sometimes misleadingly employed as a synonym for phenetic similarity (or akin to).

affluent = a stream or river that flows into a larger one or to a standing water body; a tributary; influent, although this may be restricted to a lake having a single inflowing stream (or influent).

afin = affinis.

aflaj = plural of falaj, a term for a qanat in the Arabian Peninsula (an underground water channel constructed in alluvial fan material to tap the water table and provide a constant flow of water. Mostly found in the Middle East and a habitat there for fishes. Called karez in central Asia and Afghanistan and foggara in North Africa).

aflatoxin poisoning = a mould-based poison or mycotoxin found in some dried aquaria foods kept under warm and damp conditions. Fish exhibit poor growth and anaemia and may die. The mould species involved are Aspergillus spp.

affluvial = adfluvial.

AFO = number of vertebrae anterior to the anal fin origin, e.g. in larval fishes.

after gibb = to gibb (q.v.) herring after they have been salted in the round.

afterbay = the tail race or reservoir of a hydroelectric power plant at the turbine outlets.

agamy = the condition where no lasting bond is formed between a spawning pair, the male and female separating after spawning, e.g. in some Cichlidae.

agape = with jaws open; gaping.

agastric = lacking a stomach. Some fishes, such as herbivorous Cyprinidae, lack a true stomach.

age = the number of years of life completed. In fisheries indicated by a numeral, e.g. age 5 or age V. Since any fish is only age 5 for a moment, the numeral is often followed by a plus sign to indicate the year of life, e.g. 5+ is a fish in its sixth year of life. Freshwater and saltwater age can be indicated by a period, e.g. 2.3 represents 2 winters in fresh water (not counting the incubation period for fish eggs that overwinter) and 3 years in salt water.

age at first capture = the age at which fish are first caught commercially.

age at first maturity = mean or median age at first maturity when 50% of a cohort spawn for the first time.

age at recruitment = the age at which fish are recruited to a fishable stock.

age class = individuals of a given (same) age within a population, e.g. all four-year-olds. Usually given in years but may be shorter periods, particularly in the tropics. The age class changes every year in contrast to year class which is always the same, e.g. a fish born in 1995 will always be in the 1995 year class but in 1998 will be in age class three. Also called cohort.

age composition = the proportion of different age groups of fish in a population or in a catch. A healthy population has a wide range of age groups.

age determination = the age of fish may be determined by counting the annual rings on a scale (by microscopic examination, projection of the scale or its celluloid imprint with a scale projector, or projecting a photographic negative of the scale), or in bony parts such as vertebrae, otoliths, opercular series of bones, pectoral spines; by the known age method (growing fish in ponds or tagging fish in the wild and recapturing them at intervals); by the length frequency method (the different age groups tend to be different lengths apparent when the sizes are grouped in a length frequency graph, from which age may be deduced). Age estimation is often a preferred term because of uncertainties in ageing methods.

age distribution = the number or percentage of individuals in each age class of a population; age structure.

age estimation = age determination.

age frequency = a breakdown of the different age groups of a kind of fish in a population or sample. Also called age structure.

age group = a group of fishes of a given age, e.g. a fish born on 1 May is in age group 0 until the same date in the subsequent year when it enters age group 1 (or I), a year later age 2 (or II), etc.

age of fishes = the period of time in the earth's history dominated by fishes - the Silurian and Devonian periods.

age of maturity = the age when 50% of the fish of a given sex are considered to be reproductively mature.

age of phase inequality = age of tide.

age of recruitment = the age when fish are considered to be recruited to the fishery, i.e. become vulnerable to the fishing gear. In stock assessments, this is usually the youngest age group considered in the analyses, typically age 0 or 1.

age of tide = the time interval between new or full Moon and the maximum effect of these phases upon range of tide or speed of the tidal current.

age specific = the dependence of a factor, such as fishing mortality, on the age of fish.

age specific fecundity = fecundity or egg potential related to age.

age specific mortality = mortality expressed as a function of age.

age specific survival rate = the average proportion of individuals in a particular age group that survive for a given period.

age structure = the number or percentage of individuals in each age class of a population.

age validation = confirming that annual growth rings on bony parts do conform to a year's growth.

age-cohort analysis = the proportion of each age-group participating in an activity currently used to predict the future sizes of each age-group.

age-group = a term denoting the age in years of a fish, or the number of calendar years in which it has existed, as O, I, II, III, etc; the cohort of fish of a given age, e.g. the five-year-old age-group. Unfortunately a standard definition has not been established.

age-length composition = age-length key.

age-length curve = a curve showing the relationship of age and length, a simplified form of an age-length key.

age-length key = a method of assigning ages to fish, given length measurements. Used to convert catch-at-size data into catch-at-age data. The keys specify the probability that fish of a given size belong to one of several age groups.

age-slicing = cohort slicing (a method used to assign ages to fish, given length measurements, e.g. used to convert catch-at-size data into catch-at-age data before the application of age-structured assessment models. Cohort slicing assumes that there is a one-to-one correspondence between length and age, i.e. the approach ignores individual variability in growth).

age-structured assessment = an assessment of the status of a fish stock, based on the relative abundances of fish of different ages in the stock.

age-structured production model = a stock assessment programme based on a deterministic form of a stock-recruitment relationship, with non-equilibrium tuning of abundance indices. Abbreviated as ASPM.

ageing = the process of determining the age of a fish or population of fishes. A fish that is less than 1 year old (counted from time of spawning by its parents) is a subyearling, or zero-age. A yearling fish is more than 1 year and less than 2 years old. Ages may be expressed as years or as year with a + sign, e.g. 3+ is a fish in its fourth year of life. Strictly, this term should be used only for the process of becoming older and the associated changes in an individual.

ageing technique = a method of determining the ages of fish, most often done by counting rings in hard parts of the fish body, such as otoliths, scales, opercula or vertebrae.

agent = the representative in a fishing settlement of a St. John's fish merchant.

agger = double tide (a high water consisting of two maxima of nearly the same height separated by a relatively small depression, or a low water consisting of two minima separated by a relatively small elevation).

aggregate = a group of species, other than a subgenus, within a genus, or a group of species within a subgenus, or a group of subspecies within a species. The aggregate can be indicated by a species-group name interpolated in parentheses.

aggregated fishery data = pooled data. Such data is compiled so that confidential or proprietary data, e.g. on detailed fishing activities of individual fishers or vessels, cannot be determined either from the present release of the data or in combination with other releases.

aggregating device = artificial or natural floating objects placed on the ocean surface, often anchored to the bottom, to attract several schooling fish species underneath, thus increasing their catchability. Used with tuna, for example. Also called fish attracting device. Abbreviated as FAD for fish aggregating device.

aggregation = 1) a group of fishes in close proximity, usually of the same species, most of which are not oriented or moving in the same direction, usually responding independently to a common stimulus, e.g. food; as opposed to a school, q.v.

aggregation = 2) a group of populations that make up a stock for management purposes.

aggression = behaviour meant to intimidate or damage another fish or other organism. Aggression is used to protect territory, young or to establish dominance. Predatory behaviour is not aggression.

aggressive mimicry = mimicry involving at least three species. A predator resembles a non-aggressive species such as a cleaner (q.v.) and thus can attack misled clients who think they are about to be cleaned.

aggressor = in aquaria, a fish which attacks others as food or in defence of territory.

aglomerular = without glomeruli (q.v.). An aglomerular kidney lacks capillaries which filter water and waste from the bloodstream. Found in some Gasterosteiformes.

agonistic behaviour = interactions between members of the same species involving threat, aggression, appeasement, avoidance and retreat; social interactions.

agreement = in taxonomy referring to gender between a generic name and a species or species-group name combined with it, e.g. Nemacheilus rhadinaeus becomes Paracobitis rhadinaea as the genus changes from masculine to feminine.

agriotype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for an ancestral type.

agriotype = 2) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a wild taxon thought to be the ancestor of a domesticated one.

"Ah fishsticks!" = an expression used on the TV cartoon South Park in place of swear words by Leopold "Butters" Stotch, the most innocent and gullible character.

aiker = 1) acker.

aiker = 2) chopped shellfish and other bait thrown into the water to attract fish when fishing from a pier or rock (Scottish dialect).

aimed fishing = fishing directed at a particular, identified group of fishes, such as a school located by sonar.

Ainu dog = the Ainu of northern Japan taught their dogs to catch migrating salmon. The dogs are also called Hokkaido inu.

air bladder = gas bladder, the preferable term since the composition of gases may not be identical to that of air (a thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. Composed of three layers, the tunica externa, the submucosa or middle layer and the tunica interna, all q.v. Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be connected to the gut by a tube, the ductus pneumaticus (then called physostomous) or unconnected (then called physoclistous). May function as one or more of:- hydrostatic organ, sound producing organ, sound receptor, respiratory organ. Often lacking in bottom fishes. Sometimes called swim bladder, also a less appropriate term. An item in Chinese cuisine. Used to make isinglass, q.v.).

air blast chilling = cooling fish product with a blast of cool air to a temperature just above 0°C.

air blast freezing = freezing fish product with high velocity cold air to -35°C.

air boat = a boat with a very shallow draft, powered by an aircraft engine turning an air propeller. Used by anglers.

air breathing fishes = a general term for those fishes that can use atmospheric oxygen by means of an accessory respiratory organ, in addition to their gills. Includes fishes in the Clariidae, Channidae, Belontiidae, Osteoglossidae and the lungfishes (Dipnoi).

air bubble curtain = air curtain (1) and (2).

air curtain = 1) air bubbled through perforated pipes as a barrier to fish movement.

air curtain = 2) air bubbled through perforated pipes laid along the sea floor, forming a curtain of bubbles and a path which fish follow or are directed into a stop seine enclosure.

air embolism = gas bubble disease (supersaturated gases (>115-125%) in water entering the the body fluids of fish causing bubbles, an embolism. Often seen in gills, eyes, skin and yolk sacs where membranes are the most gas permeable. Fish often swim upside down or vertically, sometimes looking as if they are gasping for air at the surface and may have exophthalmia. Found below power plants in winter when cold water is rapidly heated by passing through condensers, in hatcheries using borehole water and in aquaria when fresh cold water is rapidly heated).

air hole = an opening in the frozen surface of a water body.

air lift = a device that inserts air into water at depth, displacing both upwards. Used in aquaculture to remove fish from cages for harvest or to lift dead fish from the bottom of cages. Also called air lift system or air water lift.

air lift system = air lift.

air miles = the straight line distance between two points used when describing a specimen collection locality. Abbreviated as ami.

air ploughing = pumping air into lower, unoxygenated layers to encourage mixing and/or oxidation of bottom sediments.

air pump = a pump which supplies air for airstones, lift tubes, under-gravel filters, skimmers, bubblers, ornamental items and other devices in an aquarium. The air bubbles serve to draw water through an under-gravel filter for example. The most common type are diaphragm pumps, though cylinder pumps are available for large installations.

air sac = gas bladder, a thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be connected to the gut by a tube, the ductus pneumaticus (then called physostomous) or unconnected (then called physoclistous). May function as one or more of:- hydrostatic organ, sound producing organ, sound receptor, respiratory organ. Found in Actinopterygii. Often lacking in bottom fishes. Sometimes called swim bladder or air bladder, less appropriate terms).

air vesicle = hard, hollow spheres of bone in Clupeidae.

air water lift = air lift.

airstone = a block of porous material that is attached to the air pump, q.v., to create various bubble effects in an aquarium and to oxygenate the water.

ait = eyot (a small island in a river formed by deposition of sediment. Usually long and narrow and may become permanent but also eroded and re-formed downstream. Numerous eyots form a braided channel).

akami = lean tuna from the back of the fish as served in a sushi restaurant.

aktino- (prefix) = ray, hence Actinopterygi, the ray-finned fishes.

al. = abbreviation of alii or aliorum, meaning others, of others.

ala (plural alae) = 1) alar scale.

ala (plural alae) = 2) wing or wing-like process, e.g. a bony outgrowth.

ala laminaris = a lateral ridge on the lower part of the cleithrum, forming a site of attachment for some of the pectoral fin muscles.

alamorkret = literally eel darkness in Swedish, a season when eels are eaten smoked, fried, grilled or stuffed, in company with schnapps.

alar = wing-like.

alar scale = one of the enlarged, elongate flap-like scales at the base of the caudal fin, e.g. in Alosa, Sardina, Sardinops, Harengula. Called paracaudal organ in the anchovy. Probably related to fast swimming.

alar spine = a spine on the upper surface of the pectoral fin near the tip, in some male Rajidae.

alar thorn = alar spine.

alarmist = an individual fish which reacts by movement to alarm substances, warning other school members and drawing attention of the predator upon itself, e.g. many Cypriniformes and Gonorhynchiformes.

alarm pheromone = alarm substance.

alarm substance = a substance produced in the round or oval alarm substance cells (previously called “clubcells") in the skin of Ostariophysi (Cypriniformes, Siluriformes) and Gonorhynchiformes, and which is released upon injury of the skin. On scenting the alarm substance members of the same species, and to a lesser extent related fishes, exhibit the fright reaction (q.v.). The dispersal of the alarm substance apparently normally acts to warn of the presence of a preying predator. The alarm pheromone is hypoxanthine-3N-oxide comprising a purine skeleton with N-O functional group and sensitive to relatively weak changes in pH. Also called alarm pheromone or Schreckstoff.

Alaska Scotch cure = a modified Scotch cure, q.v., used in Alaska and British Columbia for herring processing.

alate = winged, as used in anatomical descriptions.

Albany beef = cheap sturgeon flesh marketed in nineteenth century America, in particular at Albany on the Hudson River in New York State. See also Sturgeontown.

albino = fish lacking pigmentation, having a white to cream colour with red eye (from the blood vessels of the retina being visible). Occurring naturally if rarely in nature, they are bred artificially in aquaria. Cave dwelling species are often albinos. Albinos are less hardy than normal fish, having physiological weaknesses and being sensitive to strong light.

Albright knot = an angling knot used to join two pieces of line of unequal thickness, e.g. a heavy leader to a light main line, or vice versa, or monofilament to wire. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

alcian blue = a cartilage mucopolysaccharide stain used in fish osteology along with alizarin (q.v.) for calcium phosphate in bone.

alcohol = a general term for either ethanol (ethyl alcohol) or isopropanol (iso-propyl alcohol) used to preserve fishes in museums at various concentrations in water (70-80% ethanol, 45-50% isopropanol usually). Denatured alcohol is ethanol rendered unfit for human consumption by addition of methanol (methyl alcohol or wood alcohol) or other substances and is used in some fish collections.

alcoholism = a folk medicine for this disease in North America was drinking water in which ten tiny fish had soaked.

alderling = a freshwater fish which haunts that part of the stream overhung by alder trees (English dialect).

Ale = Swedish for eel and the name of the reputedly oldest eel which died in 2014 at age 155 years. This eel lived in a well at Brantevik in Sweden. Captive eels have lived to 88 years.

alec = a thick sauce or pickle made from the remains of fish from which garum, q.v., has been drawn off. One kind was made from anchovies, another of small herrings. Also spelled allec, allex and hallex.

alecithal = eggs with little or no yolk.

Alee effect = the social dysfunction and failure to mate successfully when population density falls below a certain threshold.

alevin = a young fish with a yolk-sac; larva of species in which postlarval stages are not recognized; that is, in which the yolk-bearing larva transforms directly into the juvenile, e.g. in Salmonidae; the stage from hatching to end of dependence on the yolk sac as the primary source of nutrition.

alewife = Alosa pseudoharengus (Clupeidae), reputedly named after female dispensers of ale, noted for their large bellies.

alex = fish brine. Also spelled alix or ellis. See also alec.

algae = simple rootless aquatic plants growing in relative proportion to the amounts of nutrients and sunlight available. They can affect water quality adversely by lowering the dissolved oxygen and thus affecting fish populations but they are also food for fish.

algae wafer = a form of aquarium food designed to sink for bottom feeders.

algae-eating = feeding on algae, especially in reference to fish on phytoplankton.

algaecide = a chemical compound designed to kill algae or retard the growth of algae. Also spelled algicide.

algaestat = a chemical compound that inhibits algal growth and/or reproduction.

algal bloom = the rapid growth of algae on the surface of lakes, streams, or ponds; stimulated by nutrient enrichment. The water takes on a green colour. Also called water bloom.

algal crash = the sudden death of an algal bloom with build up of carbon dioxide and ammonia, and the increase of nitrogen and phosphorus from decay resulting in the removal of oxygen, all leading to fish mortality.

algal scum = a floating layer of algae, either alive or decaying.

algal toxicosis = release of toxins from such algae as Microcystis, Anabaena and Aphanizomenon causing death in fish stocks.

algavore = feeding on algae, cf. algivore.

algicide = a chemical compound designed to kill algae or retard the growth of algae. Also spelled algaecide.

algivore = feeding on algae.

alien = any species not native (indigenous) to the area under consideration, often a politically defined area (country, province, state, etc.). It includes exotic, introduced, transplanted, non-native, non-indigenous, invasive and escaped species. May be used in the sense of a species that has not become established in the wild in the new area.

aliform = wing-like, usually in reference the pectoral fin.

alii = others. Abbreviated as al.

alimentary canal = the passage through which food passes and is digested and absorbed; includes the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, intestine and anus. Also called alimentary tract, digestive tract and gut, although the latter two might be more restrictive being areas of chemical processing and absorption only and not manipulation as with mouth and oesophagus and associated structures.

alimentary tract = alimentary canal.

aliorum = others, of others.

alisphenoid = term misapplied in older literature to the pterosphenoid (q.v.) of fishes. It is not homologous with the alisphenoid of mammals and should not be used.

alive and kicking = alert and active, an eighteenth century expression of London fishmongers then referring to fresh fish flopping around on their carts.

alivotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type that is alive and requires special handling and maintenance. Some fish are maintained in aquaria and are preserved on death or sacrifice for formal description as a new species.

alix = fish brine. Also spelled alex or ellis. See also alec.

alix water = the liquid residue in a cask after rendered oil from cod livers has been drawn off in the making of rotted oil.

alizarin = a bone specific stain (actually calcium phosphate in bone and scales), alizarin red S is used to highlight the osteology of a fish specimen. The viscera are often excised and the flesh macerated or cleared (rendered transparent) by enzymes or potassium hydroxide. Preparations are made according to various recipes.

alkaline death point = the pH at which fish die from alkalinity of water, usually about pH 11.0.

alkaline cure = stock fish, q.v., soaked in a solution of lime and soda and then in water for several days.

alkaline gland = a paired organ in the genito-urinary apparatus of Raja (and probably other skates and rays) whose cavity is fluid filled. Also called Marshall's gland.

alkalinity = the acid-neutralisng capacity of carbonates, bicarbonates and hydroxides in water; the power to keep pH from changing, important for fish as protection against acid rain. Total alkalinity is the total concentration of bases in water, expressed as mg/l of CaCO3 or as microequivalents per litre (20 ueq/l = 1 mg/l CaCO3).

alkalophile = fish from alkaline waters, e.g. Malawian or Tanganyikan cichlids, preferring a pH over 7, preferably around 8.

all quall = talis qualis (Latin for just as they come, e.g. a whole catch of dried and salted cod sold without differentiation of quality or size (Newfoundland)).

all's fish that comes to the net = you should take advantage of anything that comes your way (proverb).

all-female species = the production and survival of a clone by gynogenesis, q.v., e.g. in Poeciliidae, Cyprinidae.

alle- (prefix) = other, different.

allec = alec.

Allee effect = the benefit individuals gain from the presence of conspecifics, e.g. at low densities the per capita birth rate declines because of the difficulty of finding a member of the opposite sex. Also known in fisheries as depensation - mortality is depensatory when its rate (i.e. the proportion of population affected) increases as the size of the population decreases. Depensation may explain why marine fish populations like the Atlantic cod are slow to recover even when fishing is halted. Per capita mortality may increase because of changes in predator-prey interactions, mate availability may be reduced, fertilisation success may be lowered, operational sex ratios may change, and there may be a reduced intensity of social interactions during spawning. Compare compensatory mortality where the mortality rate decreases as the population size decreases.

Allen paradox = the observation that the quantity of benthic invertebrates in a river is insufficient to support the observed fish population.

allergy = humans can be allergic to fish (BWC, personal experience; last fish meal an uninteresting fish finger, q.v.) although not to other seafoods such as crustaceans and molluscs. Gadus morhua allergy has been studied the most and other species are believed to be similar although not all fish species may trigger a reaction. Gad c l, a parvalbumin, is the major cod allergen. Symptoms appear within minutes to a few hours of eating fish and include swelling of the lips, tongue or throat, hoarseness, cough, hives, rashes, runny nose and watering eyes, and asthma. Potentially fatal if the throat constricts. Symptoms may be limited to nausea, vomiting or cramping diarrhoea.

alley = in angling, a term for patches between emergent reeds or between reeds and the shore.

allex = alec.

alligator = slang for a herring (U.S., mid- to late-nineteenth century).

allo- (prefix) = other, different.

allocation = division of a fish resource among harvesters and those needed for reproduction. The harvester can be a person, a vessel, a fishing company, a country, etc. The allocation can be absolute, e.g. a number of tonnes per country based on the TAC, q.v., or relative, e.g. a percentage of the annual allowable catch. May be based on historical harvests.

allochronic species = those species that do not occur in the same geological Period.

allochthonous = food items, organic matter, nutrients etc. that enter an aquatic ecosystem from outside.

allochthonous drainage = a karst drainage derived from surface runoff coming from adjacent impermeable rocks. Also called allogenic drainage. See also autochthonous drainage.

allogenic drainage = a karst drainage derived from surface runoff coming from adjacent impermeable rocks. Also called allochthonous drainage. See also autochthonous drainage.

allohomoiotype= allohomotype.

allohomoitype = allohomotype.

allohomotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a homotype (q.v.) of the same sex as the allotype or lectoallotype. Also spelled allohomoitype and allohomoiotype.

allolectotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type specimen of opposite sex to the lectotype and chosen from the type series subsequent to the original description. Also called a lectoallotype.

allometric growth = parts of the same organism growing at different rates (allometry). See also isometric growth.

allometry = the study of proportional growth rate differences, e.g. how head length changes with respect to increasing body length.

allomone = a chemical produced and released by an individual of one species that affects the behaviour of a member of another species to the benefit of the originator, e.g. a defense mechanism.

alloneotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type specimen of the opposite sex to the neotype (q.v.). Also called a neallotype.

alloparalectotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a paralectotype, q.v., of opposite sex to the lectotype, designated later than the original publication of the species.

alloparatype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a paratype, q.v., of the same sex as the allotype.

allopatric = refers to populations or taxa whose ranges do not overlap; geographically separated.

alloplesiotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a plesiotype, q.v., of the same sex as the allotype.

allostasis = the physiological and other mechanisms adopted by fish to cope with stress. These generally have a deleterious effect if prolonged.

allotopic = species with overlapping ranges not occurring together.

allotopotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type specimen from the original type locality of the same sex as the allotype, q.v.

allotrop- (prefix) = strange.

allotrophic lake = a lake receiving organic matter from the surrounding land by runoff.

allotype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a paratype of opposite sex to the holotype and originally designated by the author, a term not regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

allotype = 2) an obsolete term in taxonomy for a specimen of the opposite sex to the holotype chosen by a later worker.

allowable biological catch = a term used by a management agency which refers to the range of allowable catch for a species or species group. It is set each year by a scientific group created by the management agency and is the subjectively estimated amount of catch of a given species from a given region. The agency then takes the ABC estimate and sets the annual total allowable catch (TAC). Abbreviated as ABC.

allowable catch = the catch allowed by a management authority to be taken from a stock of a species or group of species, by a fishery during a specified time period. Often defined as the total allowable catch (TAC). Often allocated explicitly amongst those having a right of access to the stock.

allowable catch estimate = acceptable catch estimate.

allowable quota = a share in a total allowable quota (TAC) usually divided amongst those with a right to participate in the fishery. Also called quota.

allowance = an amount set aside from a total allowable catch to allow for the expected catch of harvesters who are not subject to quota management. The quota may too hard to enforce, e.g. in an inshore fishery, and these harvesters are free to catch more than their allowance, if they can.

alloy bobbin = a light-weight, hollow bobbin on the footrope of a bottom trawl with holes to allow flooding. Also called drilled bobbin.

alluvial = adjective for alluvium.

alluvial deposits = alluvium.

alluvion = fine sediment.

alluvium (adjective alluvial) = clay, silt, sand, gravel or other material deposited by running water. Often fossil-bearing over time.

Alm's Fb coefficient = the ratio of fish caught to total benthic biomass per hectare.

almadrabra = formerly an Andalusian tuna capture fishery involving a maze of nets that led to a central killing pool. The fish were trapped in spring and early summer on the migration into the Mediterranean Sea. See also madrague, matanza, mattanza and tonnara.

almas = golden caviar, i.e., either the eggs of an albino sturgeon with a light and delicate flavour or those of Huso huso or Acipenser gueldenstaedtii at least 60 years of age with a creamy and subtle flavour. Eggs are also described as pale amber or white. In 2007, a 1.8 kg tin cost £25,000. Almas is Russian for diamond.

almost atoll = an atoll whose circular rim is less than 75% complete at low tide.

alongshore = parallel to or near the shoreline. Also called longshore.

alpha taxonomy = the description and naming of species.

alphabet lure = alphabet plug.

alphabet plug = a plug or crankbait shaped like a letter of the alphabet (N, O, S, etc.); used primarily for bass fishing in North America.

alpine lake = a lake in a mountainous area with a cold climate, associated with snow and ice conditions.

altagongi = haltugonga (an expression meaning "stop running" used by fishermen to check the run of a halibut that has been hooked (Shetland Isles dialect)).

alternative name = two names for the same taxon, of the same rank, published simultaneously by an author.

altithermal = a warmer period than today, about 4500-7000 B.P.

altricial = young requiring care or nursing after hatching. Opposite of precocial. Also used to describe ontogeny with large numbers of ova with low energy content, poorly-developed larvae and relatively large clutches in early maturing and slow-growing fishes.

alveolar = pocketed or pitted, honeycomb-like

alveolar ridge = a bony ridge supporting teeth.

alveoli = plural of alveolus.

alveolus (plural alveoli) = a small cavity or space; socket of a tooth; air cell of the lungs.

AM, am or a.m. = abbreviation for ante meridiem or before noon; the time before 12 noon.

amarelo cure = yellow cure (Portuguese salt cod with some of the salt removed by soaking in water between stages of washing and drying, yellowish in appearance).

amateur fisher = a fisher that takes fish for fun, sport or family food and do not sell their catch. Also called recreational fisher.

ambicolouration = pigmentation of both the eyed and blind side of flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) in which, ordinarily, only the eyed side is pigmented. Also called hypermelanosis.

ambient = surrounding on all sides, the conditions in the environment, e.g. temperature.

ambiguotype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for an inadequately described type. Also called Walker type.

ambiguotype = 2) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type specimen with poor data and/or labels. Usually applied to a primary type (q.v.).

ambiguotype = 3) an unofficial term in nomenclature for an unlabelled primary type specimen hidden amongst paratypes or syntypes. These series are usually a mixture of several closely-related species.

ambiguotype = 4) an unofficial term in nomenclature for an inadequately designated type specimen stored with other, superficially identical material.

ambiguous name = a name consistently used by different authors for different taxa; now obsolete (nomen ambiguum).

ambush predator = a predator that lies in wait for its prey rather than chasing it, cf. active forager. See also pursuing predator and tracking predator.

amelanistic = lacking melanin.

ameni = pond smelt or sand lances cooked in soya sauce with sugar and ame, a sweet millet jelly. Usually preceded by the name of the fish (Japan).

amensalism = negatively affecting one or several species; a form of symbiosis where one of the embers suffers as a result of the relationship while the other is unaffected by it.

American caviar = 1) caviar from American species of sturgeons.

American caviar = 2) caviar from non-sturgeon species in North America such as paddlefish (Polyodontidae).

American cut = fish portions or fillets with tapering or bevelled edges, rather than square-cut sides. Also called Dover cut.

American hardness = a measure of hardness used in the USA. One degree is equal to 1 mg/l.

American shore = a length of Newfoundland coast where American vessels were allowed to take bait.

ami = abbreviation for air miles, the straight line distance between two points used when describing a specimen collection locality.

amictic = lakes with a permanent ice cover and so with no circulation.

amiiform = movement by fast fluctuations of the dorsal fin, e.g. in seahorses. See also anguilliform, carangiform, labriform, ostraciform, rajiform, subcarangiform, thunniform.

ammel = dan leno stick (a ballasted wood pole with short rigging ropes attached, functioning like the dan leno bobbin, q.v.) (northeast Scotland).

ammocoete = the larval stage of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) which is characterized by the presence of an oral hood and the lack of a sucking disk, teeth and developed eyes. The term is derived from the genus Ammocoetes in which the larvae were placed before it was realized that they were larval lampreys.

ammonia poisoning = ammonia may build up in aquaria from fish wastes, decaying food and plant material and poison fish. Symptoms are gasping, excess mucus production, reddening skin from capillary haemorrhages, erratic behaviour. An efficient biological filtration system prevents this condition but if it does arise fish need to be moved to a mature aquarium where the nitrogen cycle, q.v., is in full operation.

ammonia tower = a type of biological filtration in aquaria which has media exposed to the air to aid in nitrification through bacterial growth. Common forms are trickle filters and rotating paddle wheel filters. The air/water mix promotes bacterial growth and the bacteria remove ammonia and nitrites. Also called a wet/dry filter.

ammonotelic = excreting nitrogenous wastes mostly as "nitrogen" (NH3, or the ammonium ion NH4-). Typical of most fishes.

amnesia = a high breaking strain monofilament line used in still fishing rigs.

amnion = a fluid-filled sac in which the embryo develops in reptiles, birds and mammals. Fish are anamniotes, as are amphibians.

amniote = a classification of vertebrates to include those with an amnion.

amoc = the traditional Cambodian fish dish comprising baked fish wrapped in a banana leaf and served with coconut, chili and lemon grass.

amorphous = without a definite shape.

amphi- (prefix) = both, on both sides of, e.g. amphi-Atlantic on both sides of the Atlantic, amphi-American on both sides of America, amphi-Pacific on both sides of the Pacific (these terms may include discontinuous and continuous distributions).

amphiarthrosis = an articulation that allows limited movement, as between vertebrae; cf. diarthrosis and synarthrosis.

amphibi- (prefix) = living a double life.

amphibiont = a species requiring both surface and ground waters in its life cycle. Also called amphibite.

amphibiotic = living in water during an early stage of development and on land during the adult stage.

amphibious = able to live or operate on land and in the water, e.g. mudskippers approach this condition.

amphibite = amphibiont.

amphiboreal = pertaining to an interrupted northern circumpolar distribution.

amphicelous = amphicoelous.

amphicoelous = biconcave vertebrae, having both ends hollowed out, the condition in Elasmobranchii, Amia and most Teleostomi except Lepisosteus (also spelled amphicelous).

amphidromic point = a point of zero amplitude of the observed or a constituent tide.

amphidromic region = an area surrounding an amphidromic point from which the radiating cotidal lines progress through all hours of the tidal cycle.

amphidromous = fishes which regularly migrate between the sea and fresh water (or vice versa) at some definite stage in their life cycle but not for the purpose of reproduction, e.g. Sicydium, perhaps Megalops and Chanos, some Galaxias (Myers, 1949).

amphihaline = showing a broad salinity tolerance and capable of living in fresh or salt waters.

amphimixis = sexual reproduction involving the fusion of male and female gametes and the formation of a zygote.

amphipedal progression = locomotion using the pectoral fins in a manner similar to that used by humans on crutches, e.g. in mudskippers and frogfishes. Also called crutching.

amphistylic = attachment of the upper jaw to the skull by means of a process on the palatoquadrate and the hyomandibular bone and by a direct connection between the jaw and braincase, e.g. some Elasmobranchii; basal gnathostomes, other than placoderms).

amphithermic = having a wide tolerance of temperatures, resulting in clines or subspecies.

amphitopic = having a wide tolerance of habitats, resulting in clines or subspecies.

amphitropical = pertaining to a distribution of temperate species interrupted by the tropics.

amplitude = half of the peak-to-trough range (or height) of a wave.

ampulla = a swelling of the end of the semicircular canals.

ampullae of Lorenzini = Lorenzini's ampullae (the mucus filled canal system opening on the snout of Elasmobranchii, Polyodon spathula and Plotosus anguillaris. May be electric, pressure or temperature receptors).

ampullary organ = an electroreceptor consisting of receptor cells sunk into the epidermis or located in an epidermal cavity opening to the surface through a duct and pore. The duct may be filled with jelly, e.g. in certain Gymnotidae, Mormyridae and Siluroidei.

amulet = fish are used as amulets (charms against evil or injury, often worn around the neck on a chain), e.g. amulets of tilapia were used in Ancient Egypt as the fish was thought to show fertility and protective strength and was considered a symbol of regeneration and reproductive strength (the young are guarded in the mouth).

an- (prefix) = without, not.

ana- (prefix) = over, back, again, backward, upward.

anaba- (prefix) = to go up, hence Anabantidae.

anabiosis = inhabiting temporary water bodies and surviving drought by suspended animation, e.g. Dipnoi.

anabranch = a diverging branch of a river which re-enters the main stream.

anacanthous = lacking dorsal fin spines. Opposite of phalacanthous.

anacat = fish that live partly in fresh water and partly in the sea and vice versa (from anadromous and catadromous).

anadrom- (prefix) = running up, to go up.

anadromous = running up; said of those fishes which spend most of their life in the sea and which migrate to freshwater to reproduce, e.g. Oncorhynchus, Stenodus, Petromyzon, Roccus, Stokellia anisodon (Retropinnidae) (Myers, 1949). The opposite is catadromous.

anaemia = deficiency of red blood corpuscles or haemoglobin; in fish a dietary disease due to a vitamin deficiency.

anaemic fish = the ice fishes of Antarctica, e.g. Chaenichthyide, which lack red blood corpuscles.

anaerobic = without oxygen, either as a presence or needed as part of a process.

anaesthetic = a chemical used to reduce a fish's movements or metabolic rate prior to some procedure such as tagging or transport. Chemicals include MS-222 and clove oil and, for fry, novocaine and sodium barbitol.

anaesthetic fishing = angling while numbed under the influence of drugs or alcohol, leads to poor catches and even drowning, cf. aesthetic fishing.

anagenesis = evolutionary change along an unbranching lineage (no new species arise) or when one species transforms into another across time.

anagram = a taxonomic name formed by the rearrangement of the letters of a word or phrase, e.g. Tribolodon a genus of fishes predates Tribolodon a genus of reptiles and the anagram Bolotridon was advanced as a replacement name.

anal = pertaining to the anus.

anal fin = the median ventral fin or fins behind the anus. Abbreviated as A, or A1 and A2 if there are two. Also called proctopterygium or proctal fin, it functions to maintain equilibrium against rolling.

anal fin base length = the distance between the origin and the insertion of the anal fin, i.e. the length of that portion of the anal fin in contact with the body.

anal fin depressed length = the depressed length of the anal fin is the distance from the origin to the farthest posterior tip when the fin is flattened down.

anal fin height = the distance from the origin to the tip of the longest ray. Sometimes taken as the greatest vertical height from the base.

anal fin ray count = enumeration of the soft anal fin rays, usually. In fishes where the smaller rays in front gradually grade into larger rays, these smaller anterior rays are included in the count, e.g. Ictaluridae, Esocidae, Gadidae. Where the first small rays abruptly change to larger ones, or where the first small rays are very variable or difficult to count, these are not included; the first unbranched ray reaching nearly to the tip of the fin and the remainder of the rays are then counted - this is called the principal ray count. Where the last two rays are closely approximated at the base, some authors consider them as a branched ray counting them as one (although they are not really a single branched ray). In fishes where the last two rays are not closely placed at the base, the rays are usually both counted. However some authors again count the last two rays as one. In some studies, only the branched rays of the anal fin are counted. It may readily be seen that if published counts are to be of use to others the method of counting should be stated. Anal fin spines, when present, are usually enumerated separately from soft or branched rays.

anal gland = rectal gland (an evagination of the terminal portion of the intestine of Elasmobranchii. Function formerly thought to be related to digestion or excretion, but now considered to secrete high concentrations of excess sodium chloride. Found also in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae).

anal lappet = a small skin flap supported by an internal scale or scales over the anal fin base in Cetomimidae.

anal papilla = a fleshy protuberance through which the end of the digestive tract passes.

anal photophores = two rows of light organs, one above the base of the anal fin and the other along the ventrolateral surface of the caudal peduncle. Abbreviated as AO in Myctophidae.

anal ring = one of the dermal plates in members of the Syngnathidae forming a series of rings enclosing the body; the body ring immediately in front of the anus.

anal spine = a spine at the origin of the anal fin before the soft rays. In flatfishes this is not a true spine but the free end of the first distal anal pterygiophore under the skin which may protrude through the skin.

analog products = simulated crab, lobster and other shellfish and fish products made from processed fish flesh.

analogous = similar in structure or function but independently evolved, e.g. the hard ray in the dorsal fin of the carp and the spines in the first dorsal fin of the perch are analogous structures.

analytical operation = research study on a fish stock gathering data that cannot be obtained from commercial operations.

anamestic bone = one of a series of bones in the cheek region that fill in spaces left by the sensory pit-bearing bones; may be used for any bone lacking sensory canals. Often small, of irregular shape and variable between individuals.

anamniota = a classification of vertebrates without an amnion.

anamniote = fishes, including Agnatha, have an embryonic stage without an amnion, as do amphibians.

anastomosing = joining in a network, forming a network, e.g. river channels, blood vessels.

anatomy = the structure of organisms, often revealed by dissection.

anaulacorhizid = vascularisation of a tooth root through scattered foramina of equal size on both outer and inner faces, e.g. in Hexanchidae. A secondarily anaulacorhizid condition occurs where the median groove of a holaulacorhizid type of root is totally overgrown to form a closed tube internally connected or merged with the pulp cavity (Herman et al., 1994).

anazygalia = zygalia (four small cranial bones in Osteolepiformes, perhaps formed from elements of the second to the fourth vertebra, a segment of the primordial cranium. The anazygalia are located dorsal to the chorda dorsalis, the catazygalia ventral to the chorda dorsalis).

ancestor = any organism, population, or species from which some other organism, population, or species is descended by reproduction.

anchialine = anchihaline.

anchihaline = referring to an aquatic habitat with restricted open air exposure, one or more connections to the sea (but not a surface connection), and influenced by marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Found in volcanic and limestone areas, e.g. the bythitid genus Lucifuga of Cuba and the Bahamas. Also spelled anchialine.

anchor = a metal device lowered on a line or chain and used to secure a vessel to the sea bed. Also used to secure nets. Anchors have flukes (points that dig into the bottom or grab rocks; the flattened part is called a palm) connecting by arms to a crown, a shank (a vertical bar) rising from the crown, many also have a stock (a horizontal bar that prevents rolling over) which passes through an eye, and a ring (where the rope or chain is attached). There are many different type and sizes of anchors, e.g. see killick, Admiralty pattern anchor, ice anchor and trawl anchor.

anchor (verb) = to affix an object, such as a net, to the sea floor, using an anchor or similar device. An anchor is set, by which it is pulled to engage the flukes in the sea bed or against rocks. However its weight alone may prevent movement of a boat or net.

anchor buoy = a large, spherical buoy supporting and marking the various ropes connected to the main anchor used in Danish seining.

anchor ice = frazil ice that collects on the stream or lake bed, or extends down to the water bottom.

anchor net = set gillnet (a gill net fixed to the bottom or a distance above it by anchors or ballast. Also called straight net, sunk gillnet, sunken gill net, sunk net).

anchor rope = 1) a rope connected to an anchor or anchor chain.

anchor rope = 2) a cable-laid rope acting as a spring between the anchor wire and anchor buoy in a Danish seine. Also called anchor trot.

anchor seine = Danish seine (a seine or cone-shaped otter trawl which is hauled over an area of about 2 square kilometres to a stationary vessel from an anchor buoy, the very long towing ropes disturbing clouds of mud which help herd the fish into the net. Also called Danish seine trawl or Danish trawl).

anchor surface net = a set gill net fixed to fish near the surface. Also called surface gill net.

anchor tag = an alphanumeric or colour-coded tag attached through the flesh near the dorsal fin of a fish. A special injection device allows numerous fish to be tagged rapidly.

anchor trot = anchor rope (2).

anchor worm = a copepod crustacean parasite of the genus Lernaea found on fish gills. No intermediate host. Worm-like in shape and often quite large and obvious, forming ulcers at the attachment point, and inducing scratching and flashing through irritation. Heavy infestations, especially of small or larval fish, may lead to hypoxia through increased respiration. Found in freshwater fishes, particularly cyprinids in culture and as bait minnows.

anchored fish aggregating device = a fish aggregating device (q.v.) that is anchored close to the coast and used in artisanal fisheries.

anchored gillnet = bottom-set gillnet (a net anchored on or close to the bottom by anchors and ballast).

anchored line = a fishing line fixed to the sea bed at one end or at several points along its length.

anchored trap = a pound net (q.v.) or fyke net (q.v.) set in deep water and maintained in place by lines and anchors. Usually set horizontally but may be set vertically under ice, e.g. for turbot in the Baltic Sea.

anchosen = smallish sprats and herring preserved in a mixture of salt and sugar, or in starched sugar products, with or without spices, saltpetre or other flavouring agents (Germany).

anchovy = common name for various fish species in the fishes in the family Engraulidae, best known in North America for their salty and decried topping on pizzas but an important and tasty element in European cuisine. Part of caesar salad, Worcestershire sauce and often the basis for garum (q.v.). The various species occur in vast numbers as a schooling fish in waters worldwide.

anchovy butter = anchovy paste mixed with butter, used for a filling in sandwiches, savoury biscuits, etc.

anchovy cream = anchovy paste mixed with vegetable oil. Oil content in France is at least 10%.

anchovy cullice = a strong broth, boiled and strained, often used for sick people.

anchovy essence = a compound of pounded anchovies and various herbs. May be canned.

anchovy paste = ground anchovies covered with salt, saltpetre, bay salt, sal prunella and a few grains of cochineal; allowed to ripen for six months. Sold in jars or cans.

anchovy sauce = a savoury sauce made with anchovies.

anchovy toast = a toast spread with anchovy, used as a whet to appetite for wine.

anchylose = ankylose.

ancillary collection = material retained in addition to the main specimen in a collection, e.g. frozen tissue, thin sections, body parts, DNA, etc.

ancillary product = additional use, other than the primary one, of a fish, e.g. in a fish used for flesh, use of internal organs, of heads, and as fishmeal, etc.

andric = male.

andro- (prefix) = male human.

androdioecious = adjective for androdioecy.

androdioecy = possessing a single gonad that produces both eggs and sperm. Eggs are fertilised internally and most offspring are clones. Found only in the mangrove killifish (Kryptolebias marmoratus) in vertebrates. Some males exist, the numbers varying between populations, allowing greater genetic diversity, while androdioecy allows the fish to colonise new habitats.

androgamone = sperm secretions which depress the activity of sperm in the male genital duct and dissolve the egg membranes.

andropodium = a modified anal fin of Hemiramphidae used to transfer sperm to females. Also cited as being the modified anal fin in Goodeidae.

androtype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a male specimen in the type series.

anerytheristic = lacking red pigmentation.

anesthetic = anaesthetic.

anfish = a legendary hairy fish of the lower Tigris-Euphrates basin in Iraq; possibly a marine mammal entering from the sea or the otter.

angel fillet = block fillet (a fillet comprising muscle mass from the side of the fish, usually joined at the back or belly. Also called cutlet, double fillet or when smoked golden cutlet).

angio- (prefix) = vessel.

angiogenesis = development of new blood vessels, as in embryos and tumour formation. See also shark cartilage.

angishore = 1) a man too lazy to fish (Newfoundland).

angishore = 2) a migratory fisherman from Newfoundland who conducted a summer fishery from a fixed station on the coast of Labrador.

angle = 1) the bony protuberance posterior to the jaw gape where the angular, articular and quadrate bones join. Ventrally directed and especially prominent in some larval fishes.

angle = 2) old word for a hook. Hence to angle, angler.

angle = 3) to fish with a hook, rod and bait.

angle = 4) to scheme, or to try and get something by devious or illegal means.

angle = 5) a sharp bend in a river.

angle = 6) a curved inlet of a lake or pond.

Angle = 7) a member of a Germanic people that migrated to England from a fish hook-shaped area of southern Jutland in the 5th century A.D., hence England.

angle-bow = a running noose or slip-knot, especially on the end of a stick, used to catch fish (English dialect).

angle-bowing = poaching fish by means of an angle-bow.

angle-dog = an earthworm used for freshwater fishing (Newfoundland).

angle-rod = a fishing rod.

angle iron chain = chain bracket (a chain used on an otter board in pace of a bracket. Also called back board chain, board chain, chain triangle, towing chain).

angle with a silver hook = a failed fisherman who buys his fish to take home, using silver coins in the past.

angler = 1) a person using an angle to catch fishes, and usually a rod and line too; a recreational fisher. The fish may be released or kept as food but they are not sold. Angler encompasses both sexes in contrast to fisherman.

angler = 2) a pilferer having a stick with a hook at the end to steal goods from shop windows (archaic).

angler day = one person angling for any part of one day.

angler survey = a survey of anglers and their catches either off-site by mail, email, telephone, door-to-door, etc. or on-site by access, roving, aerial, etc.

anglerfish = a member of the Order Lophiiformes, comprising over 313 species in 18 families. They have a fishing apparatus developed from the first ray of the spiny dorsal fin comprising the illicium (q.v.) or fishing rod tipped by the esca (q.v.) or bait. The apparatus is used to attract other fishes close enough to be gulped down.

anglers association = a group of individuals paying an annual fee to fish in waters owned or leased by the association. Membership may be in the many thousands and the association can set rules for fishing gear and times, angling contests, stock waters with fish, and influence national policies on fish management. Also called fishing club or fish club.

angleworm = a small earthworm used as bait in angling, usually for small stream trout and panfish, cf. night crawler.

angling = fishing with a rod and reel or a rod and line, usually for sport but also an effective way to catch some species for research purposes (or so ichthyologists maintain) and similar methods are used for some commercial fishing. Strictly uses an angle or hook but generally synonymous with sport fishing, q.v. See also recreational fishery.

angling apparatus = fishing apparatus (a mechanism for attracting prey close to the mouth in members of the Lophiiformes formed from dorsal fin spines modified into a fishing rod (illicium) with a lure (esca) at the tip).

angling association = anglers association.

angling cove = a receiver of stolen goods.

angling device = the modified dorsal fin on anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) used to attract prey.

angling for farthings = begging out of a prison window with a cap or box let down on the end of string (archaic). Farthings were a coin worth a quarter of a penny.

angling machine = an automated rod and line system on the side of a vessel. The machine can jig to catch the fish, rotate to bring the fish on deck, and jerk to release the fish from the hook.

angling rod = fishing rod (1) a device to carry and project a fishing line, hook(s) and bait or lures. The construction of rods is both a craft and a science and there is an immense variation for particular species. Originally made of wood (split cane), now made of fibreglass, graphite/fibreglass or kevlar).

angling wand = fishing rod (1) a device to carry and project a fishing line, hook(s) and bait or lures. The construction of rods is both a craft and a science and there is an immense variation for particular species. Originally made of wood (split cane), now made of fibreglass, graphite/fibreglass or kevlar).

anguiform = snake-like or snake shaped.

anguilliform = 1) eel-like in shape.

anguilliform = 2) sinuous type of swimming as in an eel. See also amiiform, carangiform, labriform, ostraciform, rajiform, subcarangiform, thunniform.

anguiniform = anguiform.

angular = the triangular, paired dermal bone on the posterior ventral corner of the lower jaw. Also applied to the dermal bone of the lower jaw which articulates posteriorly with the quadrate, in which case the preceding bone is known as the retroarticular. In mammals this bone becomes the malleus of the inner ear.

angulas = deep-fried elvers (young Anguilla anguilla), a Basque delicacy.

angulate = having definite angles or corners.

angulo-retroarticular = retroarticular (the triangular, endochondral, dermal or mixed origin bone on the back, hind corner of the lower jaw. Often called the angular, Bridge's ossicle a, or lower articular).

anguloarticular = articular (the deep, endochondral bone of primitive acanthopterygians in the middle of the lower jaw between the dentary and the angular (or retroarticular) which articulates with the quadrate. It is later invaded by the angular. Divided into the distal part (wanting in Teleostomi) and the proximal part. Occupies the position of Bridge's ossicles b and c in Amia. Found as a distinct structure in Amia, Lepisosteus, Polyodon and Acipenseridae).

angulosplenial = articular (the deep, endochondral bone of primitive acanthopterygians in the middle of the lower jaw between the dentary and the angular (or retroarticular) which articulates with the quadrate. It is later invaded by the angular. Divided into the distal part (wanting in Teleostomi) and the proximal part. Occupies the position of Bridge's ossicles b and c in Amia. Found as a distinct structure in Amia, Lepisosteus, Polyodon and Acipenseridae).

animal pole = the location on the fish egg where polar bodies emerge. It corresponds to the point of fertilisation just below where the sperm penetrates the chorion through the micropyle.

animal-vegetal axis = a line passing through the animal and vegetal poles of the embryo before epiboly.

anirotype = cheirotype (a type specimen of a species designated by a manuscript name).

anisakiasis = a disease caused by a nematode parasite. Anisakis can infect humans causing gastric problems if raw or lightly processed fish, e.g. cold smoked, is consumed. Freezing below -18°C followed by frozen storage for 24 hours kills this parasite. The parasite is found in the viscera and muscles of such fish as herring. Marine mammals are the definitive host. Also called anisakinosis.

anisakinosis = anisakiasis.

aniso- (prefix) = unequal, uneven.

anisogamy = reproductive products of unequal size (eggs and sperm).

anker = a barrel containing, and a measure, of salmon (Orkney and Shetland dialect).

ankimo = monkfish liver as served in a sushi restaurant.

ankled = said of fishing nets twisted together. See also hankle.

ankylose = to fuse together, e.g. fusion of two bones or teeth to bone to form one part. Sometimes spelled anchylose.

anlage (plural anlagen, German) = the initial clump of cells from which develops an organ or structure; primordium.

anlagen = plural of anlage.

annatto = a vegetable dye used for colouring smoked fish.

anno = to row against the wind to keep a boat from drifting, while rod or handline fishing is going on (Caithness dialect).

anno domini = Year of the Lord, the Christian dating system. Common era or CE is used as a neutral version. Abbreviated as A.D. or AD.

annosman = the man who annos the boat.

annotation slip = determination slip (a label with a specimen with the species identification, identifier, date of capture, collector(s), etc. The label may be attached to the specimen or with it in a jar or other container).

annual canvas = a compilation of available fishery records made annually.

annual fish = a fish which normally completes its life cycle in a year and dies, only the eggs surviving, e.g. certain South American and African cyprinodonts dwelling in ponds which disappear in the dry season, Austrofundulus, Rachovia, Aphia pellucida, Cynolebius.

annual flood = the highest annual peak discharge of a river.

annual growth rate = the increase in weight of a fish over one year (final weight divided by initial weight). Abbreviated as h or h (Ricker, 1975).

annual migrant = a fish that makes regular yearly migrations for spawning and/or feeding.

annual mortality = the percentage of fish dying in one year due to natural causes. May also include those taken through fishing.

annual mortality rate = the ratio between the number of fish which die during a year from causes other than fishing and the number alive at the beginning of that year. Also called annual natural mortality rate, conditional natural mortality rate, seasonal natural mortality rate. Abbreviated as m or n.

annual natural mortality rate = annual mortality rate (the ratio between the number of fish which die during a year from causes other than fishing and the number alive at the beginning of that year. Also called conditional natural mortality rate and seasonal natural mortality rate).

annual product sampling plan = in food inspection of fish, the type and number of analyses to be carried out on an annual basis.

annual production = 1) tonnes of market-sized fish produced by an aquaculture facility in one year.

annual production = 2) the amount of fish produced by a defined area of river or lake.

annual ring = a growth ring formed over the course of one year.

annual species = one in which free-swimming individuals live for less than one year, their fertile eggs hibernating in soil during the dry season, e.g. some rivulin Cyprinodontidae.

annual surplus production = the assumption in fisheries that there is a biomass removable without changing population size.

annual total mortality rate = the number of fish which die during a year divided by the initial number. Also called actual mortality rate, coefficient of mortality. Abbreviated as A.

annual turnover = 1) the total biomass produced in one year.

annual turnover = 2) the spring and fall mixing of water in a lake caused by wind, annual air temperature cycle and heating from the sun.

annualism = the state of being an annual species.

annular = ring-shaped.

annular drainage system = a drainage system arranged in a circular fashion around a central basin. See also dendritic, deranged, parallel and rectangular drainage systems.

annular sclerite = annulus.

annuli = plural of annulus.

annulled name = an originally available name that has been suppressed by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and consequently becomes unavailable for purposes of priority.

annulled work = a publication that the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has ruled must not be used for purpose of nomenclature.

annulment = the suppression by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature of an available name as unavailable for the purposes of priority and homonymy, and the ruling of a work as unavailable.

annulus (plural annuli) = a ring or rings on a fish scale or in a bony or cartilaginous structure corresponding to a year of growth. In a scale usually consists of closely arranged ridges (circuli). An accessory annulus is a ring caused by retarded or temporarily terminated growth that does not represent an annual cycle. In the tropics annuli may indicate spawning rather than growth.

annum = year. Usually used in combination, e.g. Ma, meaning million years.

anomaly = departure from normal.

anoman = any animal species other than Homo sapiens; from "animal other than man".

anomen = plural of anoman.

anon = abbreviation for anonymous.

anonymous = of a name, nomenclatural act or work whose authorship is not stated. Also where the identity of an author cannot be determined from the work itself. Abbreviated as anon.

anoxia = the lack of oxygen in an environment.

answer = a bite in fishing.

Ant = a photophore at the anterodorsal margin of the orbit.

ante- (prefix) = before, in front of.

ante meridiem = before noon; the time before 12 noon. Abbreviated AM, am or a.m.

antecedent stream = a stream already in place before the rise of a mountain range, subsequently cutting through the rock at the same rate as the mountains rise and so maintaining its position. This has consequences for fish distribution, dispersal and migration.

antecedent year = the year when fish were spawned.

antennulae microvillares = mucopolysaccharide threads or tufts, the mucus filaments on the outermost layer of skin.

antepenultimate = the third from the end; one preceding the penultimate.

anteriad = in front of; towards the front end.

anterial = towards the anterior end.

anterials = teeth on the anterior field of the oral disc of lampreys (Petromyzontidae).

anterior = in front; front (also used for towards the front end, strictly anteriad). Opposite of posterior.

anterior anal photophores = the row of light organs just above the base of the anal fin in Myctophidae (abbreviated AOa).

anterior cardinal vein = paired veins draining blood from the head into the common cardinal veins.

anterior cerebral vein = a vein draining blood from the rostrum and eye into the lateral head vein, q.v.

anterior circumorals = the first row of anterials.

anterior field = a wedge-shaped section of a scale encompassed by lines from the focus to the antero-lateral corners of the scale. This field is usually embedded in the skin and not exposed.

anterior intestinal artery = a branch of the coeliac artery that serves the enlarged proximal loop of the intestine and the intestinal diverticula.

anterior-posterior axis = the principal axis of the embryo. Also called rostrocaudal axis and embryonic axis.

anterohyal = ceratohyal (the bone articulating dorsally with the interhyal, anteriorly supporting some branchiostegal rays and ventrally joining one or two hypohyals).

anterolateral photophores = an old name for VLO photophores (q.v.).

anterorostrum = antirostrum.

antetype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a primary type (q.v.). Also called prototype.

antetype = 2) the most primitive member of a group, a hypothetical ancestor (obsolete).

anthelminthic = a medication used against helminth or worm infestations of fishes.

anthropogenic = involving the impact (usually negative) of mankind on nature.

anti- (prefix) = opposite, against.

anti-fouling agent = a paint used to protect ships or aquaculture cages from attaching organisms. Now regulated in aquaculture because of their build-up in fish tissues and replaced by biodegradable and less toxic products.

anti-freeze = natural proteins in the blood of polar and cool-temperate fishes that prevent formation of ice crystals down to an exterior temperature of -6°C.

anti-helminthic = anthelminthic.

anti-kink = any device used to prevent twisting of fishing line; in angling often achieved by having swivels, q.v.

anti-nutrient = a component of plants that can be toxic to fish in high concentrations or decreases the ability to absorb minerals from food. Presents problems in using plants as food in aquaculture.

anti-reverse = a system, such as a switch, preventing fishing reels from spinning in reverse.

anti-tangle lead = a lead weight used to sink the bait in angling having a long length of silicone tubing on either side to protect the line from abrasion.

anti-tangle rig = a ledgering rig used by anglers mostly for carp. Comprises booms, swivels and tubing to help prevent tangles during casting.

antibiotic ice = ice containing a small amount of an antibiotic such as tetracycline used to extend the shelf life of fish. Illegal in many countries because it promotes antibiotic resistance.

antibody = a protein (an immunoglobulin or Ig) produced by the B-lymphocytes in the blood in response to the introduction of a foreign substance, an antigen.

antiboreal = of the south temperate region.

antigen = a substance which induces the formation of antibodies; used to compare relationships among species based on those sharing the same or more antibodies (serum proteins).

antimere = the corresponding element on the opposite side of a bilaterally symmetrical organism, as fishes are.

antimycin A = a chemical produced by streptomyces bacteria and used in a commercial preparation as a piscicide, e.g. in the catfish industry. It inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, the nucleotide necessary for transport of chemical energy within cells.

antioxidant = a food additive that reduces oxidation of lipids and thus rancid flavours in fish, fish oils and fish meals, e.g. vitamins C and E.

antipodean = referring to opposite sides of the world.

antirostrum = the anterior and dorsal projection of the sagittal otolith, dorsal to the sulcus.

antiserum = a blood serum with specific antibodies.

antitropical = the distribution pattern where a group is found north and south of, but not in, the tropics. Includes bipolar, bitemperate distributions, e.g. Sardinops, Engraulis, Squalus, Zeus.

antitype = 1) paratype (every specimen, other than the holotype, in the type-series; all the specimens on which the author bases the series, except any that (s)he refers to as variants, or doubtfully associates with the nominal species, or expressly excludes from it). Paratype is preferred.

antitype = 2) an unofficial term in nomenclature for an opposite type or countertype, e.g. the mirror half of a fossil split in two.

antitype = 3) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a corresponding specimen of a type series obtained at the same time and location as the nomenclatural type.

antivenene = antivenin.

antivenin = a serum used against venoms such as that of stonefish (Synanceia).

antonym = a word of opposite meaning; used unofficially in nomenclature for each name that is not a synonym.

antorbital = a small, paired dermal bone lying lateral to the nasal bone in front of the eye. Sometimes included in the suborbital or infraorbital series because the infraorbital canal crosses it, e.g. in Amiidae, Lepisosteidae, Elops, Osmeridae, some Siluridae.

antorbital organ = a photophore on the front and lower edge of the orbit which may manifest itself as the photophore Vn or Dn or as the suborbital light organ.

antron = a synthetic yarn having long and sparkly fibres used in artificial fly tying.

antrorse = angled forward or pointing anteriorly; opposite of retrorse.

ants' eggs = a commercial food for aquarium fish, no longer sold, comprising dried ant pupal cases of no nutritional value.

anus = the posterior opening of the digestive tract by which it communicates with the exterior and through which faeces are voided. Also called vent, although the vent is the opening for reproductive and kidney products too.

AO = a row of photophores along the base of the anal fin and lower side of the caudal peduncle (not including the Prc's at the base of the caudal fin) in Myctophidae. Usually divisible into AOa mostly above the anal fin base and AOp mostly on the caudal peduncle. In some older works AO refers to the antorbital photophores.

AOa = a row of photophores mostly above the anal fin base in Myctophidae.

AOp = a row of photophores mostly on the caudal peduncle in Myctophidae.

aorta = the main blood vessel supplying blood to the body from the heart.

aortic arches = the pairs of arteries running through the branchial arches, connecting the ventral aorta with the dorsal aorta (or for the first two arches to the internal carotid artery). The last four carry the blood supply to and from the gills.

aortic radices = the paired roots of the dorsal aorta, joining posterior to the entrance of the last efferent artery to form the dorsal aorta.

ap. = abbreviation for apud, meaning in the work of; used in citing the work of an author contained in another work.

aparietal = a form of skull where the parietals are absent, e.g. in Syngnathiformes, Siluridae.

apartment house = a Japanese fish shelter comprising a concrete block about a metre cube with a 30 cm window on each side wall. About a 100 of these are deposited in a suitable area where they attract fish that can be caught by angling, longlines and bottom gill nets set nearby.

apatite II = a proprietary preparation of fish bones used in removing heavy metals from soil and water. The metals are chemically bound into new minerals that do not dissolve or leach over extremely long time periods.

apex (plural apices, adjective apical) = the free tip of a fin, e.g. in sharks.

apex predator = a fish at the top of the food chain, relying on smaller fishes for food.

aphagous = adjective for aphagy.

aphagy = lacking the ability to feed.

aphakic space = the space in the pupil which is not occupied by the lens. The space may be circumlenticular, around the lens as in Stomias, ventral as in Omosudidae, some Myctophidae and Paralepidae, or rostral as in Scopelosauridae. A rostral aphakic space may enhance the forward binocular field of vision.

aphetohyoidean = the primitive condition of jaw suspension for gnathostomes (jawed fishes and relatives) where there is a non-suspensory hyoid arch behind a full post-mandibular gill slit.

aphotic = areas never reached by natural light in the deep ocean (deeper than about 800 metres). No photosynthesis occurs.

aphrophil = a reproductive guild (q.v.) of a froth nester, where eggs are laid in mucous bubbles made by the fish. Embryos have cement glands and well-developed respiratory structures, e.g. in Anabantidae and some characins.

aphytal = the plantless zone of a lake bottom.

apical = at the apex, tip or end. The apical field of a scale is the posterior end normally exposed when in its natural position. The side exposed to water in gills.

apical margin = the rear edge of a scale. Also called posterior margin.

apices = plural of apex.

apkallu fish = one of seven Babylonian wise men, dressed in the skin of a fish. These wise men lived before the Flood, and were sent by the fish god Ea to teach wisdom to humans and to protect and purify them.

aplacental = viviparous reproduction in which embryos are not connected to their mother's blood supply by a placenta, as is the case in some sharks.

aplacental viviparity = also called ovoviviparity (production of eggs that are fertilised and hatch inside the mother but the embryos lack a placental connection to the oviduct or uterus and so do not feed off the mother. The young are born as miniature adults, free-swimming and feeding).

aplesodic = said of a cartilaginous pectoral fin where basals and radials do not reach the border and so do not offer the support seen in the plesodic fin, q.v. More highly derived fish may have other support for the distal fin region such as ceratotrichia, q.v.

apparent digestibility coefficient = nutrient ingested-nutrient egested/nutrient ingested. Not all food eaten or ingested is absorbed, the rest is egested as faeces . The absorbed portion is expressed as a percentage according to the above formula.

apo- (prefix) = away from.

apocranial = far from the skull.

apod- (prefix) = without feet.

apode fishes = fishes without pelvic fins, e.g. Anguilla.

apogean tidal current = a tidal current of decreased speed occurring monthly as the result of the Moon being in apogee (the point in the orbit of the Moon farthest from the Earth).

apogean tide = a tide of decreased range occurring monthly as the result of the Moon being in apogee (the point in the orbit of the Moon farthest from the Earth).

apogenotype = a type specimen fixed through substitution, e.g. when a genus is renamed through homonymy, the type species automatically becomes the type of the new genus.

apomorph = a derived character differing from the ancestral condition; a new feature or character that arose during evolution.

apophyses = plural of apophysis.

apophysis (plural apophyses) = a narrow expansion protruding from the body of a bone.

apopyle = the anterior opening of the tube formed by the claspers.

apomorphy = a state derived by evolution from a primitive state (plesiomorphy); applied to a character, not a taxon. It relates to the compared character state and the hierarchical level considered, i.e. the character is apomorphic in relation to one state but plesiomorphic to another.

aponeurosis = flattened tendon.

aposematic = referring to a colour or structure that warns of a special means of defense against a predator.

apotype = 1) in nomenclature, an unofficial term for a specimen used to supplement the description of a type. Also called hypotype (q.v.).

apotype = 2) an unofficial term in nomenclature for type fixation of a genus-group name through substitution.

apotypic = a term coined to replace apomorphy as the latter strictly applies only to morphological characters.

apparatus Weberei = Weberian apparatus (four bones and associated tissues connecting the gas bladder to the inner ear and conveying pressure changes and sound. Usually the definition includes the first four vertebrae (two and three may be fused), a supporting unit or pars sustentaculum comprising two transverse plates projecting downwards from the fourth vertebra enclosing a circular space for the aorta and the neural complex comprising modified neural arches and spines. Found in the Cypriniformes and Siluriformes).

apparent digestibility coefficient = the value for the food absorbed from diet and not excreted in faeces; nutrient ingested - nutrient egested/nutrient ingested. Abbreviated as ADC.

apparent prevalence = the proportion of test-positive fish in a target population.

appearance = a visual assessment of a fish product based on shape, colour, gloss/dullness, translucency/opacity and surface texture.

appendage = any substantial projection form the body. The pectoral and pelvic fins are paired appendages.

appetency = an instinctive inclination or propensity in animals to perform certain actions, e.g. a male Betta splendens will display when sighting itself in a mirror.

appertisation = canned fish; a term used to avoid confusion with semi-preserves, q.v.

appetite mood = in angling, used to describe a fish's attitude to feeding. In a positive mood the fish is actively feeding, in a neutral mood a lure or bait will be taken if presented properly, and in a negative mood will not take food, a bait or a lure unless it is by an involuntary reflex action such as a strike at a moving object.

appetitive behaviour = 1) purposeful feeding behaviours resulting in the identification and location of specific food items.

appetitive behaviour = 2) searching for the stimulus that can release the activity, e.g. a stickleback that has left its nest shows this behaviour when returning to resume fanning of the nest.

appetitsild = skinned fillets of spice cured sprats or small herring packed in solutions of vinegar, salt, sugar and spices or other flavouring agents (Germany. Scandinavia).

application= the use of a name to denote a taxon.

application to the Commission = any zoologist may submit nomenclatural problems to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. These are published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature.

apposition = said of a noun in a scientific name, used as a substantive epithet, not an adjectival one.

appressed = held flat against the body, e.g. appressed pectoral fin. See also adpressed.

approach velocities = water velocities at or near the face of a fish screen, q.v.

approved = given approval and promulgated by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

approved name = one given approval by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for use in nomenclature. Also called nomen approbatum.

approximate = close together (as with anatomical structures).

April fish = usually appearing as poisson d'Avril, French for April fool, based on a newly spawned, naive and easily-caught fish. A paper fish is attached to a victim's back without him noticing. Occasionally appearing in its English translation.

aproctal bone = the ventral element in the priapium of the Phallostethidae on which articulate the ctenactinia (q.v.). Also called axial or pelvic bone.

apron = 1) the false belly of the cod end of a trawl used as a chafing gear.

apron = 2) the netting floor of a bag or stake net.

apron gill net = an L-shaped net comprising a vertical back wall and a horizontally floating apron.

apron reef = the initial stage of a fringing reef, being discontinuous and covering a small area.

apud = meaning in the work of; used in citing the work of an author contained in another work. Abbreviated as ap.

aqua- (prefix) = water.

aquabot = an aquatic robot or autonomous underwater vehicle used in oceanographic research.

aquaculture = the artificial or controlled culture of aquatic organisms, including stripping and fertilisation of eggs and raising of young to a certain size for release or marketing. Also spelled aquiculture, but this also means hydroponics.

aquafeed = commercial fish food.

aqualung = a self-contained, portable underwater breathing apparatus for divers. Comprises a cylinder(s) of compressed air strapped to the back feeding that air to the diver through a mask or mouthpiece.

aquamarsh = a water body almost completely covered with emergent an floating aquatic vegetation.

aquanaut = an underwater researcher, explorer or swimmer. Also called oceanaut.

aquaponics = a mix of aquaculture (fish cultivation) and hydroponics (growing fish in water). Fish waste is filtered and used by the plants.

aquaria = plural of aquarium.

aquarian = 1) of or pertaining to aquaria (rare).

aquarian = 2) one who keeps an aquarium.

aquariology = the care, maintenance and breeding of captive aquatic animals. Includes design of displays and veterinary medicine and pathology.

aquarist = a person who keeps fish or other organisms in an aquarium. Sometimes used for pondkeeper and fishkeeper.

aquaristics = the study of aquarium organisms on a scientific basis.

aquarium (plural aquaria) = an artificial tank with glass or plastic sides allowing the fish to be viewed; also a large facility with many aquaria, often open to the public.

aquarium collecting = use of small-meshed nets and traps for collecting fish for display in aquaria.

aquarium furniture = a general term for castles, mermaids, pirate ships, treasure chests and other dubious items made for decorating aquaria.

aquarium material = species bred in an aquarium rather than collected from the wild.

aquarium salt = an additive-free salt used in treatment of disease in freshwater aquarium fishes or added in very small quantities of freshwater aquaria where it is beneficial to certain species. Not the same as marine salt, a preparation used to imitate sea water for marine aquaria.

aquariums = sometimes used as a plural for aquarium.

aquascaping = arrangement of plants in an aquarium in an artistic fashion, often with rocks, and including the necessary equipment to maintain the environment.

aquasperm = the morphologically simple sperm of externally fertilizing teleosts. Typically having a round head without an acrosome, a single, generally unadorned flagellum and a short mid-piece with a prominent cytoplasmic canal.

aquatic = living in or near water or pertaining to water.

aquatic chicken = a slang term for Tilapia spp., cichlids used extensively for fish farming. They breed freely and have a bland taste (not "fishy") and so are easily marketed to schools and hospitals. See also factory fish.

aquatic surface respiration = absorption of oxygen through the gills from the thin (few millimetres), oxygen-rich surface layer of a water body. Used by fish in hypoxic conditions.

aquatic tongue = the use of water currents in the mouth by some fishes, acting as a hydraulic tongue to manipulate food.

aquaticolous = living in water or aquatic vegetation.

aquatoria = water world or habitat.

aquatron = a facility with very large tanks for fish or other aquatic organism studies.

aqueduct of Sylvius = a posterior channel joining the third and fourth ventricle in the brain.

aqui- (prefix) = relating to water.

aquifer = a water bearing geological formation. Springs and wells depend on aquifers for water. Described as artesian (confined) or water table (unconfined). May contain "cave" fishes.

aquiculture = see aquaculture.

aragonite = calcium carbonate skeletons of reef corals and some shells sold as a substrate for marine aquaria. Has high levels of calcium and strontium carbonate.

arbalete = an underwater spear gun used for catching fish.

arbitrary = 1) used of scientific name lacking formal derivation with regard to etymology, an arbitrary combination of letters, or an etymologically incorrect gender assigned to a name, e.g. Apterichtus ansp (Böhlke, 1968), anophichthid named for the acronym for the Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia.

arbitrary = 2) said of a gender assigned to a name without a linguistic gender.

arbor = the centre part of a fly reel (spool) where backing and line are wound; usually indicates the size of the spool with large arbors useful in fly fishing to prevent the line from curling.

arbor knot = a knot used to tie line to the reel spool. Has a strength of 60%. The main line is wrapped around the spool, a knot tied across it and a knot tied near the end of the line. a steady pull on the line tightens the first knot against the spool and is locked by the second knot. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

arborescent = treelike.

arborescent organ = 1) a branched, accessory, vascular structure in the gill chamber, e.g. in Clarias gariepinnis.

arborescent organ = 2) dendritic organ (a small arborescent organ found between the anus and the anal fin in certain Plotosidae (e.g. Plotosus, Cnidoglanis and Euristhmus). Organ with two main cell types, those with parallel groups of cytoplasmic tubules and many mitochondria, and clear cells with a network of cytoplasmic tubules. May have an osmoregulatory function).

arboriform = form of a tree, branching.

Arbroath smokie = a whole smoked haddock with its backbone retained, usually gutted and headed (Scotland). Initially cold smoked for several hours, then hot smoked. Also known as Auchmithie cure, close fish, pinwiddie. A Protected Geographical Indication, q.v.

arch dam = a curved masonry or concrete dam with a convex upriver shape. The water pressure is transferred by the arch to abutments.

arch- = prefix meaning ultimate beginning.

arch-centra = vertebral centra formed by the growth of the arcualia around the notochord external to the chordal sheath and which fuse to form annual segments which become biconcave centra. Found in Teleostei.

archaeolimnic = of or pertaining to clades that originated in continental fresh waters, e.g. Cichlidae.

archaeotype = archetype.

archaic = referring to the oldest members of a lineage.

archangel Raphael = usually depicted in Christian art by a pilgrim’s staff, or carrying a fish, in allusion to his aiding Tobias (see Tobit) to capture the fish which performed the miraculous cure of his father’s eyesight.

archetype = 1) the ancestral type (obsolete and not an official term in nomenclature).

archetype = 2) an ideal type deduced on a theoretical basis or assumed to be a true representative of the taxon (obsolete and not an official term in nomenclature).

archetype = 3) a hypothetical ancestor constructed by elimination of specialised characters (obsolete and not an official term in nomenclature).

archetype = 4) the generalised or idealised pattern shared by all members of a taxon (obsolete and not an official term in nomenclature). Also called morphotype.

archi- (prefix) = first, primitive, original, ancestral.

archibenthic = the waters on the slope beyond the outer edge of the continental shelf at depths between 200-400 and 1000-1100 metres or below the 4°C isotherm.

archicercal = proterocercal (the type of tail fin primitively symmetrical, both internally and externally, and hence one which has not undergone reduction or modification of the original form, e.g. in Petromyzontiformes).

archinephros = the primitive kidney extending the whole length of the body cavity. Found only in embryonic Myxini.

archipelago = a group of islands or an expanse of water with scattered islands.

archipterygium = the primitive lobe-like paired fin. Generally applied to the biserial fin or lobe-fin, e.g. in Crossopterygii, or to the lobe fin of some Elasmobranchii, e.g. Pleurocanthus.

architype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a specimen that formed the basis for a publication of a species before a modern type interpretation. Such a specimen cannot be included with the types unless it is included in a modern category. Also spelled arquetype.

archival tag = an implanted fish tag that detects and records several environmental variables, e.g. water temperature, over time or internal variables, e.g. body temperature.

archive (noun) = 1) a depositary for works, i.e. books, papers, journals, separates, unpublished manuscripts, microfilms, CDs, DVDs, or any other form of data or written work. May also include some specimens, perhaps after manipulation or analysis such as bones, tissues, genetic material, etc.

archive (verb) = 2) depositing material in an archive.

arciform = bow-shaped.

arcocentrum = the cartilaginous arch and its base in the vertebrae of Elasmobranchii. Also used in Pycnodont Actinopterygii (Poyato-Ariza and Wenz, 2002).

Arctic cities = dense gatherings of trawlers fishing demersally in Arctic waters.

arcual = of or relating to an arch, e.g. haemal and neural arches in the vertebral column.

arcualia = plural of arcualium.

arcualium (plural arcualia) = an embryonic cartilaginous element from which the vertebrae form. There are primitively two pairs of endoskeletal elements in each metamere and on each side of the notochord, the interdorsals and basidorsals. In the gnathostomes (jawed fishes) there are two additional pairs ventrally to the notochord, the interventrals and basiventrals. All these elements are called arcualia and can fuse to a notochordal calcification, the centrum. Arcualia and centrum make a vertebra.

arcuate = in a smooth arc, not straight or interrupted.

arcus hæmales = plural of arcus hæmalis.

arcus hæmalis (plural arcus hæmales) = haemal arch (the arch which encloses the caudal vein and dorsal aorta and is found on the ventral surface of the more posterior (caudal) vertebrae. In Acipenseridae it is continuous but interrupted in Actinopterygii).

arcus hyoidei = plural of arcus hyoideus.

arcus hyoideus (plural arcus hyoidei) = hyoid arch (the arch lying between the gill arches and jaws, with which it is believed homologous and which helps support the floor of the mouth cavity. Composed in teleostomes of the following paired endoskeleton elements: hyomandibula, symplectic, interhyal, ceratohyal and one or two hypohyals which articulate with the basihyal. The prefixes epi-, cerato- and hypo- should not be interpreted as indicating correspondence with branchial elements bearing the same prefix. Posterohyal (epihyal), anterohyal (ceratohyal), dorosohyal (dorsal hypohyal) and ventrohyal (ventral hypohyal) have been coined to avoid this confusion. Some authors eschew the term epihyal and employ for the epihyal and ceratohyal, posterior and anterior or proximal and distal ceratohyal).

arcus inferiores = plural of arcus inferioris.

arcus inferioris (plural arcus inferiores) = haemal arch (the arch which encloses the caudal vein and dorsal aorta and is found on the ventral surface of the more posterior (caudal) vertebrae. In Acipenseridae it is continuous but interrupted in Actinopterygii).

arcus mandibulares = plural of arcus mandibularis.

arcus mandibularis (plural arcus mandibulares) = mandibular arch (the cartilages and bones of the visceral skeleton forming the jaws. The upper jaw elements are the palatoquadrate or pterygoquadrate cartilages, the lower jaw ones Meckel's cartilages and the angular. This is the basic jaw, the primary mandibles, which have several ossification centres in bony fishes. Teeth and dermal bones are later evolutionary additions and are called the secondary mandibles).

arcus neurales = plural of arcus neuralis.

arcus neuralis (plural arcus neurales) = neural arch (the arch enclosing the spinal cord on the dorsal surface of the vertebrae. Generally continuous in Chondrostei but separate arches in Teleostei give more flexibility. Acipenseridae have two canals, the upper for the longitudinal ligament and the one under it for the spinal cord).

arcus superiores = plural of arcus superior.

arcus superior (plural arcus superiores) = neural arch (the arch enclosing the spinal cord on the dorsal surface of the vertebrae. Generally continuous in Chondrostei but separate arches in Teleostei give more flexibility. Acipenseridae have two canals, the upper for the longitudinal ligament and the one under it for the spinal cord).

area closure = the closure to fishing by particular gear(s) of an entire fishing ground, or a part thereof, for the protection of the population(s) or a section of a population, e.g. spawners, juveniles. The closure is usually seasonal but it could be permanent.

area endorsement = a statement on a fishing license limiting vessel deployment to a particular area.

area swept = the area of the sea floor over which the fishing gear such as a trawl is dragged during its operation. The area is equal to the effective horizontal opening of the gear multiplied by the distance the gear has covered during the period of time considered, e.g. during a one hour trawl haul. Combined with information on the fish quantities caught during the considered time period, the area swept allows an estimation of a relative or absolute value of the fish density (and biomass) in the area.

area temporalis = an area of high resolution in the retina of the eye, e.g. in Clupeidae.

areal = involving a particular area, an area of particular extent.

arenicolous = living in association with sand; more of a terrestrial than an aquatic definition. Also called sabulicolous.

areola (pl. areolae) = 1) one of a series of normal epidermal cells arranged in circles overlying the mormyromasts, q.v.

areola (pl. areolae) = 2) a small space or interstice in a tissue or part.

areolae = plural of areola.

argentea (of choroid) = a silvery guanine layer between the sclera and choroid concealing the melanin in the choroid layer in larvae.

argentium = a silvery dermal layer containing crystals of guanine.

argulosis = infestation of fish with the parasitic copepod Argulus. It injects a cytolytic toxin and feeds on blood. The injection site may become infected by other parasites and bacteria. Strong infestations cause erratic swimming, flashing, q.v., and loss of growth.

ariadnophil = a reproductive guild (q.v.) where the male guards eggs deposited in a nest made from vegetation bound together by viscous threads from a kidney secretions. Eggs and embryos are ventilated by male fanning and have a well-developed capillary network for respiration, e.g. Gasterosteus aculeatus.

arithm- (prefix) = number.

arithmotype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for an isotype, q.v., which belongs to a different taxon from the holotype.

arithmotype = 2) not in nomenclature and taxonomy, specimens bearing the same collection number, not necessarily representing a single taxon.

-arium (suffix) = meaning a display usually involving water such as an oceanarium, q.v.

ark = an enclosure for keeping or catching fish (Scottish dialect).

arken = a cork of a ring net, q.v. (west Scotland).

arles = a sum of money given to seal a bargain - a shilling (5p) was given to salmon fishermen in Scotland.

Arlesey bomb = a teardrop-shaped lead weight with a small swivel used by anglers; available in various sizes.

arm = 1) a long and narrow body of water branching from a lake or an inlet of the sea or formed from flooding of an inlet streambed.

arm = 2) the combined wing and shoulder of a beach seine (west Scotland; Newfoundland).

arm = 3) butterfly (an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called banana, boomerang, dan leno arm, dan leno bracket, dan leno spreader, devil's elbow, spreader bar).

arm = 4) fish do not have arms but placoderms have rigid "arms" in place of the usual pectoral fins. Each arm has a joint where it leaves the body and another a little more than half-way along. The arms are served by interior muscles and the fish may have "walked" on them.

armor = see armour.

armoring = see armouring.

armour = any outer covering of a fish that protects it, often modified or heavily developed scales and scutes.

armoured = 1) having armour.

armoured = 2) said of a hardened stream bed where there are no small sediment particles as the supply of smaller particles is less than the stream's ability to move them.

armouring = 1) the outer wall of large mesh netting forming part of a trammel net, q.v. Also called outer net, outer wall, outwall, outwalling, trancher, wall, walling, windows.

armouring = 2) use of materials to prevent stream bank erosion.

army = a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for herrings.

arquetype = archetype.

arrow cast = a short angling cast made in bushy areas. The lure is held in the reel hand (carefully!), the rod butt aimed at the target, the lure quickly released followed immediately by the line.

arroyo = 1) a gully; a small, steep-sided and flat-bottomed channel in an arid area, usually dry but sometimes with permanent water.

arroyo = 2) the waterway of an ephemeral stream deeply carved in rock or ancient alluvium.

art = fish appear in various art forms, whether as the main subject or incidentally, and are mentioned and illustrated throughout this work, e.g. see Jonah and the fish, shark attack, Tobit's fish, etc.

Art = a monotypic species which is not one of a series of species which replace one another geographically (German). Compare Artenkreis and Rassenkreis.

Art. = an Article of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

Artemia = brine shrimp nauplii are used as food for fry in aquaria and, to a limited extent, adult brine shrimp may be fed to larger fish. The nauplii are hatched from purchased cysts in warm, aerated, saline water and must be rinsed to remove salt before feeding to fry.

Artenkreis = a series of species which replace one another geographically (German); a superspecies or species complex, as opposed to Rassenkreis or Art (obsolete).

arteria branchialis = afferent branchial artery.

arteria branchialis efferens = efferent branchial artery (one of those arteries paralleling the afferent branchial arches (q.v.) and joining to form a left and right root or radices of the dorsal aorta).

arterial gas embolism = a condition characterized by air bubbles released from ruptured lung air pockets (alveoli) into the pulmonary circulation. The bubbles then travel to the arterial circulation, where they may block blood flow in the small arteries or capillaries of the brain or heart. The results may be fatal in humans.

artesian well = a deep-drilled well where the water is forced to the surface by hydrostatic pressure. Some fishes have been found in such wells.

arthropterygium = type of pectoral fin covered with external plates and provided with an endoskeleton. Found in Bothriolepis (Pterichthys).

Article = a section of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature comprising a mandatory rule or rules.

articular = the deep, endochondral bone of primitive acanthopterygians in the middle of the lower jaw between the dentary and the angular (or retroarticular) which articulates with the quadrate. It is later invaded by the angular. Divided into the distal part (wanting in Teleostomi) and the proximal part. Occupies the position of Bridge's ossicles b and c in Amia. Found as a distinct structure in Amia, Lepisosteus, Polyodon and Acipenseridae.

articular process = a projection of the upper border of the premaxilla acting as a fulcrum for the protrusion of the maxilla.

articular sesamoid = coronomeckelian (a small bone on the postero-lateral part of Meckel's cartilage of the lower jaw. Often a point of insertion of the adductor mandibulae muscle. Also called sesamoid angular, supraangular, sesamoid articular, splenial, os meckeli or d bone).

articulate = to make a joint with, e.g. the mandible articulates with the quadrate; jointed, e.g. soft fin rays. A diarthrosis articulation allows free movement, amphiarthrosis limited movement as between vertebrae and synarthrosis very little movement as between the two mandibles at the jaw tip. May be used instead of segmented for soft fin rays.

articulated = 1) jointed (like bamboo), e.g. soft fin rays.

articulated = 2) said of a fossil where all the bones are connected together as in life rather than scattered.

articulation = the joint, point or plane of union between two bones; see articulate above.

articulatio (plural articulationes) = articulation.

articulationes = plural of articulatio.

articulum = Article.

artificial bait = any bait or lure made of plastic, wood, metal, feathers, etc.

artificial channel = a short channel designed for spawning or rearing fish that live nearby.

artificial classification = a classification based on characters selected for their utility and not indicative of phylogenetic relationships.

artificial fertilisation = the mixing of eggs and milt stripped from fish by fish-breeders in an aquaculture operation.

artificial fish = simulated fish for use in computer graphics such as screen savers, behaviour-based 3D animation, virtual aquaria, virtual reality, etc.

artificial food = feed for fish that is introduced to the water from outside.

artificial fly = an artificial rendering of an insect used as a bait in fly fishing. Fly tying is the method of construction of these flies. Flies may be fished dry (on the surface) or wet (submerged).

artificial hatching = hatching of fish under artificial or controlled conditions.

artificial hole = a cavity in a hollow log, a pipe or made of tile used for fish spawning.

artificial hybrid = a hybrid between species of fish that do not normally hybridise in nature.

artificial key = an identification key based on characters selected for their utility and not indicative of phylogenetic relationships.

artificial lake = a man-made lake.

artificial lure = any manufactured device used to attract and hook fishes. Used in angling and includes spoons, spinners and plugs as well as products designed to imitate worms, eggs, fish, crayfish, etc.

artificial manure = a chemical compound used as a fertiliser, e.g. in fish ponds, as opposed to animal manure.

artificial nose = a device that analyses vapours close to a product as a measure of quality, rather as a nose can detect different odours. The device has to be trained, e.g. for detection of freshness in a particular species of fish. Not yet in use commercially. Also called electronic nose.

artificial production = the spawning, incubating, hatching and/or rearing of fish in a hatchery.

artificial propagation = artificial production. May also include stock transfers, creation of spawning habitat, egg bank programs, captive broodstock programs, and cryopreservation of gametes.

artificial reef = materials placed on the sea floor that serve as habitat for marine organisms including fishes. Can be anything from old tires to a sunken ship.

artificial reproduction = artificial propagation.

artificial sea water = a solution of salts made up to resemble sea water for use in an aquarium.

artificial selection = selection of parental fish in a breeding programme designed to produce specific characters or traits in the young.

artificial smoking = adding colour and flavour to a fish product resembling that of naturally smoked fish.

artificial spawning ground = any structure deliberately put into a water body to encourage or facilitate fish reproduction.

artificial taxon = a group of organisms not corresponding to a natural unit of evolution.

artificials = artificial baits and lures.

artiopterygia = plural of artiopterygium.

artiopterygium (plural artiopterygia) = paired fin (the pectoral and the pelvic fins (as opposed to the vertical fins)).

artisanal fishery = a traditional fishery involving skilled but non-industrialized operators; typically a small-scale, decentralized operation; normally a subsistence fishery although sometimes the catch may be sold. Usually fishing trips are short and inshore and fishing vessels are small but in developed countries may apply to trawlers, seiners or longliners. Also called small-scale fisheries.

artotype = a joke definition of a type specimen with a unique colour pattern which is actually spots of paint.

-arum = the genitive plural suffix used for species-group names derived from the names of two or more female persons.

as such = strictly as cited.

ascending = directed upward, e.g. as in anatomical structures.

ascending process = a vertical process on the anterior part of the premaxillary bone in most teleosts. Not homologous with a similar structure in Holostei (Amia and Lepisosteus), called the nasal process.

ascites = dropsy (a swelling of the fish's body usually caused by bacterial infection, and also by viral infection, osmoregulatory problems, a flagellate protozoan (Hexamita), aggravated by poor environmental conditions. Serous fluid accumulates in any body cavity. Other symptoms are lethargy, gasping, increased respiration, colour loss, skin ulceration and exophthalmia. Also called pinecone disease and vertical scale disease because the scales stick out).

ascorbic acid = vitamin C. A deficiency in fish manifests in spinal and hyaline cartilage abnormalities and reduced wound healing, through affects on normal collagen production.

ascr. = abbreviation for ascriptum.

ascriptum = ascribed to or attributed to, e.g. said of the author of a scientific name. Abbreviated ascr.

Asian carp = newspaper term principally for for silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), an invasive species expected to reach the Great Lakes in 2010 and devastate fisheries there through competition. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) and bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) may also be included under this term in North America. See also Chinese major carps.

aspect ratio = a dimensionless ratio expressing how elongated the shape of a flat organ is. In the case of the caudal fin, a high aspect ratio is found in fast swimmers. Calculated as the ratio of height squared to the surface of the fin.

asperite = a rough, bony excrescence.

asperity = roughness or pricklyness.

aspic = fish in jelly (fish cooked in acidified brine or vinegar, fried or smoked and then packed in gelatin, gelatin and pectin or aspic. Sometimes includes cucumbers, onions and spices).

aspidin = the acellular bone substance found in the dermal skeletons of Heterostraci. There is an outer dentine layer, a large, cancellous middle layer and a thin, dense, lamellar inner layer. The middle and outer layers may be absent in fossils or replaced with other material. Also spelt aspidine.

aspidine = aspidin.

ASPM = age-structured production model (a stock assessment programme based on a deterministic form of a stock-recruitment relationship, with non-equilibrium tuning of abundance indices).

aspondylous vertebra = a vertebra lacking a centrum although neural and haemal arches are well-developed, e.g. in Cyclostomata, Holocephali, Dipnoi, Acipenseridae.

aspondyly = the condition of an aspondylous vertebra.

assemblage = a collection of co-existing organisms at a particular locality and at a specific time, not strictly inter-dependent but with unspecified relationships, e.g. trophic ones, between them.

assembling a net = the joining together of different parts of a net, attaching foot and head ropes and associated gear, so that it is ready for use.

assembly area = the place where a pre-spawning concentration of fish occurs, e.g. at stream mouths.

assessment = the state of a resource, such as a fish stock, as judged by a scientist or scientific body usually for management purposes. The stock may be judged as to size, potential yield, whether it is over- or underexploited, age structure, index abundance, etc.

assessment level = categories of the level of complexity of, and data available for, each assessment (see above).

assimilation efficiency = the rate at which an organism converts food into weight.

assize fish = a royalty assessed on each boat for its anchorage right.

assize herrings = one thousand herrings due thee times a year to the Scottish king from each boat engaged in the herring fishery (historical).

associate type = any of two or more type specimens listed in the original description of a taxon in the absence of a designated holotype, i.e. a syntype or cotype.

associated organism = any organism with which the nomenclatural type was associated when described, e.g. a parasite host, a commensal.

associated species = species that prey upon a target species, are preyed on by it, compete with it for food, living space, etc, or co-occur in the same fishing area and are exploited (or accidentally taken) in the same fishery or fisheries. These interactions can occur at any stage of the life cycle of one or other species and the range of species concerned can therefore be very large.

associierte type = associate type.

astatic = water bodies with fluctuating surface levels; seasonal astatic water bodies dry up annually, perennial ones rise and fall but do not dry up annually.

astaxanthin = a carotenoid pigment found in crustaceans that gives the flesh of fish eating them a pink colour. Also found in microalgae which can be used as a source of pigment for fish feed, e.g. in salmonids where pink flesh is a desired marketing quality. See also canthaxanthin.

asterisci = plural of asteriscus.

asteriscus (plural asterisci) = the otolith in the lagena of the pars inferior. Also called asterisk or lagenolith. The largest otolith in Cyprinidae but small in other fishes. Last to appear during embryonic development.

asterisk = asteriscus.

asterospondylous = a type of vertebra with radiating, star-like calcifications extending to the chordacentrum and autocentrum, e.g. in some Elasmobranchii.

asterospondyly = the condition of an asterospondylous vertebra.

astronomical tide = tide (the periodic rise and fall of ocean water produced by gravitational effects of the moon and sun on the earth. The horizontal movement of water caused by this vertical movement is often called the tide, but correctly is the tidal current).

asymmetrical = lacking symmetry, e.g. Bothidae and Pleuronectidae lack bilateral symmetry, one eye rotating to the other side of the head.

asymptotic length = a parameter of the von Bertalanffy Growth Function, q.v., expressing the mean length the fish in a stock would attain if they were to grow for an infinitely long period. Not the largest observed size of a species.

asymptotic weight = a parameter of the von Bertalanffy Growth Function, q.v., expressing the mean weight the fish in a stock would attain if they were to grow for an infinitely long period.

at-risk fish stocks = stocks that have been identified as being in need of rescue or in need of specific management practices because of low or declining populations.

atarama = tarama (fish roe, often Cyprinus carpio, mixed with salt, bread crumbs, white cheese, olive oil and lemon juice in Greece and Turkey to make taramasalata).

Atargatis = Derceto (the Syrian fertility goddess who fell into a lake at Bambyce near the Euphrates River in Syria. She was saved by a large fish and as a result ancient Syrians did not eat fish but worshiped their images as gods. Atargatis is the Greek name, whose temples contained fish ponds, the goddess punishing anyone who ate them by making them ill although her priests ate fish freely in a daily ritual).

Atargis = Dagon (the fish god of the Philistines, the upper half being a man and the lower half a fish. The fish half represented fertility).

athalassohaline lake = a saline lake not of marine origin but from evaporation of fresh water in a system dominated by calcium, magnesium and sulphate (as opposed to sodium and chloride in the ocean). Some of these ion concentrations are more toxic to fish than others.

Atkinson incubator = a series of trays (usually up to ten) with wire-mesh bottoms enclosed in a box or frame with one tray as a lid. Fish eggs are placed on the trays with an egg scooper, each tray taking about 2500 eggs. Four frames are placed in a hatching tank through which water is run at a selected temperature, allowing the eggs to hatch away from predators for stocking the fry.

Atlantic trawl = a four-seam otter trawl designed in Canada.

atlas = the first vertebra which articulates with the skull, often with a strong neural spine reinforcing the connection of the vertebral column and skull.

atoll = a horseshoe or circular array of reef islets, capping a coral reef system that encloses a lagoon, and perched around an oceanic volcanic seamount.

atom trawl = a wingless, midwater trawl with a square mouth towed between two boats. Also called Larsen midwater trawl, Larsen trawl, floating trawl, Larsen two boat trawl, two boat pelagic trawl.

atopotype = a type specimen described from a locality where is it is known not to occur.

atresia = 1) the degeneration and loss of an anatomical structure; usually said of ovarian follicles or eggs that may be absorbed in fishes.

atresia = 2) congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening or tubular structure.

atretic = adjective for atresia.

atrial frill = paired ventral structures on the posterior trunk on each side of the tail in Bothriolepis canadensis (Placodermi). Suggested to be ventral fins, claspers or an external shell gland.

atrial pore = the opening near the anus which leads from the atrium to the exterior in Amphioxi. Also called atriopore.

atrio-ventricular valve = the heart valve between the atrium and ventricle.

atriopore = the opening near the anus which leads from the atrium to the exterior in Amphioxi. Also called atrial pore.

atrium = a chamber, often specifically applied to a cavity in the heart or the chamber exterior to the branchial bars communicating with the outside through the atrial pore in Amphioxi. In most fishes it collects venous blood from the sinus venosus and delivers it to the ventricle, generating the first of each doubled heart beat.

attachments = additions to a trawl, may be legal, e.g. chafers to prevent wear, or illegal, e.g. cod-end weights which tend to reduce mesh size and retain undersize fish.

attendant male = a male which is not the member of the spawning pair; often a sneaky male.

attenuate = drawn out, slender, tapering.

attractant = a flavouring added to bait or ground bait (q.v.) in angling. Flavours can be sweet or spicy.

attracting device = fish aggregating device (artificial or natural floating objects placed on the ocean surface, often anchored to the bottom, to attract several schooling fish species underneath, thus increasing their catchability. Used with tuna, for example. Abbreviated as FAD for fish aggregating device).

attraction = drawing fish to fishways or spillways of dams through the use of water flow regimes.

attractor = 1) fish attractor (any structure placed in the water to create habitat for fishes).

attractor = 2) a type of fly that is very effective but has little resemblance to a natural food item, usually very flashy and large.

attribute = a characteristic or quality, used in fish and other species descriptions, especially when this extends the diagnostic limits of the original description.

atypicotype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type that the author considers uncharacteristic of the taxon.

atypicotype = 2) a type specimen eventually recognised as a variant of a well-known species, e.g. a colour variant.

au naturel = a canned product prepared by cooking fish in its own juice (United Kingdom) or light brine, sometimes with vinegar and flavouring agents added (France).

Auchmithie cure = a whole smoked haddock with its backbone retained, usually gutted and headed (Scotland). Initially cold smoked for several hours, then hot smoked. Also known as Arbroath smokie, close fish, pinwiddie.

auct. = abbreviation for auctorum, meaning of authors. Used to indicate that a name is used in the sense of a number of subsequent authors and not in its different sense as established by the original author.

auct. mult. = abbreviation for auctorum multum.

auct. non. = abbreviation for auctorum non.

auctorum = of authors. Used to indicate that a name is used in the sense of a number of subsequent authors and not in its different sense as established by the original author. Abbreviated as auct. or auctt.

auctorum multum = of many authors.

auctorum non = not of authors, used when citing a misapplied name by later workers. Abbreviated auct. non.

auctt. (plural) = auct.

auditory capsule = cartilaginous skeleton about the inner ear in Elasmobranchii, a chondral skeleton in bony fishes comprised of the prootic, opisthotic (or its replacement), intercalar, epiotic (or exoccipital), sphenotic, pterosphenoid and basipshenoid as walls and floor with the parietals and frontals as the roof.

auditory ossicle = one of a series of bones conducting sound, in fishes the four Weberian ossicles, q.v.

auditory vesicle = sensory anlage from which the ear develops.

aufwuchs = organisms and detritus coating rocks and plants in an aquatic environment often fed on by fish specialised as scrapers.

auger = a device used to drill holes in ice for ice fishing with nets or hook and line. May be powered or operated by hand.

aural = pertaining to ears or hearing.

auricle = atrium.

auriculo-ventricular valves = valves at the junction between the atrium and ventricle chambers of the heart, q.v. Presumably atrio-ventricular is correct.

austral = of the south temperate region, between the Antarctic and tropical regions. Opposite of boreal.

autapomorphy = a derived characters state unique to a particular taxon (and therefore useful for distinguishing but not relating that taxon).

autecology = the ecology of individual organisms or species.

authogenic drainage = karst drainage derived entirely from absorption of precipitation into karst rock surface. Also called autogenic or autochthonous drainage. See also allogenic drainage.

author = the person to whom a published work or zoological name is attributed or who first publishes a name satisfying the criteria of availability or valid publication.

author citation = the name of the authority (q.v.) for a taxon name, when cited, should follow the taxon name without any intervening marks or punctuation. Its citation is optional and may or may not be followed immediately by the year.

author's extra = a paper removed from a journal or book and so often with adjacent parts of other works attached.

authorised species = any species or species group that a vessel is authorized to retain as specified by the fishery management authority.

authority = the name of the person(s) who originally describes a species, e.g. McAllister is the authority for Lycodes sagittarius. The author's name is placed in parentheses if the species is now placed in a genus other than that in which it was originally described, e.g. Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchell, 1815).

authorship = the author of a taxonomic name is the person who alone is responsible for both the name and for the conditions which make it available (q.v.), i.e. the diagnosis, etc.

auto- (prefix) = self, automatic, same one, by itself.

autocentrum = an outer ring of cartilage in the vertebrae of Elasmobranchii interrupted by the neural and haemal arches.

autochthonous = originating there (zoogeographical or referring to nutrients or organisms fixed or generated within an aquatic system).

autochthonous drainage = karst drainage derived entirely from absorption of precipitation into karst rock surface. Also called autogenic drainage. See also allogenic drainage.

autogenic drainage = karst drainage derived entirely from absorption of precipitation into karst rock surface. Also called autochthonous drainage. See also allogenic drainage.

autodiastoly = jaws suspension where the palatoquadrate is suspended from two articulations with the braincase, perhaps the original form of jaw suspension.

autogenotype = a genotype, q.v., by original designation.

autogenous = separate or discrete, ossifying from an independent centre and, by extension, used in the sense of bones that are not fused to the nearest neighbour.

autograph = a text in the handwriting of the author, either the original or a photocopy.

autolysis = the breakdown of proteins, fats and other body components of fish after death caused by the action of enzymes. The rate depends on temperature.

automatic bail arm = a bail arm on a fixed spool reel that when folded back allows the angler to cast one-handed.

automatic feeder = a mechanism that dispenses food at preset times and in preset amounts in an aquaculture facility. Powered by electricity, water, air or clockwork.

automatic fishing line = whippy bough trap (a fishing rod is bent and the fixed line attached underwater with the baited hook free. When a fish takes the bait, the attachment is released and the tension in the bent rod hooks the fish and holds it out of the water away from predators to be collected later).

automatic longline = a longline mechanism that is fully automated including baiting the hooks, shooting the line and hauling the line.

automatic reel = a fishing reel that winds in line automatically when the fish is hooked or a button is pressed.

automatic tide gauge = a mechanism to measure and record serially the fall and rise of tides, either as a continuous graph or by printing the levels.

automimicry = imitation of oneself or ones own species, e.g. egg dummies in Cichlidae.

automictic parthenogenesis = pairing of one set of chromosomes in egg formation with a copy of itself, a type of virgin birth where no sperm is involved, e.g. in bonnethead shark, Sphyrno tiburo.

automobile names = Plymouth Barracuda, Corvette Stingray and Hyundai Tiburon (Spanish for shark).

autonym = an automatically established name, applied to a nominate subordinate taxon.

autopalatine = a paired deep bone on the roof of the mouth, lateral to the prevomer (or vomer). Often called palatines. Usually overlain by the dermal, often tooth-bearing bone, the dermopalatine.

autopotamic = 1) pertaining to organisms adapted to and living out their lives in streams.

autopotamic = 2) originating in fresh water.

autopterotic = pterotic (the paired deep bone and the superficial dermal bone covering it forming the lateral roof of the skull between the parietal and the hyomandibula and in contact with the lateral semicircular canal).

autosphenotic = the deep bone comprising the postorbital process. Often called the sphenotic, it is overlain by the dermosphenotic or postorbital.

autostylic jaw suspension = a type of suspension where the upper jaw is connected directly to the chondrocranium (instead of fastened to the hyomandibula, the hyostylic suspension) by a process from, or fusion with, the palatoquadrate, e.g. in Dipnoi.

autotomy = the loss of the tail in fishes, particularly evident in Regalecus species (Regalecidae) where it is thought to be a means of removing an unessential of the body to save on energy and food resource requirements.

autotrophic lake = a lake where most or all of the organic matter present is derived from within the lake, not from the surrounding land.

autotype = 1) the type, by original designation, of a taxon.

autotype = 2) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a specimen designated by the author of a species subsequent to the original publication as being identical to the holotype.

autotype = 3) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a specimen illustrated by the author of a species after the original publication.

autotype = 4) a joke definition in nomenclature of a type specimen originating from a vehicle after having travelled some distance. Presumably quite smelly in the case of a fish.

autumn fry = a fry caught at the end of the growing season, usually characterised by a relatively high vitality.

autumn overturn = autumn turnover.

autumn sickness = a disease of fishes causing deaths and occurring in autumn. Of no known cause or signs of disease.

autumn turnover = the mixing of the entire lake water mass in the autumn (or fall; presumably this is an English phenomenon - see also fall overturn or turnover).

auxiliary brooder = a reproductive guild (q.v.) where adhesive eggs are carried in clusters or balls on the spongy skin of the belly, the back, under the pectoral or pelvic fins, or on a hook in the supraoccipital region, or encircled within cols of the female's body. Embryonic respiratory circulation and pigments are well developed, e.g. Xenopoecilus oophorus, Kurtus gulliveri, Loricaria piracicalae.

auxillary scale = one of the small scales in between or superimposed on the larger scales, e.g. in such Pomacanthidae as Pomacanthoides.

auxiliary type = a specimen or element to serve as type of a subordinate taxon when the type of a major taxon is inadequate to assign subordinate rank names to the type. Also called sustaining specimen.

availability = 1) the part of a fish population which lives in areas where it is susceptible to fishing during a given fishing season. This part receives recruits from or becomes mingled with the non-available part of the stock at other seasons, or in other years. Fish become available through migration, movement in the water column, or growth. Abbreviated as r or r.

availability = 2) whether a certain kind of fish of a certain size can be caught by a type of gear in an area.

availability = 3) catch per unit of effort, q.v.

availability = 4) see available name, available nomenclatural act and available work.

available name = a scientific name of an animal satisfies the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, including publications of the name after 1757 in a Latinised form or arbitrary combination of letters constructed so it can be treated as one, in a work consistently applying binomial nomenclature, not first published in a synonymy, etc. Not necessarily the valid name.

available nomenclatural act = one that is published in an available work, q.v.

available work = a work published after the starting point that conforms to the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and has not been annulled by its Commission. An available name is not necessarily a valid name (q.v.), as an available name may be in synonymy (q.v.). Conversely a valid name must always be an available one. Available names include nomen inviolatum, nomen conservandum, nomen perfectum, nomen vanum, nomen correctum, nomen substitutum, nomen imperfectum.

average annual instantaneous size-specific growth rate = a method for comparing growth rates of fish of equivalent size instead of equivalent age. The average annual instantaneous-growth rate (the average of individual log fork length at age n + 1 minus log fork length at age n) is plotted against the length or weight at the beginning of the year.

avidity = the frequency of fishing activity, e.g. the number of days on which fishing trips were made.

avidity bias = bias arising in angler surveys through time spent fishing or frequency of fishing.

avnet = a small net used to catch fish falling out of the main net, e.g. in the herring fishery (Scottish dialect).

avoidance = 1) the probability that a fish or fish school will escape capture by swimming out of the path of a ship or trawl, away from or alongside a gill net, or avoid retention by a hook or trap. May be expressed as a function of size or age (avoidance curve).

avoidance = 2) various cultures do not eat fish, e.g. ancient Syrians believed fish to be holy and did not eat them (see Atargatis); the Bechuana and certain Bantu tribes in Africa. Often associated with social status among pastoralists, only lower class groups consuming fish, or with religion such as the Hindu belief in non-violence to sentient beings and the resulting vegetarianism. Also, certain bodies of water are sacred and fish from there are not eaten.

avoidance curve = the relationship between a fish size or age and its probability of being retained by fishing gear after coming in contact with it.

avoidance response = the actions of a fish to avoid concentrations of chemicals or other factors. Active or passive movement occurs.

avoidance threshold = the lowest concentration of a substance that causes a fish to move actively away from it.

Avon float = an angling float with a balsa body, a slim top and a cane or wire stem used for trotting in fast water.

Avon rod = a through-action, 11-12 foot English fishing rod with a 1-1.5 lb test curve. Used for ledgering or float fishing for large cyprinids.

avowed substitute = a name explicitly proposed as a substitute for an existing name.

avulsed = a stream channel without flow since water has taken a new path.

axanthic = lacking yellow pigmentation.

axial = towards an axis running antero-posteriorly through the middle of the fish; central. Opposite of radial, q.v.

axial bone = the ventral element in the priapium of the Phallostethidae on which articulate the ctenactinia (q.v.). Also called aproctal or pelvic bone.

axial hypoblast = a hypoblast consisting of mesodermal and probably endodermal precursor cells developing on the dorsal midline. It includes prechordal plate and chorda mesoderm.

axial skeleton = bones in the axis of the body, comprising the neurocranium, the branchial skeleton, the vertebral column and the intermuscular bones and ribs.

axial swimming = the usual swimming mode of fishes powered by the myotomal musculature and involving lateral bending of the body and oscillating movement of the tail.

axial vein = the unpaired vein in the caudal trunk leading from the caudal vein to the left and right posterior cardinal veins.

axil = the region immediately behind or under the pectoral fin.

axile = belonging to or situated in an axis.

axilla = the region immediately behind or under the pectoral fin.

axillary = pertaining to an axilla.

axillary foramen = a hole through the cleithrum bone of the pectoral fin.

axillary gland = a multicellular structure below the skin dorsal to the pectoral fin, e.g. in Ictalurus punctatus, suggested to produce toxin. This is unlikely as no duct allows delivery to the spine tip and production of toxin is known from epithelial spine tissue.

axillary process = a small triangular appendage or a modified scale at the upper or anterior base of a paired fin. Also called accessory scale, inguinal process or fleshy appendage. Functions apparently to streamline the fin when held against the body while swimming.

axillary scale = 1) a small scale superimposed or interspersed with large ones.

axillary scale = 2) axillary process.

axis = 1) a line.

axis = 2) the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo.

axle = dan leno spindle (a steel spindle through a dan leno bobbin, q.v. Also called spindle).

axonost = pterygiophore (the cartilage or bone on the outer end of which sit the median fin rays or spines), sometimes the proximal pterygiophore.

azygost = the dermal bone in flatfishes of the family Psettodidae between the prefrontal and the frontal of the lower side.

B

B = biomass, q.v.

B 20% B-virg = level of spawning stock corresponding to a fraction (here 20%) of the unexploited biomass. Virgin biomass is estimated as the point where the replacement line for F=0 intersects the stock-recruitment relationship or as the biomass from a spawning stock per recruit curve when F=0 and average recruitment is assumed.

B 50% R = the level of spawning stock at which average recruitment is one half (50%) of the maximum of the underlying stock-recruitment relationship.

B 90% R, 90% Surv = spawning stock corresponding to the intersection of the 90th percentile of observed survival rate (R/S) and the 90th percentile of the recruitment observations.

B0 = virgin or unfished biomass (pronounced B zero). Rarely known. Using mathematical models, it is generally calculated as the long-term average biomass value expected in the absence of fishing mortality. In production models, B0 is also known as carrying capacity. It is often used as a biological reference point in fisheries management.

B.C. = before Christ, used to designate years before the birth of Christ. Used in scientific dating for relatively recent events, e.g. fish remains in sub-fossil sites. Note there was no year 0.

B.P. = before present, conventionally before 1950 A.D.

B-grade = the third highest grade of freshness for fish in the European community.

bab = 1) bob (obsolete).

bab = 2) to fish for eels (Norfolk dialect).

bab net = bob net.

babber = bob (3).

babbing ground = a place to fish for eels (Norfolk dialect).

babble = a low and continuous murmuring sound as made by running water.

babel fish = 1) a universal translator in the book "A Hitchiker's Guide to the Galaxy" by Douglas Adams, consisting of a small, yellow and leechlike fish inserted into the ear.

babel fish = 2) an internet translation service.

baby = bass (Micropterus spp., Centrarchidae) too short to meet tournament standards; usually less than 14 inches (ca. 36 cm). Also called baby, dink, throw back, nubbin, pop corn, and slick.

baby tickler chain = bosum tickler chain.

bacalao = a term for dried salt cod used in Newfoundland (Spanish).

bacallaos = codland, the Bonavista-Cape Race coast of Newfoundland (from the Portuguese bacalhau, cod).

baccalao = bacalao.

baccale = bacalao.

bacaleau = bacalao.

baccalieu skiff = a small decked vessel or schooner used in the fishery off Baccalieu Island, Newfoundland.

baccalo = bacalao.

back = 1) cast (the terminal strand of a handline to which hooks are attached by short droppers).

back = 2) main line (the principal line in a longline from which branch lines depend with hooks attached).

back = 3) the headline, q.v., of a salmon drift net (northeast England).

back = 4) batings (northern Ireland).

back = 5) the perpendicular section of a cod trap opposite the doors.

back bar = channel plate (a u-shaped, steel bracing bar on the back of an otter board, q.v. Also called back channel.

back board becket = backstrop (a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl).

back board chain = chain bracket (a chain used on an otter board in pace of a bracket. Also called angle iron chain, board chain, chain triangle, towing chain).

back bouncing = in angling, moving a boat slowly in reverse while using fishing lures or bait.

back burden = burden.

back channel = back bar.

back cord = the headline, q.v., of a beam trawl.

back creel = a wicker basket formed to fit the back, chiefly used by fishwives (q.v.).

back end feeder = a container with a few holes around its body that allows ground bait to be released slowly when angling. The bait is usually maggots that work their way out and help keep fish in the area where the angler has deposited his fishing rig.

back jouster = an itinerant fish-dealer who carried the fish in a basket on his back.

back lead = a break away weight attached to the main fishing line near to the bank of a water body meant to keep the line on the bottom. It can be tied separately by a line to a stick on the bank and have a clip attaching it to the main line. When a fish bites, the main line pulls up and out of the clip.

back line = the main line to the end of which is attached a cast (2) or pasternoster rig (both q.v.).

back net = the rear sections of the belly, batings and codend of a trawl.

back of line = end rope (a line connecting the end of the first or last section of a longline backrope or string to the dan line (all q.v.). Also called dumb string, longline, dummy, end tow, lud tow and spreadline).

back of net = square and batings (both q.v.) of a beam trawl as one section.

back plate = the central steel plate on the back of an otter board, q.v.

back reef = the shoreward side of a reef. It comprises the area between the reef crest or algal ridge and the land and it corresponds to the reef flat and lagoon of a barrier reef and platform margin reef systems.

back run = a smaller branch of a river, such as one that runs around an island (Newfoundland).

back shore = the inner part of the shore above the mean spring tide high water line, acted on by the sea only during very high tides and storms.

back shot = a piece of shot (a weight) attached to a fishing line behind the float, sinking the line, to help the float remain steady in heavy wind.

back split = a fish which has been split down the back by a cut made adjacent to the backbone in preparation for further processing as food.

back swamp = a marshy area separated from the main river by banks and at a lower level than the banks.

back trolling = moving a boat in reverse while fishing lures or baits. Allows control over speed and manoeuvering.

back-cast = throwing the fly line behind the angler before the forward cast carries it out over the water.

back-cross = the individual resulting from an interspecific hybrid mating with one of its parental species.

back-end vee = a salmon net with a v-angled section at the seaward end to entrap fish (Newfoundland). See also vee.

back-fin = dorsal fin (the unpaired fin(s) on the midline of the back. Also called the notopterygium. In Pleuronectiformes it is on the opposite side to the anus. In Centriscidae the hind end of the fish has been rotated under the fish so the dorsal fin is on the under surface. Abbreviated as D, D1, D2, or D3 respectively for the only, first, second or third dorsal fins (or their rays and spines). It functions to prevent rolling).

backbar channel = a channel behind a bar connected to the main channel but usually at a higher bed elevation than the main channel. May contain flowing or standing water and thus be a habitat for fishes.

backboard becket = backstrop (a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl. Also called backstrop, board bridle, board leg, board strop, door legs, door strop and sling).

backbone = 1) vertebral column.

backbone = 2) a dorsal spine.

backing = 1) line added to the back of the main line so that the spool of an angling reel is filled up and the main line runs off freely when cast. Also provides extra line should a fish make a strong run but could lose the fish if cheap line is used.

backing = 2) main line (the principal line in a longline from which branch lines depend with hooks attached).

backing down = 1) the process of letting marine mammals such as porpoises and dolphins from a purse seine while retaining the fish.

backing down = 2) reversing a boat while pursuing a fish.

backing line = main line (the principal line in a longline from which branch lines depend with hooks attached).

backlar spine = one of those spines distinctively developed only in the males of Rajidae such as the alar and malar spines (q.v.).

backlash = a tangle of line from a reel's overrun. Also called professional spaghetti or professional overrun.

backpack shocker = an electroshocker on a frame used for sampling fish in streams and shallow waters.

backrope = the headline of a drift or ring net (all q.v.).

backrush = backwash.

backset = an eddy or countercurrent in water.

backshore = a part of the seashore covered by water only during extreme storms.

backstrap = backstrop.

backstroke = a mutant zebrafish (Danio rerio) gene resulting in complete lack of otoliths.

backstrop = a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl. Also called backboard becket, backstrop, board bridle, board leg, board strop, door legs, door strop and sling.

backstrop equaliser = a block and swivel used as a rolling coupling to a single wire in place of two backstrops.

backstrop link = a triangular steel link with rounded corners on the back of a trawl's otter board. The backstrop is attached here. Also called board link, door sling ring, shearboard link and VD link.

backstrop norman = 1) a special u-shaped bolt to which the backstrop is attached. Also called eye.

backstrop norman = 2) any general attachment mechanism of the backstrop to the otter board of a trawl.

backstrop ring = a steel ring on the back of a trawl's otter board for attaching the backstrop.

backstrop roller = backstrop equaliser.

backswamp = a marshy low-lying area on a floodplain.

backward of = behind; in relating position of anatomical features to each other.

backwash = the seaward return of waves after they rush up onto the beach. Some fish species spawn in this wave action, e.g. capelin, Mallotus villosus. Also called backrush or run down.

backwater = 1) water turned back on its course by an obstruction or an opposing flow.

backwater = 2) the body or accumulation of water caused by the above especially when it overflows into lowlands.

backwater = 3) a stillwater section of a stream or river beside the main flow but separated by a ridge of land (or an arm of the sea similarly separated from the open ocean), or habitat at the margin of a riffle or run. Sometimes used for water that has backed up compared to its normal flow or for an area off the main part of a lake; often separated from the source during dry seasons.

backwater = 4) white water (frothy water in rapids, breakers or waterfalls).

backwater pool = 1) a pool formed by an eddy along a channel margin. An obstruction such as a bar or a boulder helps create the eddy. The pool may be separated from the channel by sand or gravel bars.

backwater pool = 2) a cove or flooded depression with access to a main stream.

backwinding = allowing a fish to pull line off a fixed-spool reel by winding the handle backwards.

backyard hatchery = family owned and operated fish hatcheries, small and usually found at the back of a house.

bacterial gill disease = a myxobacterial infection of juvenile salmonids and ictalurid catfishes in aquaculture facilities caused by unfavourable environmental conditions which then allow an invasion by the myxobacteria. Often breaks out in spring when the fish are growing and crowded in waters where oxygen is low and ammonia levels high. The gills appear off-white and slimy, clubbed and fused. Causes loss of appetite.

bacterial haemorrhagic septicaemia = a bacterial infection with Aeromonas liquefaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila or Pseudomonas affecting fishes of all ages, usually in spring. Usually associated with stress and overcrowding. Haemorrhages occur in the skin, fins, mouth cavity and muscles. Exophthalmia and cavity ulcers may occur. Also called infectious dropsy, red pest, freshwater eel disease, redmouth disease, pike pest and motile aeromonad septicaemia.

bacterial kidney disease = a bacterial infection with Renibacterium salmoninus or Corynebacterium sp. affecting salmonids, usually when temperatures are falling. The disease may be chronic or acute and has no treatment. Causes swelling of internal organs (oedematous, grey and corrugated kidneys with off-white lesions) and haemorrhages. Lesions may occur also in the liver and spleen and muscle contractions occur. External symptoms may be absent or include exophthalmy (popeyes), skin darkening, abdominal swelling, and skin ruptures and vesicles. Also called Corynebacterial disease, Dee's disease and kidney disease.

bacteriocide = a chemical that kills bacteria, e.g. in an aquarium or with infected fish.

bacteriophagy = feeding on bacteria or having a large food component being bacteria, e.g. cave fishes, cleaner fishes, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Labeo rohita.

bacteriostat = a chemical that restricts the proliferation of bacteria.

bafflet = a wooden mallet for killing salmon used in Northumberland. Supposedly, it was very unlucky to produce the bafflet before the fish were drawn ashore.

bag = 1) the centre part of a Danish seine between the shoulders and cod end.

bag = 2) the belly and baiting of a trawl.

bag = 3) the fish court of a pound net.

bag = 4) the bunt of a purse seine or beach seine.

bag = 5) the cod end of a trawl.

bag = 6) bag limit.

bag = 7) to place a specimen in a container such as a plastic bag.

bag = 8) to catch a fish.

bag = 9) a net to keep cod temporarily until they can be loaded on a boat or towed ashore (Newfoundland).

bag = 10) a specific quantity of fish taken in a cod net (Newfoundland).

bag becket = the halving becket, q.v., of a trawl.

bag becket leg = hauling leg (a wire rope extension of the halving becket joined to the lazy deckie (both q.v.). Also called codend gag, gagline and lazy deckie leg).

bag limit = restriction in the catch by number or weight that an angler may take, generally on a daily basis. This may or may not be the same as a possession limit.

bag net = 1) a net for holding fish in aquaculture attached to the cage support frame.

bag net = 2) a conical or cubical bag-shaped net lifted from a boat.

bag net = 3) a conical bag-shaped net with short wings, fastened to poles or anchors, in strong current to strain out fish and lifted before the tide slackens.

bag net = 4) a net, of varying shape, deployed from a boat close to the sea bed. Baits are suspended just above the bag and the net is lifted once a sufficiency of fish has been attracted. A funnel type net may be attached to the mouth of the bag to prevent escape of fish.

bag net = 5) any net in which a fish enters a pocket.

bag off = keeping inshore fishery cod in a net shaped like a bag until the fish are brought ashore (Newfoundland).

bag seine = a seine net (q.v.) with a bag or backward extension of netting in the middle of its length. The bag serves to concentrate the fish when hauling in the seine. Some seines have a bag at the side.

bag up = bag off.

bagget = baggit.

bagging = the final process in producing fish meal where the product is put in 100 lb bags after drying and grinding.

baggit = 1) a fish full of spawn (Scottish dialect). Also spelled bagget.

baggit = 2) the bed of roe deposited by salmon in gravel (Scottish dialect).

baggler = the fry of a trout (Scottish dialect).

baggot = baggit.

bagna cauda = a vegetable dip made from anchovies, butter, garlic and oil.

bagoong = fermented salt fish paste made from an anchovy-like fish (Stolephorus indicus) in the Philippines, or from young herring, with dill and packed in cans or bottles.

bagoong tulingan = a salted fish product made from tunas (Euthynnus affinis and Auxis thazard). The head and guts are removed, each flank slashed, and then flattened with the pressure of the hand.

bail = 1) to remove water from a boat.

bail = 2) a metal semicircular arm on an open-faced spinning reel that is folded back to allow line to be cast and engages the line after a cast and rewinds it onto the spool. Also called bail arm.

bail = 3) catching fish by emptying the water from a tidal pool or other small body of water.

bail = 4) to remove fish from a large net with a smaller net, e.g. from a purse seine onto a ship.

bail arm = bail (2).

bail-top jar = a glass jar with a glass top and a rubber or neoprene gasket; a wire mechanism clamps the lid on the jar.

bailer = any container used to bail (1).

bailiff = an agent of the land owner who regulates the fishing rights and fishing regulations in relation to a stretch of water. They can in some cases arrest poachers, seize their tackle equipment and catch. They can also prosecute them and take them to court.

bailing = bail (3 and 4).

baird = a piece of old straw rope teased out and used as a torch to lure salmon to the surface by poachers (Scottish dialect).

bait = 1) natural or artificial foods placed on a hook or in a trap to attract and capture fish. Live bait includes various terrestrial and marine worms, maggots, and fishes.

bait = 2) the act of placing a lure or bait on a line.

bait additive = any compound added to an angling bait in order to increase its attractiveness to fish. The additive may be a dye for adding colour (red, yellow or orange usually) or a flavouring (diverse).

bait apron = an apron with pockets used by anglers to hold tackle and bait while wading.

bait ball = a small school of bait fish that form a ball in the water as an instinctive response to a predator. Also called meat ball.

bait bird = any sea-bird feeding on bait fish in inshore waters (Newfoundland).

bait board = a triangular piece of wood with two raised edges, used to cut up herring and other sea food in Newfoundland.

bait boat = 1) boats that fish for bait to be used in other fisheries, e.g. in Newfoundland a large undecked boat with 5-7 crew, propelled by oar and sail and used to catch capelin (Mallotus villosus) for the cod fishery.

bait boat = 2) in angling, a remotely-controlled toy boat for delivering groundbait or a rig to a selected location.

bait box = 1) a plastic container with a perforated lid used to hold bait, e.g. worms, maggots, casters, etc.

bait box = 2) a plastic or wooden container use to hold the bait used in commercial trawl fishing.

bait box holder = a plastic tray that screws into a bank stick and holds bait boxes convenient to hand.

bait casting = casting using a fishing rod and bait casting reel where the reel is positioned on top of the rod. Also called revolving-spool reel.

bait casting reel = a fishing reel in which the spool is not stationary during a cast but revolves, a level-wind reel, cf. spin casting reel. The reel is operated with the thumb and hand when casting.

bait colouring = various dyes, in both liquid and powder form, used to colour baits such as maggots, pastes and boilies. The commonest colours are red, orange and yellow.

bait depot = a facility where iced or frozen bait is stored for distribution to fishermen (Newfoundland).

bait dropper = a weighted device used to drop ground bait, q.v., at the desired location. It is attached to the anglers line. A latch its triggered when the dropper touches bottom, releasing the ground bait.

bait fish = 1) fish used to bait hooks either commercially or in sport fishing.

bait fish = 2) small fish eaten by predators.

bait fishing = use of hooks carrying relatively heavy natural food, left in the water to attract and capture fish.

bait flavouring = a concentrated liquid used to add taste to angling baits and groundbaits. Available in numerous types and concoctions.

bait hauler = a commercial fisherman who catches capelin, herring and other bait fishes (Newfoundland).

bait horn = a large sea shell used as a horn to announce the arrival inshore of the food and bait fish capelin (Mallotus villosus) (Newfoundland).

bait jack = a wooden tub or quarter barrel to hold bait.

bait net = any net used to catch fish used as bait for larger, commercial or sport fishes.

bait master = a man in charge of boat and nets sent from a banker to catch bait fishes (Newfoundland).

bait punt = bait boat (1).

bait rocket = a device attached to the end of the fishing line, filled with particle bait, and cast out over the area being fished. When it hits the water, it flips upside down and empties the contained bait.

bait seine = a seine used to catch anchovies, sardines and similar fishes to be kept alive in bait tanks to be used later as bait.

bait shed = a structure used for storing fishing bait in Newfoundland.

bait skiff = bait boat (1).

bait squadron = patrol vessels engaged in enforcing the Newfoundland Bait Act of 1888 which prohibits taking of bait fish by foreign fishing vessels or unauthorized provision of bait to such vessels.

bait tree = catalpa (Catalpa speciosa), a North American tree, so-called because it provides a home for numerous caterpillars used as bait for catching fish.

bait tub = bait jack.

bait well = a floating container, weighted to keep it stable, used to store bait fish alive.

bait yaud = a woman who gathers bait for fishermen (English dialect).

baiter = a boat catching capelin and herring (usually) as bait for the cod fishery of Newfoundland.

baitholder hook = a hook of various styles with the addition of two, small, forward-pointing barbs in the top of the shank to prevent worms from slipping down the shank.

baitie = a fisher girl or woman, often family of fishermen, who gathered bait (Northumberland dialect).

baiting = 1) the quantity of capelin and herring (or squid) taken aboard a banker at one time for use as bait in the Newfoundland trawl fishery.

baiting = 2) the fishing voyage to the Newfoundland Banks, its duration fixed by the supply of bait aboard the vessel.

baiting needle = a long needle used to mount dead fish and other large bait items onto the tackle.

baitings = batings.

baitpump = a suction system used to gather benthic species as bait for fish.

baitrunner reel = an open face, rear drag reel with a lever at the back. The spool can be set so line can be pulled out freely by a fish. A drag mechanism is activated by the lever.

bakasang = a fermented fish product of Indonesia.

bakbar = the dorsal fin of a flounder (Scottish dialect).

baked herring = herring cooked by baking in an oven, without vinegar.

baklengi = a strip cut out lengthways from the back of a halibut (Scottish dialect).

bakravi = a fat strip, nearest the fins, cut from the back of a halibut (Scottish dialect).

bal bakwa = a salted whole fish with about 20% salt by weight, allowing controlled bacterial action for 6-8 months. Usually warmed in vinegar before serving and found in the Philippines.

balachong = a fermented and salted fish paste from Malaysia. Also spelled blachong. See also garum and trāsi, among others.

balance line = an angling or commercial fishing arrangement where the line has a metal or wooden spreader which has arms depending from it, each carrying a stretch of line and a hook. Any sudden load is adjusted by the bent spreader. Secondary balances can be added to make a system of hooks.

balanced = in angling, the optimal combination of tackle for catching a fish.

balanced diet = foods furnishing all the necessary nutrients required for proper nourishment of a fish. Compare basic diet.

balbakwa = a salted fish product of the Philippines. Usually a whole large fish with 20% by weight of salt added to allow controlled bacterial action during a 6-8 month ageing process. Warmed in vinegar before serving.

Balbiani's vitelline body = yolk nucleus or the dark circular body that appears in the cytoplasm very near the nucleus during the perinuclear stage of oogenesis.

balch = a stout cord used for the head-line of a fishing-net (British dialect).

balik = 1) Turkish for fish.

balik = 2) balyk.

balk = stakes covered with wattles arranged in a semi-circle on the sands so that fish are directed towards the nets as the tide recedes (British dialect).

balker = huer (formerly a sentry on a high cliff, pointing out pilchard schools (reputedly by waving a small bush) in Cornwall to seine netters. Also called conder, herring caller).

ball = 1) a large, rounded school, e.g. in some catfishes such as juvenile Ameiurus nebulosus, and in herrings, Clupea harengus. See also balls and fish ball.

ball = 2) said of sea-birds that pounce on a ball of fish or shoal of herrings.

ball = 3) fish don't have balls but are sometimes made into them. A ball of shredded white fish or cod and mashed potatoes, flour or other binding material, usually fried. Also called fish dumpling. See also canned fish ball, catfish ball and ball.

ball cutter = local name in Papua New Guinea for an introduced species of pacu (a name for several South American characiform fishes) which reputedly castrates local fishermen. Pacu normally feed on heavy nuts and seeds and have a crushing jaw system and teeth.

ball mould = a hollow form in which balls of lead are cast as weights for fish nets.

ball-handle reel = a fishing reel with a spherical counterweight on its counterbalanced crank, e.g. found on New-York reels, q.v.

ballads = not very common it seems, but the following was composed for the first Ichthyophagous Club (q.v.) dinner by the fish commissioner:-

When the Ichthyophagous dines,
There'll be many a curious dish,
Of things ne'er caught with lines,
And not at all like fish-,
Steaks of porpoise and ribs of whales,
Aspic of jellyfish, octopus stew,
Shark-fin soup and gurry-gur-roo,
When the Ichthyophagous dines.

ballast = 1) a weight used to sink a fishing line.

ballast = 2) one of a series of weights along the footrope of a fishing net.

ballast = 3) stones, pebbles and sand, found in the stomach of such as the cod, and reputedly indicative of weather conditions (the fish swallow stones as ballast against an approaching storm) (Newfoundland).

ballast water = water contained in tanks on ships to improve their stability and buoyancy. This water can contain fishes and may be discharged in an area where the fish then become established as exotics.

ballomania = the compulsive syndrome of zoo and aquaria visitors to throw something, coins, marbles, keys, etc., at a static animal in order to provoke movement.

balloon fishing = in angling, the use of a balloon to suspend a bait at the desired depth.

balloon trawl = a light trawl operating off the sea floor.

balls = fish don't have them but are sometimes made into them. A ball of shredded white fish or cod and mashed potatoes, flour or other binding material, usually fried. Also called fish dumpling. See also catfish ball, fish ball and ball.

balsa float = a float in angling made of balsa and used with large shot (weights) enabling the angler to present bait to fish in fast and deep water.

balsa waggler = a short waggler, q.v., made of balsa tapering to a fine point used with fine tackle and small baits on canals and still waters.

Balta trawl = a deepsea trawl used by large stern trawlers.

balyk = dried (sometimes sundried), brined, cold smoked sturgeon, salmon and herring flesh, reddish in colour (Turkey).

banana = butterfly (an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called arm, boomerang, dan leno arm, dan leno bracket, dan leno spreader, devil's elbow, spreader bar).

banana fish = 1) something that seemed like a good idea at the time, but wasn't (slang).

banana fish = 2) "A Perfect Day for Bananafish" is a short story by J. D. Salinger published in The New Yorker in 1948. The protagonist, Seymour, talks to a young girl on a beach, telling the story of the bananafish. This fish is very ordinary looking but it swims into a hole, eats so much it cannot escape, and subsequently dies of banana fever. The story inspired spinoffs including a Japanese manga comic book series.

band = 1) a strip of pigment that contrasts with immediately adjacent pigment or absence of pigment. A vertical band is a bar, a horizontal band is a stripe.

band = 2) a vertical patch of pigment usually with well-defined margins, more extensive than a bar, running, for example, from the flank onto adjoining fins. Bands are sometimes defined as being oblique or diagonal in contrast to vertical bars.

band = 3) a longitudinal patch of pigment, usually running along the side of the body, broader and less distinct than a stripe, q.v.

band = 4) a region of similar structure or optical density laid down during growth of hard parts used in ageing. Also called mark, ring and zone.

band = 5) a strip of pigment that encircles the body.

band = 6) fish strung on a rope, especially from a salt tub when they are hung up to dry (Scottish dialect).

banding = light stripes on smoked fish where the fish was suspended or laid on a mesh and the smoke did not reach the fish.

bang = to push off in boats at random, without having seen any fish in the salmon fishery.

bangie = a man appointed to watch the Solway and Annan River in Scotland for salmon poachers.

banging = fishing in the manner of a bang.

bank = 1) an area where the depth of water is relatively shallow, but normally sufficient for safe surface navigation, and often excellent for fishing, e.g. the Grand Banks off Newfoundland. Can be 20-200 m in oceanic waters but as shallow as 0-5 m in nearshore or fresh waters.

bank = 2) the side of a river, the right bank being on the right when facing downstream.

bank = 3) the side of a lake or other water body other than a river.

bank = 4) a deepwater area extending offshore from the seaward edge of the fore reef to the beginning of the escarpment where the insular shelf drops off to the deep, oceanic water. In the absence of a reef crest, this form of bank is the flattened platform between the fore reef and the deep ocean waters.

bank = 5) an elevation of sand or mud in a river bed.

bank cod = cod populations on the Newfoundland Grand Banks.

bank fish = benthic fish.

bank fisherman = one who engages in the cod fishery on the offshore fishing grounds of Newfoundland.

bank fishery = the cod fishery of Newfoundland carried out on the Grand Banks.

bank fishing = fishing for cod on the offshore grounds of Newfoundland, usually with trawls or hook and line.

bank hook = 1) type of fish-hook used in hand-line fishery for cod offshore (Newfoundland).

bank hook = 2) a large fish-hook, so called from being baited and laid in brooks or running water and attached by a line to the bank (English dialect).

bank line = type of stout line or rope used in the deep-sea fishery (Newfoundland). See also banking cable.

bank man = 1) bank fisherman.

bank man = 2) a vessel in the offshore cod fishery (Newfoundland).

bank protection = stabilisation of river banks to prevent erosion, prevent deposition of material in the stream and conserve fish habitat.

bank reef = large reef growths. These usually are of irregular shape and develop over submerged highs of tectonic or other origin. They are surrounded by deeper water.

bank ship = bank man (2).

bank storage = water absorbed in the bank of a stream or reservoir and returned to the water body when water levels fall.

bank-book = bank book.

banker = 1) a fishing boat used on the banks off Newfoundland.

banker = 2) a Newfoundland fisherman of the bank fishery.

banker = 3) the owner or operator of an offshore fishing vessel (Newfoundland).

bankfull discharge = the stage at which a river first overflows its natural banks.

banking = fishing for cod on the Newfoundland offshore banks.

banking account = a financial balance sheet of a sea fishing enterprise on the Newfoundland banks.

banking anchor = type of ship's anchor used aboard a deep-sea fishing vessel.

banking cable = heavy 5 cm rope used aboard vessels engaged in the offshore trawl fishery of Newfoundland.

banking dory = a dory (q.v.) used on the Newfoundland banks.

banking fleet = a number of banking vessels.

banking line = banking cable.

banking outfit = fishing gear and supplies of a vessel engaged in the bank cod fishery (Newfoundland).

banking schooner = banking vessel.

banking vessel = a deep-sea fishing boat, decked and rigged fore-and-aft or powered by an engine, prosecuting the cod fishery on the offshore banks of Newfoundland with hand-lines and trawls operated from small open boats or dories.

banking voyage = the enterprise or period of fishing for cod on the offshore banks of Newfoundland.

bankstick = usually a stainless steel or aluminium rod that holds a fishing rod off the ground at the right angle. A threaded end allows attachment of a Y- or U-shaped rod rest, of a bait box holder, of a keepnet, etc. while the other end is pointed for insertion in the ground. Used in Europe where fishing rigs are left for some time in a fixed position waiting for a bite.

bar = 1) a vertical or diagonal patch of pigment usually with well-defined margins (straight sides), often on the flank of a fish; shorter than a band and/or not encircling the body (cf. stripe, an elongate horizontal patch of pigment).

bar = 2) a submerged or exposed ridge in rivers, lakes or the ocean deposited where there is a decrease in flow.

bar = 3) one of the four sides of the mesh of netting.

bar = 4) an area of shoal water at the entrance to an estuary or harbour.

bar = 5) an establishment frequented by ichthyologists (wet bars are favoured of course).

bar = 6) any net or barrier placed in a river to block or bar fish movements and capture the fish.

bar = 7) the fins of a fish forming a fringe (Scottish dialect).

bar = 8) a strip, including the fins, cut from a halibut (Scottish dialect).

bar cut = a cut in netting parallel to the line of sequential mesh bars.

bar net = 1) a gill net with ropes or wooden bars attached vertically used as a gill net or a trammel net.

bar net = 2) the vertical net extending out from a cod trap to obstruct passage of cod and lead them into the trap.

bar net = 3) any net stretched across a river to bar and trap fish.

bar rig = a leader about 1 metre long with a weight at the end and a swivel at the point of attachment to the fishing line. Additional leaders with a hook at the end are attached about 35 cm from the weight and about 35-45 cm up the mainline.

bar seine = net used to close off a small cove so that fish can be taken out with a small seine, e.g. herring in Newfoundland. Also called stop seine.

bar spoon = spinner (a lure consisting of a wire shaft with a hook(s) and a blade that spins when pulled through the water. Variously coloured and decorated with feathers, fur, beads and plastic additions).

bar tackle = rope used to constrict a cod trap when filled with fish (Newfoundland).

barachois = a shallow river estuary, a lagoon or a harbour protected from the sea by a sand bar or low strip of land. May be fresh or salt water (Maritime Canada). Also spelled barrachois and barrisois. See also barasway, barrasway, barrisway, and barrysway.

barasway = barachois.

baray = a large artificial reservoir bounded by dykes in Cambodia, filled by rainwater and diverted rivers. Arguably for irrigation but also symbolised the mythical ocean surrounding Mt. Meru, the home of the gods, and usually surrounding a temple complex. Can be as long as 8 km, 2.2 km wide with dykes up to 17 m high.

barb = 1) another term for spinule (a small spine projecting from a larger spine).

barb = 2) the inward projecting point of a fish hook that prevents a fish from getting off the hook.

barb = 3) a shortened form for barbel (1).

barbecued fish = fish roasted or grilled over an open charcoal fire (or its modern equivalent). Served hot.

barbed bone point = a barbed point made of bone and bound to a spear shaft using twine wrapped around grooves on the bone.

barbed tributary = a steam whose upper reach flows in the opposite direction to the lower reach and is evidence of stream capture. The area of flow reversal is called the elbow of capture.

barbel = 1) a slender fleshy process located close to the mouth, usually possessing tactile and/or gustatory sense, and useful in identification, e.g. in Acipenseridae, Gadidae, Ictaluridae, Cyprinidae.

barbel = 2) a petticoat worm by fishermen at Folkestone. See also barvel.

barbel section = barbel zone.

barbel zone = a European river classification system based on species, in this case the cyprinid Barbus barbus, as characteristic; a gravelly-sandy bottom, with moderate current.

barber fish = cleaner (a fish which picks dead tissue and parasites off other fishes. Cleaner fish may establish a cleaning station and have a particular behaviour which clues other fishes into their function and prevents them from being eaten).

barbless hook = a hook lacking the barb and thus causing less damage to fishes when caught and when unhooked.

barbule = a small barb or barbel.

barf house = a Yarmouth (England) dialect term for the shed where the first stage in curing herrings takes place.

barge = a large boat used to collect, hold and process the cod catch in the Strait of Belle Isle and on the Labrador coast.

bark = 1) a liquid made by steeping the bark and buds of conifers. Formerly used to preserve fish nets and sails in Newfoundland (and elsewhere) before synthetic materials were introduced.

bark = 2) soaking nets and sails in bark (Newfoundland and elsewhere).

bark = 3) a noise made by certain fishes has been likened to barking, e.g. the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, produces sound when ridges on the ventrolateral surface of the pectoral fin spine's dorsal process rub against the ventrolateral wall of the cleithrum's spinal fossa.

bark boiling = the preparation of bark preservative (Newfoundland).

bark pot = an iron cauldron in which an infusion of bark was prepared (Newfoundland).

bark tub = a wooden container in which nets and sails were soaked in an infusion of bark (Newfoundland).

barking = bark (2).

barking kettle = bark pot.

barking pan = pans in which fishing nets are steeped.

barlopen = said of fish having blisters ion the fins (Scottish dialect).

barloppin = barlopen.

baroclinicity = a state of water column stratification in which surfaces of constant pressure and constant density intersect.

barotrauma = an injury that results from rapid or extreme changes in pressure. Found in fishes pulled from depths rapidly or in humans where may simply be a discomfort in the ear based on differing pressures on either side of the ear drum.

barotropicity = a state of water column stratification in which surfaces of constant pressure and constant density coincide.

barr cut = a longitudinal slice of halibut (Scottish dialect).

barr mark = a vertical strip of pigment on a fish.

barrachois = barachois.

barrage = dams or weirs obstructing fish movements and thus facilitating their capture; also used to control water flow, raise water levels or generate power.

barrage pond = a pond created by damming and excavation.

barrage lake = a larger version of a barrage pond.

barrasway = barachois.

barred = said of a net enclosing a school of fish.

barrel = 1) a measure of liquid volume, 119.24 litres or 158.99 litres, 31.5 U.S. gallons or 42 U.S. gallons, 262.8 lb water or 34.97 Imperial gallons, but can vary.

barrel = 2) a rounded wooden container used to pack fish. A barrel of fish can be 200 pounds or 90.72 kg in the U.S.A. while a barrel of herrings used to be 32 pounds or 14.51 kg in England. See wet barrel.

barrel = 3) an approximate measurement of fish such as cod in Newfoundland taken from a net or trap.

barrel = 4) an indication of the size or capacity of a fishing boat.

barrel bones = the rib bones severed by filleting and remaining in the edible part of a herring or kipper fillet.

barrel tub = a barrel sawn in two and used for various fisheries purposes (Newfoundland).

barreled salted cod = split slated cod packed in brine in barrels.

barrel knot = a knot used to join to pieces of line together or to join a line to a leader. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

barricade = a barrier used to lead fish into an enclosure, e.g. fyke net, pound net, etc., or into traps at its base.

barrier = stakes, branches, reeds or netting temporarily or permanently fixed to the bottom in tidal waters arranged to trap fish.

barrier bank = a shelf-edge bank separating inshore waters from the deep ocean. Rich in nutrients, and fish stocks, from ocean upwelling that washes over the barrier bank, e.g. Georges Bank on the Atlantic coast of North America.

barrier beach = a bar parallel to shore high enough to be above high water. Separated from the mainland by open water (lagoons, bays and estuaries) or by salt marshes. Also called barrier island and offshore barrier.

barrier dam = a low dam on a stream used to divert water, block fish migration or guide fish into a fishway.

barrier island = a long and low barrier beach detached between two inlets.

barrier lake = an area flooded by a dam.

barrier net = stakes, branches, reeds, netting, etc. usually constructed in tidal waters and trapping fish as the tide recedes. Differs from fixed gillnets which, when the tide ebbs, may eventually allow the fish not entangled or gilled to pass freely underneath their bottom line. Includes fences, weirs, corrals.

barrier reef = a coral reef some distance from shore with a lagoon or estuary between it and the shore.

barrier spit = a barrier island connected to the mainland.

barrisois = barachois.

barrisway = barachois.

barrow (noun) = 1) a flat, rectangular wooden frame with handles at each corner, made for two men to carry cod. Also called fish barrow, drudge barrow and dredge barrow.

barrow (verb) = 2) carrying cod using a barrow.

barrow tub = a wooden tub or half barrel with handles attached for two men to carry salt cod (Newfoundland).

barrysway = barachois.

barter shop = a store in Newfoundland where fish could be exchanged for goods.

barvel = an apron of leather, canvas or oilskin worn while cleaning fish in Newfoundland. See also barbel (2).

basal (adjective) = 1) at or towards the base; pertaining to the base.

basal (adjective) = 2) opposite of derived, q.v. The condition or species regarded as the starting point in the evolution of a character or species.

basal (noun) = 3) a proximal radial notably larger than the middle or distal radials (fin ray supports to the median fins).

basal field = the anterior quarter of a fish scale, normally overlapped by the preceding scale.

basal group = the earliest diverging group within a clade.

basal plate (of a scale) = fibrillary plate (the fibrous lamella or disk forming the base of a teleost scale).

basal process = parapophysis (plural parapophyses) (a long, transverse process arising from the abdominal vertebral centrum. Parapophyses serve to support epipleural ribs (q.v.) when present and, in Gadidae, the gas bladder. In Clupeiformes they are not fused to the vertebrae. Also called transverse process and basopophysis).

basal rank = the lowest obligatory rank, the species, every organism being assigned to one. Infraspecific taxa are not recognised in every species. Also called basic rank.

basalia = the fused radials or pterygiophores at the base of a fin. Also termed basipterygia.

basapophysis (plural basapophyses) = parapophysis (plural parapophyses) (a long, transverse process arising from the abdominal vertebral centrum. Parapophyses serve to support epipleural ribs (q.v.) when present and, in Gadidae, the gas bladder. In Clupeiformes they are not fused to the vertebrae. Also called transverse process and basopophysis.

basapophyses = plural of basapophysis.

base = proximal part between origin and insertion of fin, extending distally for some distance and supported by skeleton. In the caudal fin, the thickened longitudinal part enclosing the vertebral column and between the epaxial and hypaxial lobes or webs of the fin. In denticles, the anchoring structures that hold these scales in the skin, often with four or more lobes. See also base of fin.

base case = the “typical” or “current” or “reference” case used in stock assessment (including simulations) as the basis for comparisons of management options and formulation of management advice.

base flood = a flood having a 1% average probability of being equalled or exceeded in a given year at a designated located; a 100-year flood.

base flow = 1) flow of a river composed entirely of groundwater from springs, or from groundwater and lakes excluding surface runoff from precipitation.

base flow = 2) discharge in a stream channel not from runoff and without man-made regulation.

base level = the level below which a land surface cannot be eroded by running water, e.g. a lake; the mouth of a river; the ultimate base level being the sea.

base line = the tolerance level of an organism to a particular substance concentration.

base of fin = region of fin where it arises from the body, between the origin and the insertion.

base port = the port from which fishing units operate, irrespective of where they are registered (homeport).

base runoff = sustained or fair-weather runoff. This is mostly groundwater effluent for most rivers and streams.

base-taxon = an unofficial term in nomenclature for the first originally recognised taxon for a kind of organism; this is usually and traditionally the species.

basel = bassle.

baseline = the line from which the seaward limit of state's territory is measured. Usually the low-water line.

baseline discharge = base flow.

baseost = the distal radial or pterygiophore supporting the fin rays. Also called intercalarium.

basibranchial = one of the deep median bones at the base of the gill arches below the hypobranchials. May occur on arches 1, 2, 3, 4, the last being cartilaginous. The dermal plates bearing teeth and associated with the basibranchials are a separate structure. Each of the basibranchials may be called a copula and the first is named the basihyal.

basibranchial copula = fused basibranchials in Elasmobranchii.

basibranchial teeth = the teeth on the basibranchial bone, behind the tongue and between the gills. Often incorrectly called “hyoid” teeth.

basibranchiostegal = gular plate (the median or paired, dermal, flat bone(s} between the lower jaws of primitive Teleostomes, below the basibranchials. There is a median gular in Amiidae and some Elopidae, Megalopidae and Albulidae, in some Dipnoi there is a second, posterior median plate while others have two pairs of gulars lateral to the median plate, and in Latimeria, Polypterus and Calamoichthys there is a median plate and a lateral plate on each side).

basic diet = foods which provide the elementary nutritional requirements to assure normal development. Compare balanced diet.

basic rank = basal rank.

basic slag = artificial fertiliser containing phosphate; obtained as a by-product of the steel manufacturing process.

basic type = the primary type, q.v., of a taxon, e.g. a holotype, cotype, lectotype, neotype or paratype.

basicaudal = on the base of the caudal fin.

basicaudal spot = a spot on the base of the caudal fin, common in many unrelated fish species.

basicrania = plural of basicranium.

basicranial fenestra = a large opening in the oticoccipital area below the notochord, e.g. in Sarcopterygii.

basicranium (plural basicrania) = the base of the braincase, usually composed of parts of the basioccipital, basisphenoid and otic capsule.

basidorsal = the cartilage structure above a vertebral centrum, forming the side walls of the neural canal between the interdorsals.

basihyal = the cartilage supporting the tongue at the anterior end of the hyal series in Elasmobranchii. It is the anteriormost median endochondral bone of the basibranchial series, joining both branches of the hyoid series and forming the tongue skeleton in Teleostei. Dorsally is may have a dermal tooth plate called the glossohyal. The basihyal does not always ossify, e.g. in Salmonidae. Also called basihyobranchial and dermal basihyal.

basihyal dental plate = lingual plate (a dermal toothed bone covering and sometimes fusing with the basihyal, e.g. in Osteoglossidae. Also called glossohyal, dermentoglossum, entoglossum, os entoglossum, supralingual or basihyal dental plate).

basihyobranchial = basihyal.

basil = a herb used in fish dishes.

basin = 1) that part of a watershed that slopes towards a common low-lying area where all surface and subsurface water drains, i.e. an area drained by a river and its tributaries.

basin = 2) a vessel less deep than wide as used in aquaculture for holding fishes.

basin = 3) a harbour for small craft.

basin = 4) a hollow containing water, either natural or artificial.

basin = 5) any large depression in which sediments are deposited.

basioccipital = the deep, median, endochondral bone at the posterior end of the parasphenoid on the ventral side of the posterior end of the skull. The bone with which the anterior-most vertebra articulates, it also forms the ventral part of the foramen magnum. In Cyprinidae it bears a posterior expansion forming the pharyngeal process.

basinym = basionym.

basionym = the original name of a taxon subsequently replaced by another using the same stem, as a result of a change in rank or position of the taxon. Also called basinym or basonym.

basipharyngeal joint = a protuberance on the top of the upper pharyngeal jaw meeting the bottom of the skull in Cichlidae.

basipterygia = plural of basipterygium.

basipterygium (plural basipterygia) = one of the endochondral fused radials or pterygiophores at the base of a fin, particularly the pelvics. The two chondral basipterygia of the pelvic fin meet anteriorly at the pubic symphysis to form the pelvic girdle. The body of the bone is called the pubic plate and bears an acetabular facet for articulation of the fin rays or the radial bones. An anterior process is known as the pubic process, a middle as the iliac process and a posterior as the ischial process. Also called basalia or pelvic bone. It articulates with the antimere, q.v., the corresponding bone on the opposite side.

basis cranii = the shelf formed by wings of bone developed from the inner sides of the prootics which meet and form a roof to the myodome and a floor to the brain cavity.

basis species = any species or group of species open to directed fishing by an authorised vessel.

basisphenoid = the small, Y-shaped, deep, endochondral cranial bone ventrally covered by the parasphenoid and medial to the pterosphenoids forming part of the floor of the neurocranium and the base of the posterior myodome. The bone ossifies from the medial belophragm and two lateral meningosts that form the wings. It is cartilaginous in Ostariophysi and lost in, e.g., Gadidae.

basiventral = the cartilaginous elements on the underside of the vertebral centra which enclose the haemal canal in Elasmobranchii and Holocephali.

basket = 1) a device to catch fish moving in a stream; made of wickerwork or wooden slats and usually trapping downstream migrants.

basket = 2) keepnet (a net lacking knots and supported with plastic or metal hoops, designed to hold fish caught by angling, usually in contests so the fish can later be weighed and released, or to keep fish fresh before transport and eating).

basket = 3) a basket used for carrying fish; a creel.

basket trap = a barrel-shaped trap, variously made of bamboo, wood, vines or wire netting, with funnel openings in series used to capture fishes.

basking = lying near the surface, usually with the dorsal and caudal fins exposed.

basnig = a type of lift-net suspended from a boat. Used in the Philippines, for example, where fish are attracted by a light over the spot where the lift-net is pre-positioned. See also stick-held dip-net.

basolateral = sides and base of a structure. In gills, refers to the sides not in contact with water.

basonym = basionym.

basophilous = thriving in alkaline habitats.

bass = 1) a common name for various, unrelated fishes including various large marine species (e.g. sea basses, Serranidae, temperate basses, Moronidae) and the more familiar sport fishes in North American fresh waters (Micropterus spp., Centrarchidae). Bass is derived from an Old English word.

bass = 2) a basket for carrying fish (Scottish dialect).

bass = 3) a fifth of a gallon of liquor in a large glass (used on U. S. campuses, the fish name used to indicate the large size of the glass).

bass boat = a boat designed for bass fishing (Micropterus spp.). Has a large outboard motor, livewells, electronic location gear, raised casting platform in the bow and sometimes in the stern, and an electric trolling motor.

bass bug = large floating flies made of deer hair and/or cork bodies used to catch North American freshwater basses.

bass bug taper = a weight forward floating fly line with a short front taper and a short but thick belly so that bass bugs can turn over (straighten out).

bassalian = deep-sea.

bassel = bassle.

bassle = to splash or make quick movements as a fish on the water surface or in the bottom of a boat (Scottish dialect). Also spelled bassel or basel.

bastard = 1) small cod not large enough for commercial sale in Newfoundland.

bastard = 2) hybrid (from French and German).

bastard = 3) resembling a known kind or species but not truly such.

bat = a fishery on the Tweed River, so-named because the nets are hauled up on stones or bats as the bank is too high, e.g. Bailiffs bat, Davie's bat, etc.

batch = the quantity of fishery products processed under similar conditions over a distinct time period, always less than a day.

batch culture = a system for rearing animals and/or plants which involves the total harvest of the product by netting, draining or both, after a set period of time.

batch fecundity = number of viable eggs usually released by a batch spawner in one spawning.

batch spawner = a fish which sheds eggs more than once through a spawning season rather than within a short period (a fractional spawner).

bateau = a small, flat-bottomed boat squared off at each end with a lug sail (Newfoundland and Labrador).

bated = fish in good condition, plump, full of roe (English dialect).

Batesian mimicry = the condition where a rare and harmless species (the mimic) closely resembles a common and distasteful species (the model) and thus escapes being eaten as it deceives a predator (the operator).

bath = 1) bath treatment.

bath = 2) immersion in boiling water to cook and preserve canned fish.

bath treatment = diseased or parasitised fishes may be treated by immersion in a solution or in an aquarium having various concentrations of chemicals.

bathile = pertaining to the floor of a lake more than 25 metres below the surface.

Bathini fish medicine = the Bathini Goud Brothers in Hyderabad, India offer a cure for asthma based on swallowing a live Channa species containing a secret formula herb preparation. The medicine is administered on a specific day called "Mrigishira Karthi", which is fixed each year by astrologers and normally coincides with the arrival of the monsoon.

bathometer = an instrument used to measure water depth.

bathyal = pertaining to or living on the sea floor at a depth range of 200-4000 metres, on the continental slope and rise. Other sources state 183-1830 m, 1000-4000 m, 200-3700 m or 100-1000 fathoms.

bathyal zone = the seafloor at bathyal depths.

bathybic = pertaining to life on the deep sea floor.

bathydemersal = living and feeding on the bottom below 200 m.

bathylimnetic = pertaining to the deep waters of a lake.

bathymetric chart = a map of a water body showing depth contour lines.

bathymetry = the measurement of depth and relief in a water body.

bathypelagic = pertaining to the mid-waters below the level of light penetration between depths of 2000 and 4000 metres (or 900-3700m, 1000-6000 m, 1000-4000 m or 1000-2500 m, sources differ), e.g. Cyclothone microdon, Argyropelecus aculeatus and Gastrostomus bairdi are bathypelagic.

bathypelagic zone = the pelagic environment at bathypelagic depths.

bathyscaphe = a crewed, deep-sea diving chamber capable of descending to 10 km. Equipped with lights, observation ports and gear to collect specimens including fish.

bathysmal = pertaining to great ocean depths.

bathysphere = a spherical deep-sea diving structure capable of descending to about 900 m, now replaced by the bathyscaphe which is safer, more manoeuvrable and dives deeper.

bati = an cup in India used to measure carp fry or spawn, usually about 130-170 c.c., and containing up to a million eggs.

batings = the upper part of a trawl corresponding to the belly on the lower part. Also called baitings.

batteau = bateau.

batter = a mixture of dry ingredients such as flours or starches and water in a ratio suitable for coating seafood.

batter-coated fish = a prepared fish product, in the form of sticks or portions, coated with batter made from cereal products, a leavening agent and flavouring and partially cooked in hot oil to expand and set the batter. Also called batter-dipped and batter-fried.

batter-dipped = batter-coated fish.

batter-fried = batter-coated fish.

battered = fish product covered in a liquid mixture, usually egg and flour. This is usually partly cooked (pre-cooked) to set the batter in place before freezing.

battery = a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for barracuda.

Battle of Herrings = a skirmish at Rouvray during the Hundred Years' War in 1429 over about 500 cartloads of herring under the command of Sir John Fastoff (probably a model for Shakespeare's Falstaff) the Duke of Bedford was sending to the army of the Duke of Suffolk besieging Orleans. The attack was beaten off by using the barrels as a barricade.

batty = a large catch of cod (Newfoundland).

Baudelot's ligament = a ligament connecting the upper end of the pectoral girdle with the first vertebra or the posterior end of the cranium. May be ossified and may be homologous with a first rib.

Bauhini's valve = a ring-shaped structure, the valvula Bauhini, sometimes found between the mid-gut and the hind-gut.

bauk = baulk.

baulk = a row of salmon fishermen with halve nets (q.v.) (Scottish dialect).

baulk net = a net that swings up to let fish in during the flood tide and then down as the tide ebbs, catching the fish.

baulker = balker.

Baumé = a scale in degrees named for Antoine Baumé, used for measuring density in liquids, e.g. in brines used for preserving fish, 22ºBé equals 100% saturation. For liquids heavier than water, to convert from °Bé to specific gravity at 60°Fahrenheit, specific gravity = 145/(145-°Bé). Note that the Baumé scale also measures liquids lighter than water and the two scales do not overlap - 22ºBé (heavy) is not the same as 22ºBé (light).

Bauplan (German) = 1) a hypothetical, ancestral base plan for developmental patterning of the embryo.

Bauplan (German) = 2) overall body form.

bawb = to fish for salmon with a bob net (Berwick dialect).

bawb net = bob net.

bawber = one who fishes with an illegal bob-net, a salmon poacher (Berwick dialect).

bawley = a small fishing smack used on the coasts of Kent and Essex, generally about 15-20 tons, and no boom to the mainsail which is consequently easily brailed-up when working the trawl nets. Bawley's have a wet well to keep fish alive.

bawn = an area of beach rocks used for drying fish in Newfoundland. See also flake.

bay = a large and wide indentation in the shore of a lake or sea, larger than a cove, smaller than a bight or gulf.

bay price = the price paid for fish by a local outport merchant in Newfoundland.

Bayesian method = data analysed statistically with expert knowledge and beliefs. Bayesian methods make explicit use of probability for quantifying uncertainty. Bayesian methods are particularly useful for making decision analyses.

bayheads = fish livers and oatmeal (Scottish dialect).

baymouth bar = a bar extending partly or wholly across the mouth of a bay.

bayou = a term used in the southeastern U.S.A. for a bay, river channel, backwater, oxbow lake, creeks, marshy lakes, estuarial creek, lagoon, etc. characterised by sluggish or stagnant water, usually a secondary watercourse.

BC = 1) B.C. or before Christ. Used to designate years before the birth of Christ. Used in scientific dating for relatively recent events, e.g. fish remains in sub-fossil sites. Note there was no year 0.

BC = 2) abbreviation for buoyancy compensator.

BCD = abbreviation for buoyancy control device.

BCE = before the common era. Used to designate years before the birth of Christ in a non-Christian countries. Used in scientific dating for relatively recent events, e.g. fish remains in sub-fossil sites. Note there was no year 0.

beach = a sloped sediment shoreline composed of mud, sand, gravel, cobble or boulders, sometimes with beach rock.

beach boy = a boy employed at a fishing station to assist in curing fish on the stone beaches.

beach crest = the point at the limit of high tide storm wave run-up.

beach face = that part of a beach exposed to the action of wave uprush.

beach price = cost of fish at the landing point, not taking account of any transportation, handling or processing cost.

beach scarp = an almost perpendicular slope on the beach foreshore caused by the erosional action of waves.

beach seine = a net used to encircle fish in shallow water; usually operated by two people wading out from shore, the net has lead weights to keep the bottom on the sea floor and floats to keep the top of the net at or near the surface; there may be a bag extending back from the centre of the nets length to increase capture efficiency. The seine may be set from a boat but hauled in from the land. Also called shore seine, drag seine, draw net, haul seine, yard seine and sweep net.

beachmaster = a person responsible for curing and drying fish on shore in Newfoundland. Also called shoreman.

bead = small plastic or rubber balls with a hole through the centre used in angling for buffering lead weights and other structures in rigs, protecting knots, and to enhance noise in rigs.

beaded stream = a series of small pools connected by short segments of stream.

beadhead = a fly with a bead immediately behind the hook eye, helping the fly sink or float depending on the type of bead. Made of ceramic, brass, etc.

beak = the structure formed from teeth which are fused in the form of a beak, e.g. incisiform teeth in Scaridae used to detach coral pieces as food; in puffers upper and lower jaw teeth have a median suture, hence Tetraodontidae.

beam trawl = a trawl with short wings and a head rope attached to a metal or wooden beam 4-12 m long. The beam keeps the net open horizontally while metal frames on each end of the beam keep the net open vertically. The beam has metal runners to support it off the sea floor and the tapering bag net drags over the bottom. These trawls may have tickler chains to disturb the fish so the net does not ride over them. Experimental electrified ticklers have been developed to be less damaging to the sea bed. Beam trawls are used mainly for flatfish (and shrimp).

beam trawler = a vessel operating a beam trawl.

beard = barbels (archaic).

beat = 1) an area of waterside bank on either a river or lake, that is allocated to one or more fishermen for their exclusive use over a time period.

beat = 2) beet.

Beaufort wind scale = ranges of wind speeds which are reported as nautical miles per hour in marine weather forecasts while general weather forecasts report wind speeds in kilometres per hour. Beaufort values 13 to 17 have wind speeds in knots at 72-80, 81-89, 90-99, 100-109 and 110-118 without any verbal descriptions of sea conditions:-

Beaufort scale

State of air

Wind speed (knots)

Wind speed (km/h)

Sea conditions

0

Calm 0-1 0-1 Like a mirror

1

Light airs 1-3 1-5 Ripples

2

Light breeze

4-6 6-11 Small wavelets

3

Gentle breeze 7-10 12-19 Large wavelets, crests begin to break

4

Moderate breeze 11-16 20-29 Small waves, fairly frequent whitecaps

5

Fresh breeze 17-21 30-39 Moderate waves, many whitecaps

6

Strong breeze 22-27 40-50 Large waves begin to form, white foam crests more extensive every-where

7

Near gale 28-33 51-61 Sea heaps up, white foam from breaking waves blown in streaks along direction of wind

8

Fresh gale 34-40 62-74 Moderately high waves of greater length, edges of crests break into spin-drift, foam blown in well-marked streaks along direction of wind

9

Strong gale 41-47 75-86 High waves, dense streaks of foam blown along direction of wind, crests of waves begin to topple, tumble and roll over, spray may affect visibility

10

Whole gale 48-55 87-100 Very high waves with long overhanging crests, foam in great patches blown in dense white streaks along direction of wind, surface on the whole becomes white, tumbling of the sea becomes heavy and shock-like, visibility affected

11

Storm 56-63 101-117 Exceptionally high waves, small and medium-sized vessels may be lost to view for long periods, sea completely covered with long white patches of foam along direction of wind, everywhere the edges of wave crests are blown into froth, visibility affected

12

Hurricane >63 >117 Air filled with foam and spray, sea completely white with driving spray, visibility very seriously affected

beaver fish tail = the 17th century concept that the tail of a beaver was fish-like and therefore beavers were fish and edible on Roman Catholic meat fasting days. First raised by the Bishop of Québec. See also beaver tail and capybara.

beaver pond = water backed up by a beaver dam, forming a habitat for fishes or obliterating a stream habitat and so causing loss of fish diversity.

beaver tail = the tail of the beaver was classified as fish in the Middle Ages, giving rise to the riddle "What swims like a fish, tastes like a fish, is a fish, and yet is not a fish?".

beck = a small stream, often in a mountainous area, with a stony bed and/or a rugged course (Viking).

beckett == a tough piece of cord by fastening the hook to the snood in fishing for conger eels (Kent dialect).

bed = 1) the bottom of a water body.

bed = 2) a circular area on the bottom of a lake or river cleaned out by fish for spawning, e.g. various sunfishes and basses (Centrarchidae).

bed = 3) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for eels.

bedding-in = line on a reel becoming trapped under coils of line already wound onto the spool.

bedform roughness = a measure of the irregularity of a streambed.

bedrock = a water bottom formed of unbroken rock strata.

beef of the sea = dried and salted cod.

beel = a small and shallow lake, seasonal or permanent (India).

beelerin' = a burn alive with trout (Scottish dialect).

been jal = a bag net set in a tidal current, supported by bamboo poles and with float supported lateral wings (India).

beet = mending the broken meshes of a net (Cornish dialect).

beeter = a woman who mends nets (Cornish dialect).

beetster = beeter.

before present = conventionally before 1950 A.D. Abbreviated as B.P.

behaviorotype = a joke term in nomenclature for the type of a taxon distinguished only by behavioural characters.

behead = removing the head of a fish.

beheaded stream = the lower part of a stream that has lost its upper part through diversion or stream capture.

behind = the position of a structure relative to another along the horizontal axis, e.g. a fin rearward of another fin. Not to be confused with beneath (underneath).

beikat = bykat.

bekko = ornamental carp or koi (q.v.), having black markings on a coloured fish.

beko disease = a microsporean infection in fish muscles.

belche = a line used in salmon fishing in the Severn River, England. It is used to pull up and close the net.

bell = gas bladder (a thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be connected to the gut by a tube, the ductus pneumaticus (then called physostomous) or unconnected (then called physoclistous). May function as one or more of:- hydrostatic organ, sound producing organ, or, respiratory organ. Found in Actinopterygii. Often lacking in bottom fishes. Sometimes called swim bladder or air bladder, less appropriate terms).

bell buoy = a buoy equipped with a bell that sounds out with wave action.

bell sinker = a weight or sinker shaped like a bell. Also called casting sinker.

bellweather species = indicator species (a fish species whose status provides information on the overall condition of the ecosystem and of other species in that ecosystem; fish that are sensitive to environmental conditions and which can therefore be used to assess environmental quality).

belly = 1) the abdomen of a fish.

belly = 2) the bottom part of a trawl that drags along the sea bed.

belly = 3) the middle, constant diameter part of a tapered fly fishing line.

belly bloom = a ruptured belly wall in a fish that has severe belly burn.

belly boat = essentially a tube with a seat on which the angler sits, feet dangling in the water. The angler can fish in deep water and use scuba fins to move around.

belly burn = 1) damage to a fish abdomen through gut enzymes, especially seen in pelagic species.

belly burn = 2) a commercial measure of belly burn, from slight (not more than 25% of the belly wall affected and no part uncured), through moderate to high (over 50%, holes may be present, but not more than 10% of the belly uncured).

belly burst = perforation of the belly wall by action of gut enzymes; seen in fish that had been feeding and enzyme action was active before capture.

belly fin = pelvic fin (the paired fin which is located posterior, ventral or anterior to the pectoral fins (abdominal, thoracic or jugular in position). Also called ischiopterygium. It functions to steer, brake and propel the fish and acts as a keel. In the pelvic fin ray count usually all the rays are counted except a small ray preceding the first ray and usually bound so closely to it so as with reduced pelvics, the spine and the first ray may be bound together by a membrane and appear as one; both are counted, e.g. in Cottidae. Abbreviated as P2 or V).

belly flap = a loose piece of skin and flesh hanging from fish ribs in fish preparation. May be used for fat storage in some fishes.

belly line = a support and strengthening rope on each side of a trawl along the whole length of the belly.

belly sliding = an abnormal condition in a swimbladder that prevents the fish holding position in the water. Fish fry show thing this condition slide or hop along on their bellies and death results within a few days.

belly strip = a strip of meat taken from the belly of a bait fish. This strip can be trolled behind a boat and its fluttering attracts fish.

belophragm = the median ossification of the basisphenoid.

ben = silvery spring salmon of about 8 lbs in the Scottish Solway commanding a high price on the London market.

bench curing = dry salting (fish cured by stacking split fish between layers of salt so that they drain freely).

bench mark = a mark affixed to a permanent object to furnish a datum level, e.g. in tidal observations, river levels.

bend = 1) the curved portion of a hook, q.v. Also called shape.

bend = 2) an old word for a hook.

bend = 3) a sudden turn in the course of a water body, particularly a river.

bend = 4) to tie an artificial fly onto a hook.

bending-in = an old tradition at Brighton at the beginning of the mackerel-fishing season when a meal of bread and cheese is provided by the fishermen on the beach for all-comers.

bends = gas bubble disease (supersaturated gases (>125%) in water entering the the body fluids of fish causing bubbles, an embolism). Also called Caisson's disease or decompression sickness.

beneath = placement of one structural part of a fish underneath another, cf. behind.

Benson = a 29 kg common carp, Cyprinus carpio, who lived in a Cambridgeshire lake in England until her death in 2009. Voted "Britain's Favourite Carp" in 2005 by readers of the Anglers Mail, this largest carp in Britain had been caught by anglers more than 60 times. The fish was named for a hole in her dorsal fin likened to a cigarette burn. A companion fish, Hedges, stocked with Benson in 1995, escaped to the River Nene during a flood in 1998.

benthic = bottom-dwelling, pertaining to the sea, lake or river bed.

benthic cruising = the feeding mode of sturgeons, swimming over the bottom and sucking up food organisms with an everted mouth.

benthic pump = a deep-water upwelling that brings nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean to fertilise surface waters where phytoplankton, the basis of the marine food chain, thrive.

benthic-pelagic coupling = the cycling of nutrients between bottom sediments and the overlying water column.

benthivore = feeding on bottom-dwelling organisms.

benthon = a benthic organism.

benthonic = adjective from benthon. May be misused for benthic.

benthopelagic = pertaining to forms which hover or swim just over the floor of the sea, e.g. Halosauridae, Macrouridae, Moridae, Brotulidae; the depth zone about 100 metres off the bottom at all depths below the edge of the continental shelf.

benthophagy = feeding on benthos.

benthopotamos = living on the bed of a river or stream.

benthos = 1) organisms which live on the bottom of a water body, in it or near it.

benthos = 2) the bottom of a body of water including the sediment.

bentonite = a very fine clay often used to seal ponds.

benzoic acid = a food additive used to inhibit microorganism growth; restricted in use but is added to dried fish.

ber jal = a large seine net operated from boast on the Ganges River of India.

berg = an iceberg, a large piece of floating ice.

bergy bit = an iceberg the size of a house.

berley = any animal or plant matter spread in water to attract fish; groundbait (food used as an attractant for fish in angling. Bread crumbs is the most common base and a wide variety of additives and flavours are mixed in with anglers having their own recipes. Flavours can be sweet, spicy or fishmeal, for example). Also spelled burley in error.

Berlin method = a biological filtration for aquaria developed in Berlin and using live rock, q.v., a protein skimmer, q.v. and powerful water circulation.

Berlin system = Berlin method.

berm = a natural or artificial levee (an embankment constructed to prevent a river from overflowing, or to contain a farm pond, or a natural embankment formed by sediment deposit during flooding).

Berners, Dame Juliana = reputed author of "A Treatyse of Fysshynge with an Angle" from "The Boke of St. Albans" in 1496, the first evidence of fishing as a sport and the first literary treatment.

bernfisk = dried cod or ling used for preparing lutefisk (q.v.).

bernjoggel = a wooden fishing hook (Shetland Isles dialect).

berried = having berries (1).

berries = 1) sturgeon eggs as caviar. Also used for crustaceans.

berries = 2) salmon egg clusters enclosed in a mesh and used as bait in angling. When fresh, the egg cluster has a milky exudate that helps attract fish.

berry = one of the eggs of a fish or a crustacean.

berry fish = a cod with berry-like growth on the gills (Newfoundland).

berth (noun) = 1) a station on the fishing grounds assigned by custom or lot to a vessel, boat, crew or family (Newfoundland).

berth (verb) = 2) to place a fish net or trap in an inshore fishing station (Newfoundland).

Bervie cure = an old means of curing fish; split, brined fish heavily smoked with peat and partly decayed sphagnum moss which flamed up and cooked the fish. The product was a dirty blackish brown.

Berwick sauce = the water in which a salmon has been boiled, served as a sauce. Also called Dover sauce.

beryciform foramen = an opening in the ceratohyal of uncertain function in Beryciformes, sometimes reduced to a notch on the dorsal margin.

best fish swim near the bottom = valuable items are not obtained without trouble (slang). Some of the more tasty and desirable fish, like sole, are bottom swimmers.

bester = a hybrid between beluga (Huso huso) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus), a large but early maturing fish of potential use in aquaculture.

besting it = going to sea when the weather looks threatening, not setting out nets, and waiting to see whether the sky will clear or not (British dialect).

beta globulin = a blood plasma protein making up most fish immunoglobulins.

beta taxonomy = the process of arranging taxa into higher categories which reflect the evolutionary history of a group of organisms; phylogenetic reconstruction.

Bethsaida = the name of two villages, one on the western, one on the eastern, side of the Sea of Galilee, meaning "house of fish".

better = beeter.

better than a slap in the face with a wet kipper = a situation that could be considerably worse and hence one should be grateful.

Beukel, William = a fourteenth century Dutchman reputedly the first to pickle fish, hence pickle from his name (unlikely as pekel exists in medieval Dutch). Also spelled Bukelz and Beukelsen.

Beverton-Holt stock-recruitment model = a particular stock-recruitment formulation in which recruitment reaches an asymptote as stock size becomes very large.

bhasa-bada fishery = embanked saltwater marshes in India equipped with sluices to trap fish for growth and harvesting.

bheri fish culture = culture of fish on a land area enclosed by dwarf dykes allowing tidal water and juvenile fish to enter (Bangladesh).

biapocrisis = how an organism responds to what it faces where it lives. Responses include reproducing, growing, moving, surviving, or not.

bi- (prefix) = two, twice or double.

bi-fly = any fly in angling which can be fished wet or dry.

bi-nomenclature = binominal nomenclature.

biannual = occurring twice a year. Compare biennial.

biasotype = a joke term in nomenclature for the type of a taxon determined only by a detailed statistical analysis of a small sample.

bibliographic error = in nomenclature, an error in the citation of the place of publication of a scientific name, e.g. page number.

bibliographic reference = the citation of the author's name and date of publication for a scientific name.

bibliography = an exhaustive list of references on any topic.

bicentric distribution = the presence of a taxon in two widely separated geographic areas.

bicht = bucht.

bichter = bighter.

bicolour = two-coloured.

bicuspid = with two points or cusps, usually applied to teeth.

bid = the end of the line or gut to which the hook is attached in fly-fishing (Shetland Isles).

bident = a fish spear with two prongs. The trident is more familiar.

biennial = occurring every two years, lasting two years. Compare biannual.

bifid = divided in two, e.g. a forked preopercular spine.

bifurcate = divided in two, forked.

bifurcation = a node in a tree connecting three branches. If one branch is directed or rooted, then one branch represents an ancestral lineage and the other two branches are descendent lineages. Also called dichotomy.

big fish = 1) a large fish.

big fish = 2) an important or influential person.

Big Fish = 3) a movie released in 2003, directed by Tim Burton, starring Ewan McGregor and Albert Finney. Based on the novel Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions by Daniel Wallace.

big fish day = a successful day of fishing for cod in Newfoundland.

big fish eat little fish = a proverb and the subject of a painting by Pieter Bruegel the Elder in 1556.

big fish in a small pond = having a lot of influence over a small area.

bigd = a fishing lodge or stone huts in which fishermen lived during summer in the Shetlands (dialect).

big-game fishing = catching large marine fish for sport from a boat using a variety of heavy tackle.

big-game reel = any fishing reel that is large and made for marine trolling.

bigg = a fishing lodge (Shetland Isles dialect).

bigger fish to fry = something better or more important to do.

bight = 1) an indentation of the coast forming a large open bay.

bight = 2) the part of a line between the end and the standing part on which a knot is formed.

bight = 3) bucht.

bighter = the small stone attached to fishing lines to keep them down under water (Scottish islands dialect). Also spelled bichter.

bike seat = butt seat.

bilaterally symmetrical = capable of being halved in one plane such that the two halves are mirror images. All vertebrates, including fish, show this symmetry. Useful in that damage to structures of interest on one side need not make them inaccessible, e.g. scale counts.

bile house = boil house.

bilge water = water that collects in the bottom of a ship. Important in transportation of fish species into new localities where such exotic species may have devastating effects on native species.

bilgy fish = a foul smelling fish caused by rapid growth of anaerobic bacteria. Occurs when fish are stored under conditions where air is excluded, e.g. pressed against the side of a warm container. Also called stinker.

bill = 1) rostrum (a snout-like extension of the head).

bill = 2) the wages or share of the profit of a fishing voyage paid to men after deduction of expenses (Newfoundland).

billabong = an isolated pool, a stream filled with water only in the rainy season, or a backwater (Australia).

billfish = a general term for those fishes having a bill, e.g. swordfishes, Xiphiidae.

Billingsgate Fish Market = the famous London fish market, in the nineteenth century the largest in the world.

Billingsgate language = foul or abusive language from Billingsgate, where the notorious fishwomen assemble to purchase fish.

Billingsgate pheasant = a red herring (the fish, at the Market).

billy-tub = a cut down barrel used for housing trawls or bait (Newfoundland).

bilobate = two-lobed; with two rounded projecting parts.

bilobed = divided into two lobes.

bilocular muscular stomach = a special stomach characterised by the presence of a large aponeurosis (flat tendon) at the bend of the stomach, the centrum tendineum. In this type of stomach the lesser curvature is usually considerably expanded and can no longer be designated as an angulus or fold. The musculature (mm. laterales (ventriculi)) radiates out fan-like from both sides of the centrum tendineum, producing two thick swellings and giving the whole structure the form of a laterally flattened egg, e.g. in Mormyridae.

bim = a grade of dried and salted cod shipped to the West Indies from Newfoundland.

bim fish = bim.

bimaxillary = premaxilla (one of the paired, superficial, usually toothed, dermal bones of the upper jaw, proximal or anterior to the maxillaries; in primitive Teleostomi they comprise the middle, in more advanced forms they may comprise the whole, of the oral edge of the upper jaw. Teeth may be present. In Diodontidae, the premaxillae are ankylosed and form a single bone. Absent in Chondrostei. In Holostei (Lepisosteus and Amia) the bone has two ossification centres and therefore is a double bone. Holostei and Teleostei have an ascending process anteriorly but these may not be homologous. Posterior to the ascending process in Teleostei there may be an articular and a postmaxillary process, and a posterior extension, the caudal process. Also called premaxillary, surmaxillary, or intermaxillary).

Bimini twist = a knot used in offshore trolling and double-line leaders. It forms a long loop of line stronger than the line itself for protection against abrasion. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

bin = a large compartment in a vessel for holding fish.

binary diet = dry ingredients, minced fish and fish oil prepared daily at a fish farm.

binary name = binomial name.

binary nomenclature = binominal nomenclature.

bind = 1) a quantity of 250 eels in 13th to 16th century England. Ten stikes makes a bind (each stike or stick being 25 eels). Also used for other fish such as salmon. Also spelled binn.

bind = 2) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for eels.

bind = 3) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for salmon.

binder = a substance in fish feed used to hold the constituents together.

bined = a fifteenth century word for dressing sole (preparing this fish for consumption), no longer in use.

binn = bind (1).

binner = the person who catches fish by binning.

binnick = a small fish (English dialect).

binning = a method of catching trout by hitting rocks in a stream with a sledge hammer. This stuns the fish and enables the fisher to pick them up.

binomen = the combination of a generic (first word with its initial letter capitalised) and a specific name (second word, always lower case) which together constitute the scientific name of a species; any interpolated names are not counted as components of a binomen. Also called binomial name.

binomina = plural of binomen.

binominal = having two scientific names.

binomial name = binomen.

binomial nomenclature = the system of nomenclature in which a species, but no taxon or any other rank, is denoted by a combination of two names.

binoro = small fishes brined, drained and packed in dry salt (Philippines).

bio- (prefix) = life.

bio-ball = a plastic ball used as a filter medium in aquaria; a colony of bacteria on these balls act as a biological filter. Balls have the largest surface area for bacterial colonisation and filtering effect.

bio-economic equilibrium = the simultaneous biological and economic equilibrium in a fishery. In a single stock model, the biological equilibrium condition is that the rate of change of the stock be zero. The economic equilibrium condition is that there be no change in fishing effort. The driving force of effort is profit (or loss). In an open access fishery, the bio-economic equilibrium is given at an effort level where profit is zero and total fishing cost is equal to total revenue.

bio-economic modelling = a model establishing functional relationships between specific characteristics of the fishery resource and the activities of mankind to make use of such resource. It facilitates management decisions. As an abstraction from reality, the validity of a bio-economic model depends on the explicit or implicit assumptions about the biological and human processes it represents.

bioaccumulation = the concentration of toxic compounds in water through the food chain. As fish are often the final link in the chain, they may accumulate levels of chemicals in their flesh that are harmful to them and to humans. Even non-fatal levels may affect behaviour, growth and reproduction.

bioassay = 1) the use of an organism for assay purposes.

bioassay = 2) any quantitative biological analysis.

bioavailable = that part of a chemical contaminant in water, sediment, suspended matter or food which is in a form that can be taken up by a fish.

biocenose = the balanced association of animals and plants in a biotope, a natural assemblage; strictly the animal and plant associations excluding the physical aspects of the environment and so not the same as ecosystem. Also spelled biocoenose. Also called biocoen, biocoenosis or life assemblage.

biochemical oxygen demand = biological oxygen demand.

biochore = a group of similar biotopes.

biochrome = a type of chromatophore with natural pigments producing colours chemically, cf. schematochrome.

biocide = a chemical lethal or toxic to living organisms.

biocoen = biocenose.

biocoenosis = biocenose.

bioconcentration = the net accumulation of a chemical in tissues of a fish to levels greater than in the surrounding medium. This seems to be identical with bioaccumulation; the various definitions of both these terms being similar or different depending on the source - bioaccumulation may not involve the food chain in some definitions for example.

biodiversity = the variety and variability of living material in a given area (terrestrial and aquatic) in terms of genes, species and ecosystems. Also called biological diversity.

biodiversity hot spot = an area with an exceptional number of species including many endemics. See also hotspot.

bioencapsulation = the process of incorporating nutrients or medicines into living organism that can then be fed to the target fish, e.g. polyunsaturated fatty acids, important in early larval development, can be encapsulated in rotifers for feeding to marine fish larvae.

bioenergetics = the study of energy flow through ecosystems.

biofilm = 1) in the aquarium, a slimy and thin layer produced and inhabited by bacteria which carry out certain biochemical processes essential to the nitrogen cycle, q.v.

biofilm = 2) in the natural environment, aufwuchs (organisms and detritus coating rocks and plants in an aquatic environment often fed on by fish specialised as scrapers).

biofluorescence = fluorescence.

biogenic = changes in the environment caused by activities of living organisms.

biogenic amines = a type of amine formed from decarboxylation of amino acids in spoiled fish by the action of bacteria at temperatures above 10°C. Includes histamine (from histidine), cadaverine (from lysine), putrescine (from arginine), agmatine, spermine, spermidine and tyramine. Histamine causes scombrotoxism, q.v.

biogeographic province = a geographic area having unique physical and biological properties that affect the spatial distribution of organisms and their habitat.

biogeography = 1) the distribution of species defined by abiotic factors such as salinity, temperature, currents, etc.

biogeography = 2) the distribution of organisms defined by historical events such as migration, extinction, speciation, etc.

bioload = decaying algae, plants, fish food and excreta, etc that increase nitrites and ammonia in a fish pond.

biological diversity = the variety and variability of living material in a given area (terrestrial and aquatic) in terms of genes, species and ecosystems. Also called biodiversity.

biological filtration = aquarium filters using bacteria to break down wastes via the nitrogen cycle, q.v., into materials less toxic to fish.

biological fishery resource = a resource of value to fisheries.

biological indicator = a fish whose presence in a water body is indicative of certain environmental conditions.

biological integrity = the capability of supporting and maintaining a balanced, integrated and adaptive community of organisms. The community is one that a natural habitat of a region would support.

biological interaction = an interaction between species or stocks resulting from direct predation or competition for food or space, or both. Fishing will have strong impacts on other associated or dependent species.

biological loading = the burden placed on an aquarium ecosystem by the fish inhabiting it. A high loading means the equilibrium is more easily disturbed. Factors include physical space for fishes, surface area (and thence oxygen), the space available to nitrifying bacteria (see nitrate poisoning), etc.

biological noise = noise produced by living organisms such as fish.

biological overfishing = fishing levels higher than those required for extracting the maximum sustainable yield of a resource and when recruitment starts to decrease statistically. Spawning potential and stock biomass is below safe levels.

biological oxygen demand = a measure of the quantity of oxygen needed to incorporate or oxidise organic waste material into the environment or a measure of oxygen consumption over a fixed time period. A high demand will restrict the fish fauna. Abbreviated as BOD.

biological reference point = a fishing mortality rate or biomass that may provide acceptable protection against growth overfishing and/or recruitment overfishing for a particular stock. It is usually calculated from equilibrium yield-per-recruit curves, spawning stock biomass-per-recruit curves and stock recruitment data. Target reference points represent a desired level of fishing mortality or biomass while limit reference points represent either an upper boundary to the fishing mortality or a lower boundary of the biomass. Examples are F0.1, FMSY, Fmax and Fmed.

biological species = a species differing negligibly in morphology but remaining distinct because of ecological, physiological or ethological factors.

biological survey = collecting, cataloguing, processing and analysing a representative portion of the resident aquatic community to determine its structural and/or functional characteristics or the biodiversity.

biologically acceptable limit = value of a critical biological indicator, e.g. spawning biomass, considered as the limit below which the stock sustainability cannot be ensured, or below which the probability of a negative outcome such as stock collapse is unacceptable. Also referred to as biologically safe limit.

biologically safe limit = biologically acceptable limit.

bioluminescence = light produced by an organism where chemical energy is transformed into light energy.

biomagnification (biological magnification) = a cumulative increase in the concentrations of a persistent substance in successively higher levels of the food chain; in aquatic environments fish are often the terminus of a food chain and have the most chemicals accumulated (PCBs may accumulate by a factor exceeding 250,000 that in water).

biomass = the weight, volume or energy of living material in a given area, sample, fraction such as spawners, stock or for one or more given species (species biomass), or of all the species in a biotic community (community biomass). In fisheries the weight of a fish stock or some defined part thereof; abbreviated as B. The biomass of a fishable stock (available to fishing gear) is the exploitable biomass.

biomass at MSY = the long-term average biomass value expected if fishing at FMSY (the fishing mortality rate which, if applied constantly, would result in maximum sustainable yield. Can be estimated from simple biomass-aggregated production models or from age-structured models that include a stock-recruitment relationship). Abbreviated as BMSY.

biomass set asides = a portion of a potential harvest set aside for some purpose other than being part of the catch. It is subtracted from the maximum sustainable yield to arrive at an allowable harvest. This reserved portion may be set aside as food for birds and marine mammals, for a trophy fishery, for research, etc.

biomass-weighted F = an estimate of fishing mortality in which F estimates for each age group are weighted by corresponding stock biomass at age. Used to make average F estimates from age structured assessments comparable to those obtained from surplus production modeling of all stock components.

biome = ecological regions as a result of complex interactions of climate, geology, soil type, water resources and latitude.

biometric index = the number of times a body parameter goes into standard or total length.

bionomics = the relation of an organism or a population to the environment and its organisms.

biophilia = a natural affinity for wildlife by humans.

bioregion = a region of the Earth with a distinctive environment and living organisms, for example a river catchment.

bioseston = the biological component of seston (particulate organic matter such as plankton, organic detritus and inorganic particles such as silt).

biospecies = a species in the sense of the biological species concept as a closed community of reproduction with a closed gene pool, i.e. reproductively isolated. Only applies to organisms that occur together at the same time and place and so does not permit assessment of allochronic and allopatric populations.

bioswale = landscaping designed to remove pollution and silt from surface runoff. The design allows maximum retention time for water to allow removal of pollution and silt and includes vegetation, compost and ripraps. May allow for some fish habitat.

biota = 1) all living organisms of a region.

biota = 2) as the adjective, influences caused by living organisms.

biotic = the adjective for biota.

biotic potential = the maximum rate that a population can increase when there are no limits on rate of growth.

biotin = a B-complex vitamin, a deficiency of which in fishes causes convulsions, reduced mucus production and blue slime disease.

biotope = an independent space of variable size with a unique ecology and environmental conditions necessary for survival of the species constituting the biocenose.

biotope aquarium = an aquarium set up to mimic or resemble a particular biotope, e.g. a blackwater pool.

biotoxin = a natural toxin or poison produced by fish and other organisms, often as a defensive measure. See also toxin, poisonous fishes and venomous fishes.

bioturbation = the disturbance and re-working of bottom sediments by organisms that nest, live in or feed in or on the sea bed.

biotype = a particular combination of parental genomes. Unisexual biotypes are given hyphenated names that reflect their hybrid origin, e.g. Poeciliopsis 2 monacha-lucida is a triploid with a monacha x lucida x monacha ancestry.

biotypus = a clone or all individuals in a pure line; an obsolete, non-nomenclatural term.

biozone = the zone capable of supporting life.

biparental = both parents raising young.

bipartite = having or consisting of two parts.

bipolar = 1) said of distributions that are discontinuous between the northern and southern hemispheres (not necessarily in the polar regions).

bipolar = 2) occurring in both the north and south polar, regions, but not in the intervening area, e.g. certain Gadidae, Cyclopteridae and Cottidae.

bipolar cell = a cell in the eye which transmits the information generated by photoreceptors to the inner retina, i.e. primarily the retinal ganglion cells.

birch drum = a cylindrical wooden container in which dried Newfoundland cod were packed for the trade with Brazil.

bird = a paravane stabiliser or roll-damping device on small to medium-sized trawlers of the Northwest Atlantic, rigged on booms extending out from both sides of the trawler and towed by cables or chains a few metres below the sea surface. Also called flopper stopper.

bird fishery = 1) a fishery on Dojran Lake shared between Greece and the former Yugoslavia. Migrating birds feed on the fish in the shallow lake except where fishermen build a fenced area, open to the lake but kept free of birds by a watchman. Fish retreat to this protected area. Some of the birds, such as mergansers and crested grebes, are caught and their wings clipped. The entrance to the fenced area is closed off and the flightless birds are released into the area which has been divided into 20-30 chambers by loose mats, through which fish can swim but not the birds. The birds dive in the first chamber where they were released, chasing the fish from this chamber to the next. Fish too large for the birds to eat and too large to pass through the mats are left to be speared by the fishermen. The birds are then moved to the next chamber after access to the first one is blocked off by dense mats, and the process is repeated. All the fish in the last chamber are removed by a fyke-net.

bird fishery = 2) a less well-known use of birds is found on south Kalimantan in Indonesia. Ducks have been trained to chase the fry of snakeheads (Ophiocephalus sp.). The parents of the fish will then chase the duck to protect their fry, the duck is retrieved on a line, and the snakeheads snap at unbaited hooks in anger, thus being caught.

birdnet = a net around or over aquaculture facilities to prevent predation on fish by birds.

birdnest = birdsnest.

birdsnest = line on a reel entangled around the spool, or any bad tangle of fishing line.

birth rate = ratio of birth to population, usually a percentage.

birth-pulse population = a population assumed to produce all of its offspring at an identical and instantaneous point during the annual cycle.

birthing ground = the area where live-bearing (q.v.) fish give birth, often a shallow marine bay protected from predators. See also pupping ground.

biserial = 1) arranged in two rows or series.

biserial = 2) specifically in the fin bearing both preaxial and postaxial radials, long projecting bones, e.g. in Dipneusti.

bisexual = species in which both male individuals and female individuals are found; gonochoristic. See also unisexual.

bishop-fish = sea bishop (a monstrous figure reported in the sixteenth century, scaled like a fish and resembling a bishop, presumably founded on the Jenny Haniver and Ea, the Sumerian fish god figure (q.v.)).

Bismarck herring = whole herrings or blocks of herring fillets, without heads or guts, cured in acidified brine then packed with brine of low vinegar and salt content, sugar, sliced onions, cucumbers, carrots and spices such as pepper and mustard.

bisubtropical = occurring in both the northern and southern subtropical zones.

bit = bite (4).

bit of fish = coition (nineteenth century slang).

bite = 1) bight.

bite = 2) taking of bait by a fish. Also called bump, hit and strike.

bite = 3) the straight part after the bend on a hook, q.v. Also called spear.

bite = 4) a small piece of fish breaded or coated with batter, weighing less than 1 oz. Of various shapes such as round, square, or irregular. May be cut from regular blocks or blocks of minced fish. Generally sold by count, 25-35 per lb. Also called cubes, nuggets, petites, and tidbits.

bite = 5) the most powerful bite is reportedly that of the black or redeye piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus), more powerful than a great white shark or a Tyrannosaurus rex, thirty times its body weight or 320 newtons.

ebite alarm = any device that helps detect a fish bite on angling gear. Electronic units detect the speed and movement of line and have a buzzer or light. Older methods include floats and bobbers.

bite indicator = bite alarm.

bitemperate = occurring in both of the temperate regions of the globe but not in the intervening area, e.g. Hexanchus, Lamna, Zeus, Sebastes.

biter = a piscivore that bites off a part of its prey, e.g. piranhas.

biting = fish taking bait or lures.

bitter = a bitter taste is found in spoiled fish caused by bacterial degradation of proteins to bitter peptides. Urea found in Elasmobranchii has a bitter taste.

bitypic = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a taxon including only two immediately subordinate taxa, e.g. a genus with two species.

biverbal = pertaining to a name comprising two words that is not a binomen, q.v., according to the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

bivie = a domed tent with a large opening so that anglers can fish from it but be protected against rain; usually green and strong to stand up to windy days. Popular in England!

bivoltate = two generations per year.

bivoltine = bivoltate.

bivvy = bivie.

blachong = balachong (a fermented and salted fish paste from Malaysia. See also garum, balachong and trāsi).

black ball = a marker attached to a trawl buoy for identification (Newfoundland).

black box = an automatic and electronic communication and location device placed on fishing vessels. Used to manage fisheries by monitoring date, time and vessel position, through a vessel identification number, in real time using satellites. Also called vessel monitoring system.

black carps = small carps or Chinese carps.

black caviar = 1) a semi-preserve. grainy caviar, also known as dry caviar or pickled grainy caviar, and pressed caviar where the liquid is reduced for longer keeping.

Black Caviar = 2) a retired thoroughbred racehorse, undefeated in 25 races, a record not matched in over 100 years.

black chin = a condition seen in aquarium cichlids, particularly those from the African Great Lakes, where the chin develops small grey-black spots or blotches which may spread back to the pelvic fins. May be related to high nitrate as the species involved are from low nitrate habitats (aquaria with nitrate <25 p.p.m. generally avoid this problem).

black fish = 1) commercial quantities of fish landed illegally.

black fish = 2) dark-coloured fish caught for food, e.g. fish in the Tonle Sap, a lake in Cambodia, that live there year-round and survive adverse conditions, cf. white fish (2). Taxa include Clarias, Channa, Anabas, Oxyeleotris.

black fish = 3) fish recently spawned (Scottish dialect).

black fisher = a fish poacher.

black fishing = fishing illegally by night, often using torches.

black grub = black spots in the skin of fishes caused by metacercariae of such trematodes as Uvilifer ambloplitis, Cryptocotyle lingua and others. Also called black-spot disease, q.v.

black haul = a fishing trip without any catch being made.

black herring = 1) a kind of cured herring, possibly smoked with stinging nettles and hay.

black herring = 2) mistaken or diversionary racial profiling in allusion to the expression red herring, q.v.

black lining = a black peritoneum (plural peritonea) (a membrane covering the body cavity (coelomic cavity) including the viscera. Often its colour, light, speckled or black is of taxonomic significance. There are visceral and parietal peritonea, q.v.).

black mud = the sediment found in swamps, poorly managed fish ponds and in uncleaned tanks, rich in hydrogen sulphide and organic matter, and very foul smelling.

black nape = black lining, e.g. the nape of salted dried fish from which the thin back membrane has not been removed.

black oil = oil made from livers of haddock and other fish (Scottish dialect).

black salmon = kelt or a dark adult Atlantic salmon that has spawned but not yet regained weight or the silvery colour.

black smoker = a vent in a geologically active area of the ocean floor. Superheated water laden with sulphide minerals supports an ecosystem including fishes. See also hydrothermal vent and white smoker.

black tail disease = whirling disease (a parasitic disease of trout caused by the myxosporidean protozoan Myxosoma cerebralis. The parasite enters spine of the fish at a stage before the cartilage has turned to bone. Causes bent spines which force the fish to swim in the characteristic "whirling" motion, that is also called tail hunting. The spores of the parasites can remain in the mud of ponds for a long time. Also called twist disease).

Black Water = an Indian term for the sea. Indians lost caste if they crossed the sea. See also blackwater.

black wing = dried salted split cod which has not been white naped and which has gone stale.

black yarn = an unsuccessful fishing trip (Scottish dialect).

black-spot disease = the encysted intermediate, metacercarial life history stage of a strigeid trematode (Uvulifer ambloplitis, and also Cryptocotyle lingula) found in a fish's skin, gills and eyes. The skin develops black to brown pigment over the cysts forming the characteristic spots. Usually harmless to fish unless very severe, but unsightly and commercially a problem. Herons and kingfishers are the definitive host and snails are an intermediate host. See also black grub.

blackberry = the parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis found under the gills of cod, resembling a crowberry (Newfoundland).

blackberry fish = blackberry.

blackberry odour = an odour found in some fish flesh caused by dimethylsulphide formed from dimethyl-ß-propiothetin in the diet when fish feed on pteropods such as Spiratella retroversa and S. helicina, e.g. in mackerel and cod respectively. Resembles a sulphide, gunpowder or paraffin-like odour. Also called weedy odour.

blacken = to coat fish with pepper or other spices and then searing the fish in a skillet to produce a blackened outside and tender inside.

blackening = 1) a black discolouration of canned fish caused by defects in the lining of the can such that sulphides in the flesh interact with the can steel to from black iron sulphide.

blackening = 2) black discolouration in Molva dypterigia caused by the ink bag parasite, a copepod (Sarcotaces arcticus), which has an ink bag that may be perforated during filleting. The parasite can be cut out of the fish without staining the surrounding flesh.

blacklisting = the identification of waters where fishing is prohibited because the fish are contaminated, e.g. with heavy metals.

blacksmith = an old halibut with a very dark colour (Scottish dialect).

blackspot = 1) cysts of the intermediate stages of trematodes found in the skin of fishes, black because of melanin deposits by the fish (see black-spot disease).

blackspot = 2) a dense school of fish below the water surface.

blackwater = 1) very soft water, rich in humic acids and poor in nutrients with minimal transparency. pH is around 3.5-4.8 and colour is stained by tannins. Found in tropical areas especially and supporting a distinct fish fauna. Called cedar water in the eastern U.S.A. See also Black Water.

blackwater = 2) water with human, animal and food wastes. See also Black Water.

blackwater extract = a water conditioner for aquaria meant to imitate blackwater (1).

bladder = gas bladder (a thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be connected to the gut by a tube, the ductus pneumaticus (then called physostomous) or unconnected (then called physoclistous). May function as one or more of:- hydrostatic organ, sound producing organ, sound receptor, respiratory organ. Often lacking in bottom fishes. Sometimes called swim bladder or air bladder, less appropriate terms).

bladder queue = 1) a row of floats indicating a drift net.

bladder queue = 2) a line up of people outside a bathroom (slang).

bladder queue = 3) a row of balls awaiting inflation at a sporting event (slang).

bladdery = resembling or like a bladder, possessing a bladder or bladders.

blade = 1) the anterior dorsal fin rays fused into a blade-like structure in members of the Argyropelecidae.

blade = 2) a leaf-like structure.

blade = 3) an arched, convex cutting edge without cusplets, e.g. in shark teeth.

blade bait = 1) in angling, any spinner or spoon with a rotating blade.

blade bait = 2) a weighted, fish-shaped blade with a swinging hook, designed for fishing deep.

blaem = said of fish showing at the surface of the water (Scottish dialect).

blagda = a long piece cut from the belly of a fish and used as bait (Scottish dialect). Also spelled blaget.

blaget = blagda.

blah blah fishcakes = an expression used to deride or summarily dismiss any tedious speech, conversation, or situation. English version of yadda, yadda, yadda.

blaisse = blase (1 and 2).

blaize = blase (1 and 2).

bland fish protein concentrate = concentrate with lipids, odour and flavour removed under hygienic conditions (see fish protein concentrate). Abbreviated as bland FPC.

bland FPF = bland fish protein concentrate.

blank = 1) a fishing rod without grip, guides or finish.

blank = 2) an unsuccessful fishing season or trip.

blanket net = a type of liftnet suspended by one end from a boat and pulled in from the bottom by a line from the boat deck.

blase = 1) a torch used to see salmon for spearing at night (Scottish dialect). Also spelled blaisse, blass and blaize.

blase = 2) the act of using a blase (Scottish dialect).

blass = blase (1 and 2).

blast fishing = dynamite fishing (the use of explosives to kill and stun fish for capture. Used on coral reefs where nets cannot be operated without becoming tangled or ripped. Obviously illegal almost everywhere. Has been used by ichthyologists as a sampling method).

blast freezing = freezing fish products by circulating cold air over them.

blasting = fish bombing (home-made bomb made from an empty glass bottle filled with fertiliser and kerosene used to stun fish on coral reefs for capture and sale in the aquarium trade).

blastocoel = the cavity of the blastula; segmentation cavity.

blastoderm = early embryonic tissue composed of blastomeres arranged in a sheet-like fashion; used to refer to embryonic tissue before embryonic axis formation.

blastodisc = the early embryo of Teleostei comprising a disc or cap of cells on the yolk.

blastomere = individual cells forming the early embryo of Teleostei.

blastopore = a circular area on the yolk of Teleostei eggs not covered by the advancing germ ring during epiboly.

blastula = the single-layered, hollow ball of cells, the final product of cleavage stages in the embryo characterised by formation of the blastocoel.

blawn = dried in the wind (Shetland Isles dialect).

blaze = 1) to catch salmon by torchlight, by striking them with a leister (q.v.) (British dialect).

blaze = 2) the torch used in salmon spearing (British dialect).

bleaching = a condition seen in fish skin where colour is lost through storage in water, in water thawing or in melting ice.

blebs = the enlargements of the afferent filament blood vessels in the outermost region of the interfilamental gill septa. It is possible that the blebs function to smooth the pulses and provide a uniform flow of blood through the secondary lamellae (Fromm, 1974). Also used to describe a skin vesicle containing fluid.

bled cod end = a net which allows discard of fish from its end before the net is brought completely on board.

bleeding = the draining of blood before freezing a fish, by cutting off the tail or by cutting the throat region. Used in production of high quality fish and to improve shelf life.

bleeding new = a metaphor borrowed from fish, which will not bleed when stale.

bleese = blaze.

bleeze = blaze.

bleg = a long piece cut from a fish, especially the belly, and used as bait (Scottish dialect). Also spelled blig, blegg, blegdt and bligg.

blegdt = bleg.

blegg = bleg.

bleggy = fish bait (Scottish dialect).

blessing the nets = a Christian ceremony in England, and elsewhere, where the nets used by fishermen are blessed to ensure a good harvest and a safe fishing season.

bleyan = a fish that has been bitten and sucked by another (Scottish dialect).

blig = bleg.

bligg = bleg.

Blim = limit biomass, the minimum level of spawning stock biomass. Below this level there is a higher risk that the stock will suffer a severe reduction in productivity. See also precautionary approach, Fpa, Bpa and Flim.

blimp = a short horizontal line on a sonar indicating fish presence.

blind casting = casting without seeing a fish, using knowledge of the water and likely locations fish are to be found.

blind lake = a lake without inflowing or outflowing streams.

blind mullet = piece of excrement (Australian slang). See also brown trout.

blind river = a river without a terminal basin or outlet to the sea, ending usually in a desert.

blind robin = smoked herring (from the red of a robin's breast).

blind side = said of the side of flatfishes without eyes that rests on the bottom; also called lower surface but not ventral surface because it is one of the flanks of the fish. Opposite of eyed side, q.v.

blind snatching = impaling a fish on a hook, without the fish taking a bait into its mouth, and when the fish is not seen by the fisherman.

blinder = a small meshed lining acting as a chafer for the cod-end of a trawl.

Blinky = a three-eyed fish making sporadic appearances on the The Simpsons television show; formed by mutation through radioactive wastes from a nuclear power plant.

bloat = 1) a fish floating belly up, tail up or head up due to an inability to control gas exchange in the swimbladder.

bloat = 2) Malawi bloat (a condition similar to dropsy (q.v.) seen in cichlids from the East African rift lakes (originally those from Lake Malawi). Progress is more rapid than in dropsy. Fish show lethargy, appetite loss, increase respiration, gasping at the surface, abdominal swelling, with death in less than 3 days. Causes are uncertain but include bacterial infection and poor diet).

bloat herring = bloater (1).

bloater = 1) a lightly salted, unsplit, hot-smoked herring or cisco. Usually of a straw colour and may be marketed whole or boned, frozen, or semi-preserved as paste or canned.

bloater = 2) the salmonid Coregonus hoyi, a cisco of the North American Great Lakes so-called because of the swollen body resulting from expansion of the swimbladder when the fish is hauled up from great depths.

bloater paste = fish paste made of ground meat from bloaters (usually slightly smoked salted herring).

bloater stock = barrel-salted herrings on board a ship, for later smoking.

blob = a ball-shaped and brightly coloured lure with hairy extensions like a classical fly, pulled quickly through the water. Very effective, especially for trout, and decried by fly fishers because it does not esemble any natural food. See also booby.

block = 1) frozen fish fillets in a rectangular shape, weighing 7.4 kg as a standard.

block = 2) a fragment of sea ice 6-30 feet across.

block = 3) equipment to raise the flukes of an anchor to the gunwale. Also called fish tackle.

block = 4) a mechanism used with fish-tackle for raising heavy objects. Consists of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope.

block fillet = a fillet comprising muscle mass from the side of the fish, usually joined at the back or belly. Also called angel fillet, cutlet, double fillet or when smoked golden cutlet.

block frozen = a mass of fish frozen as a block in a box, rather than frozen as individual fish.

block-end feeder = a tube with one end blocked, the other removable for adding particle baits such as maggots and hemp, and pierced with holes allowing gradual release of the bait into the water.

blocked quota shares = shares in a fishery that cannot be subdivided if transferred. The blocked quota has a size limit and the number of blocks an individual can own is limited in a given area. This ensures small units are available for purchase by new entrants to the fishery.

blogaben = the bone below the gill of a fish; the lug bone (q.v.) (Scottish dialect).

blood bight knot = a knot used in angling to form drop loops for attaching weights or a dropper line. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

blood clot = in commercial preparations of fish products, a measure of the number and area of blood clots in relation to the size of the fish.

blood end = 1) the part of the sound bone (q.v.) of a cod which is removed when the fish is split or the portion of the flesh adhering to the bone and cooked as a delicacy (Newfoundland).

blood end = 2) the end of the sound bone (q.v.) closest to the tail (Newfoundland).

blood island = a nest of developing blood cells arising late in the segmentation period from the intermediate mass, located in the anterior-ventral tail just posterior to the yolk extension.

blood knot = a knot in angling used to connect to pieces of line of the same thickness. Its form allows it to run smoothly through the rod rings or guides. Has strength of 65%. Generally not recommended. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

blood line = a line of blood along the backbone of fish being cleaned. It is removed in processing before the fish is frozen or prepared further.

blood meal = animal blood processed into meal and used as an inexpensive supplement in fish feeds, e.g. usually less than 10% in salmonid feeds.

blood meat = dark meat (muscle from just under the skin on each side of a fish that is darker and richer in fat than other flesh. Also called brown muscle, dark muscle, red muscle).

blood parrot cichlid = a hybrid cichlid with various deformities first bred in Taiwan about 1986. Deformities include a beak-shaped mouth that cannot close properly, a deformed gas bladder that affects swimming ability, abnormal spines contributing to their unique shape, and unusually large irises. Usually bright orange in colour, they may also be dyed, shortening their life span. The parents are uncertain but may include the midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus) and the redhead cichlid Vieja synspila), or the banded cichlid (Heros severus) and the red devil (Amphilophus labiatus). Ethically questionable, campaigns against their production and sale have been mounted. Also called bloody parrot and blood parrotfish.

blood parrotfish = blood parrot cichlid.

blood pickle = a solution of salt and body fluids formed when immersing fatty fish such as herring in dry salt in an air tight barrel.

blood spots = superficial red blood marks on fish fillets, noticeable on white flesh, removable by washing.

blood water = a liquid comprised mostly of fish blood and water, resulting from processing fish.

bloodworm = 1) the red chironomid midge larvae living in bottom sediments and used by anglers in Europe as bait for small fish and by aquarists as fish food. Some sources carry pathogens and may not be advisable as aquarium food.

bloodworm = 2) sandworm (a marine worm (Polychaeta) used as bait in angling, e.g. for striped bass).

bloodworm scraper = a tool used to collect bloodworms, comprising a long handle and an angled metal blade to which the bloodworms stick when it is scraped through the silt.

bloody boil = furunculosis (a systemic bacterial disease (Aeromonas salmonicida) generally of salmonids but also found in some flatfishes such as turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Usually occurs in young fish following stress and in spring when temperatures rise and is characterised by loss of appetite as the intestine is inflamed).

bloody parrot = blood parrot cichlid.

bloom = a rapid and localised increase in the density of plankton resulting from a nutrient-rich habitat. The nutrients may come from upwelling, mixing or pollution and the bloom can kill fish populations through toxins or oxygen depletion.

Bloss = biomass at the lowest observed stock size.

blotch = an irregular pigment mark, often with poorly defined margins.

blow = to dry fish in the open air without salt.

blow down = a tree that has fallen into the water and so creates a habitat for fishes.

blow line = a light line used in angling that is carried by the wind, only the live or artificial bait touching the water surface. Also called sail as it catches the wind.

blow-fish = fish dried by exposure to the wind.

blow-herring = a herring slightly cured for speedy consumption.

blow-meat = flesh or fish dried by the wind.

blowfish = 1) a person with unjustifiably high self-esteem as evidenced by the assumption of an exaggerated, large, or erect posture.

blowfish = 2) a cipher used in cryptography.

blowfish = 3) fish dried by exposure to the wind.

blown = 1) a spoiled can of fish evident by its swollen ends.

blown = 2) fish oil slightly oxidised by blowing air through it.

blown out = referring to a river after heavy rain, having high water levels and muddy conditions.

blowser = one who assists in dragging the seine nets into shallow water in pilchard fishing (Cornish dialect).

blowsing = pilchard fishing, working in seine boats (Cornish dialect).

blubber = 1) to smear or coat wooden objects or structures with rendered cod livers as a preservative against the salt water (Newfoundland).

blubber = 2) to hurl rotted cod livers or to assault someone by smearing with cod oil (Newfoundland).

Blubber = the name of the suicidal goldfish, and the only friend, in the eponymous 2001 movie Amélie. The home environment was the cause of the goldfish's leaps from its bowl and these suicide attempts destroyed the nerves of Amélie's mother. Blubber was released into the wild.

blubber barrel = blubber tub.

blubber butt = blubber tub.

blubber cask = blubber tub.

blubber puncheon = blubber tub.

blubber soap = a soap made from the oil and rotted livers of cod (Newfoundland).

blubber tub = a large wooden container in which cod livers are stored or placed for the rendering of the oil (Newfoundland).

blubberlip = an aquarium term for the thickened lips of some cichlids and grunts, apparently an aid in feeding.

blue bones = blue, blue-green or green bones are known from such fishes as Cottus, Belone, Zoarces, Strongylura, Tautoga, the pigment being closely similar to bilverdin. Skin areas and spinal cord may also have this colouration.

blue disease = a disease of unknown cause evidenced by a blue line on the dorsal side of the body.

blue drop = an area of open sea water in an ice-field.

blue flesh = some fishes have a bluish tinge to the flesh and bones although they are edible, e.g. the labrid Tautoga onitis.

blue frontier = the oceans in the sense of an area to be explored.

blue hole = a circular area in a tropical marine habitat where water depth is greater (creating a blue colour) than ringing coral. Attracts a variety of fish species. Also found landlocked in the low porous rock of islands, formed by erosion and enlarged by currents, and fed by tidal water.

blue note = a receipt for fish sold to a merchant, used as credit for goods and provisions to be purchased (Newfoundland).

blue revolution = modern aquaculture.

blue sac disease = a condition of alevins in which the yolk sac takes on a bluish colour. Caused by a lack of oxygen (partial asphyxia) and/or high carbon dioxide concentrations which limit the uptake of oxygen into the bloodstream.

blue slime disease = 1) costiasis (an infection of the skin, fins and gills of aquarium and hatchery fish by the flagellate protozoan Costia sp. (or Ichthyobodo; and also Chilodonella, Trichodina). Found in young fish just as they start feeding externally, in colder waters. Stress may be a factor. Fish may show lethargy, appetite loss, flashing, respiratory distress in the form of gill flaring and gasping, fin erosion, and produce abundant mucus, giving a cloudy appearance, hence the names blue slime disease or skin slime disease. The skin and scales may peel away in strips in acute cases).

blue slime disease = 2) a skin condition associated with a lack of biotin (q.v.) in the diet.

blue thumb = the aquatic equivalent of green thumb (as in facility in raising plants), a natural ability to raise fish.

blue tinge = irritation of fish skin causing excess production of mucus giving the fish a pale blue colour, especially when viewed from above in the water. Particularly associated with the parasite Costia. Can also be brought on by malnutrition, especially a lack of biotin in the diet.

blue water = the open sea; named for the apparent deep blue colour caused by clear and deep water with less suspended matter than inshore waters.

blue wing = dried salted cod which is white naped (q.v.) but rather stale and thus shows a bluish tinge to the nape.

blue-button fish = a 100 lb or more tuna, a lapel button being awarded to members of the Avalon Tuna Club of southern California when they caught one.

blue-cock = a young salmon, coming up from the sea very late in the season, with bluish head and shoulders (English dialect).

blue-head worm = marsh worm (a type of worm used in angling).

blue-water fishing = big game fishing.

bluewashing = false marketing claim that fish being sold or served are sustainable seafood.

BMSY or BMSY = biomass at MSY (the long-term average biomass value expected if fishing at FMSY (the fishing mortality rate which, if applied constantly, would result in maximum sustainable yield. Can be estimated from simple biomass-aggregated production models or from age-structured models that include a stock-recruitment relationship)).

board bridle = backstrop (a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl. Also called backboard becket, backstrop, board leg, board strop, door legs, door strop and sling).

board chain = chain bracket (a chain used on an otter board in pace of a bracket. Also called angle iron chain, back board chain, chain triangle, towing chain).

board leg = backstrop (a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl. Also called backboard becket, backstrop, board bridle, board strop, door legs, door strop and sling).

board link = backstrop link (a triangular steel link with rounded corners on the back of a trawl's otter board. The backstrop is attached here. Also called door sling ring, shearboard link and VD link).

board strop = backstrop (a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl. Also called backboard becket, backstrop, board bridle, board leg, door legs, door strop and sling).

boarding = 1) taking fish from a trawler to the fish carrier. Also known as trunking and ferrying.

boarding = 2) pulling in fishing lines or nets.

boat = a small vessel used for water travel and work, smaller than a ship; a fishing vessel less than 5 net tons capacity; small enough to be loaded onto a ship.

boat a net = to haul a net into a fishing boat and reset it in the water (Newfoundland).

boat control = positioning a boat while angling so as to maintain it and the fishing rig in the optimum configuration for catching fish.

boat day = fishing effort in terms of number of boats and number of days, e.g. 10 boats for 6 days would be 60 boat-days of effort.

boat fisherman = an inshore fisherman in Newfoundland.

boat fishery = the Newfoundland cod fishery carried out from small craft in inshore waters.

boat harbour = a Newfoundland cove from which small craft carried out the cod fishery.

boat keeper = a man who operates inshore fishing craft (Newfoundland).

boat(s) master = the captain of an inshore fishing craft (Newfoundland).

boat net = a landing net (q.v.) with a long handle used from a boat to lift fish from the water when caught by angling.

boat rod = a heavy duty fishing rod used in big game fishing.

boat seine = a net consisting of two wings, a body and a bag, operated from a boat and hauled along the sea floor by two long ropes that help in driving fish towards the net opening, e.g. a Danish seine.

boat share = in a fishery, the percentage of the gross which goes to the vessel owner.

boat's room = an area of foreshore in Newfoundland used for fishing boats and the cure of the catch.

boat teind = a tithe levied on a fishing boat (Scottish dialect). See also fish teind and teind fish.

boathook = a hook on a pole used to grab objects, such as lines, in the water.

bob = 1) bobber.

bob = 2) a bunch of worms used as bait when fishing for eels.

bob = 3) any fish fly other than the tail fly, named for the bobbing motion it makes on the water surface.

Bob = 4) the name of a "lionfish" (broadbarred firefish, Pterois antennata) used as a murder weapon in a 2010 episode of the TV show Bones, the "Predator in the Pool".

bob house = ice shack (a small shelter for ice fishing used as a protection against the weather. Also called ice shanty).

bob net = a long salmon net, suspended from corks, fixed by a stone or anchor at one extremity in the river and to a post or ring on shore. Often fished to effect in eddies, and called bob because the net bobbed or danced in the water movements, or when fish were caught by the gills. In England, the use of this net has been prohibited since 1857.

bob rod = a fishing rod.

bob-fly = in angling, a second fly that bobs on the water surface, indicating the position of the end fly.

bob-net = bob net.

bob-rod = bob rod.

bobber = 1) a plastic, cork or wood device in angling that enables a baited hook to be suspended in the water column and enables fish biting on the hook to be detected by movement of the bobber. Some are even lighted for night fishing. Also called float, q.v. for more details (float in England, bobber in North America).

bobber = 2) a float used to mark the position of a net or other commercial fishing gear.

bobber = 3) a person who helps unload fishing boats.

bobber = 4) a man who stands on a bench by the salesman and receives the bobbing-charge.

bobber = 5) bob (3). Also called babber.

bobbin = 1) a rubber or steel roller on the footrope of a bottom trawl used to protect the net from damage.

bobbin = 2) a flat-topped hat used to balance and carry small loads of fish in Billingsgate Fish Market, London. A rim on each side directs leaking water and fish guts away from the porter's face and onto the ground behind him.

bobbin wire = an assembly of bobbins.

bobbing = a fishing line without a hook but with a bait or bob that a fish will seize and, if pulled in slowly, the fish can be caught, e.g. eels that tangle their teeth in woollen thread, garfish that entangle their teeth in a spider-web used on some islands of Oceania.

bobbing pole = a long, stout rod with line and baited hooks used to take cod in Newfoundland.

bobbing-charge = the payment of one penny by a porter in Billingsgate Fish Market for the privilege of carrying bought parcels of fish for the buyer.

bobtail = the process of severing the tail of a fish from the body, allowing blood to escape through the caudal artery.

bocco = boco.

boco = a good haul of fish (Sussex dialect, from the French beaucoup).

BOD = biological oxygen demand. BOD5 is the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed in five days.

bodabid = two or more fishing boats that pool their catch and divide the sale price equally (Scottish dialect). Also spelled bodabit.

bodabit = bodabid.

bodara = pan-dressed and split cod or sometimes pollock, washed, then dried in the sun without any salt (Japan).

böddie = buddie (a straw creel (q.v.) (Scottish dialect). Also spelled büddi, buidy, buithy or bødi).

bødi = buddie (a straw creel (q.v.) (Scottish dialect). Also spelled büddi, buidy, buithy or böddie).

bodied waggler = a waggler, q.v., having a buoyant bulb near the bottom of the float that increases the amount of shot needed to set it. This rig exaggerates the float tip movement when a fish takes the bait, allows longer-distance casting and greater stability in windy conditions.

body = 1) the main part of a net or trawl.

body = 2) lint (netting in the main body of a drift or gill net. Also called middle twine, middle yarn, netting, sheet, webbing, yarn).

body cavity = the hollow in the abdomen in which lies the intestines, liver, kidneys, reproductive organs, etc.

body depth = the greatest vertical depth of the body (excluding fins).

body girth = the circumference of the body.

body length = the length of the trunk which is taken as the distance between the posterior end of the head to the base of the caudal fin.

body mount = a prepared fish skin fitted over a fish-shaped form.

body of water = a sea, lake, harbour, river, stream, pond, or other area of water.

body ring = a dermal plate encircling the body, e.g. in Syngnathidae.

body weight daily = a measure of food requirement and/or uptake expressed as a percentage or as a decimal fraction. Abbreviated as BWD.

body-down pole float = an angling float thicker at the bottom used for fishing in still or slow waters and good at showing on-the-drop bites.

body-up pole float = an angling float thicker at the top used in fast water where the float can be held back without riding out of the water.

boette = bait used in fishing, pieces of fish or molluscs, waste, small live fish, eggs, etc. (France).

bog = acidic freshwater wetlands that are poorly drained and characterized by a buildup of peat but are poor in mineral ions.

bog-margined = a water body with wet, spongy margins making access to open water difficult.

boggin = disgusting; smelling like fish (slang).

boggler = a night-line for fish (Derby dialect).

bogwood = wood preserved under the anaerobic conditions of bogs, used as a habitat for fishes, a growing surface for plants and as decoration in aquaria. Leaching of tannins turns the water brown, but also softens hard waters and increases acidity, beneficial in some freshwater aquaria.

Bohr effect = the increased facility with which the blood unloads oxygen when its carbon dioxide tension is increased.

boil = 1) a mass of fish attacking food or bait just below the surface. Also called boiling school.

boil = 2) fish, potatoes and onions boiled in salted water, usually at a picnic.

boil = 3) an upward flow of water in a sandy formation resulting from a rise in a nearby stream; the bubbling up of a spring.

boil = 4) an upwelling causing water surface turbulence.

boil disease = a sporozoan disease evidenced by large boils and causing loss of equilibrium and death, e.g. in large Barbus and salmonids.

boil house = a building where fish oil is rendered (Scottish dialect).

boilie = a small, rounded, boiled artificial bait used by anglers in Europe. Usually egg is added to a paste bait giving it a hard skin that deters small fish. May be coloured and flavoured (e.g. spicy, fishmeal and sweet) and composed according to a variety of recipes (the best being secret of course). Effective against fish that have been caught many times, a function of the number of anglers, limited waters and available fish in Europe. A whole complex of recipes and equipment has grown up around this type of bait (see below).

boilie baiting needle = a thin needle or crochet-like hook used for mounting a boilie on a hair-rig, q.v.

boilie catapult = a powerful catapult with a rigid cup to hold boilies to be projected into a swim to attract fish. Often with a wrist support because of its powerful elastic.

boilie dip = a solution in which boilies are dipped just before fishing.

boilie drill = a small, hand-held tool with a fine drill bit for drilling holes in boilies and other particle baits for easy hair-rigging.

boilie hair stop = a small, angled piece of plastic with bulbs at each end. Boilies are placed on a hair rig where they work best and the stop holds them on. A piece of grass can do the same thing.

boilie mix = a commercially available mix of dried ingredients used to make boilies.

boilie needle = a needle with one side of the eye removed thus forming a hook; this is used to attach bait to a hair rig by placing the bait or boilie onto the needle, hook the hair rig loop onto the needle and pull the bait down onto the hair.

boilie punch = a small tool for making a large hole in a boilie to insert rig foam thus making a buoyant bait.

boilie rocket = bait dropper for boilies (or other baits). Used on a spare fishing rod and cast to the desired spot.

boilie rolling table = a table with grooves lined up next to each other. The boilie mix is rolled into long sausages and placed across the grooves, a lid is pushed down on the sausage so it squeezes down into the grooves, and the lid is pushed and pulled so the boilie mix is rolled into even balls. These balls can be air-dried, boiled or microwaved.

boilie stop = boilie hair stop.

boilie throwing stick = a foot long stick with a curved channel at the top where boilies are placed. An over the shoulder swing with the channel forward throws boilies into the swim.

boiling school = boil (1).

bokkem = dried, salted horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) (South Africa).

bolch line = the rope to which a trawl net is bent before being attached to the ground rope.

Bolognese method = use of a very long, telescopic or take-apart rod allowing the casting of a long, fixed float rig and its control at long range in deep flowing water.

Bolognese rod = the fishing rod used for the Bolognese method, 15-20 feet or 4.6-6.1 m long.

bolt rig = in angling, a ledger rig where the fish hooks itself. The fish takes the bait and bolts when the hook pricks the mouth. The hook is pulled home by a line clip and heavy bite indicators such as monkey climbers or a heavy lead, or both.

bolta stone = cappie (a heavy stone used as a sinker to a fishing line (Shetland Isles dialect). See also caapie and cappie-stone).

bomb = 1) a heavy lure used to catch wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri).

bomb = 2) a heavily weighted nymph fished in fast, deep water and often used to sink an unweighted fly, the fish taking the latter.

bomb rod = a light fishing rod, 2.7-3.4 m long, used for ledgering with a light line, quiver tip, a small hook and a small Arlesey bomb. This type of rig is used in match fishing in Europe.

bombarda = a weighted float used in rod and line fishing. The main line passes through it, and when cast out, the bombarda sinks slowly as it is retrieved. Depending on the weight of the bombarda and the retrieval speed, the level fished in the water can vary from the surface to deep water.

Bombay Duck = not a duck but a strong-tasting and stinky delicacy of the western coast of India, sun-dried and salted Harpadon nehereus (Harpadontidae). It keeps a long time if kept dry and can be crumbled over stews and curries. The name may come from Bombay Dak (the Bombay Mail train) that would smell of this odiferous fish.

bombing = a home-made bomb made from an empty glass bottle filled with fertiliser and kerosene used to stun fish on coral reefs for capture and sale in the aquarium trade.

bonae species = Latin for good species, i.e. valid species (plural). Seldom used now but does occur occasionally in papers published as recently as 2009 (and this was written in late 2008, a consequence of online publication).

bone = 1) the hard connective tissue consisting of cells (osteoblasts, osteocytes) in a mixture of collagen fibres and hardened by calcium and phosphate salts (calcium hydroxyapatite), serving to support the body. The cells are lost eventually leaving cavities and the bone is termed cellular, typical of Dipnoi, Crossopterygii, Chondrostei, primitive Teleostei, e.g. Cyprinidae, Siluridae, Salmonidae, Anguillidae, and some advanced Teleostei, e.g. Perca, Gadus. Another form of bone is termed osteoid and lacks the ramifications seen in cellular bone. After the osteocytes disintegrate, the spaces they leave are filled with matrix and the bone is known as acellular, e.g. in Cyclopterus, Mola. Bone is strong and rigid in contrast to cartilage. Older works on fish anatomy may have bones listed in Latin; many of these are grouped herein under the Latin for bone "os". Plural forms are given there for those unfamiliar with Latin. Note that some bone and skeletal names in English are the same in English and Latin, e.g. branchiocranium, and the majority of English names are derived from the Latin name, merely having different word endings. Either English or Latin forms are used in osteology.

bone = 2) to remove bones from a fish.

bone finger = an inflammation of the fingers and hands caused by handling cod in cold salty water (Newfoundland).

bone hooker = a small iron hook used to remove nape bones from dried salted cod.

bone meal = ground bones of animals and fish, high in calcium and phosphorus, and used in fish feeds and as a plant fertiliser. May pollute waters because of the high phosphorus content and so not used as extensively as in the past.

bone separator = a mechanical device for separating fish flesh from skin and bone. Flesh is squeezed through perforations on a drum and removed on the inside, leaving skin and bones on the outside.

boned = 1) fish with the main bones removed; some minor bones remain. Also called boneless fish or deboned fish.

boned = 2) having a particular kind of bone.

boneless = a term referring to commercial preparations of fish that have had all or most of their bones removed, e.g. boneless salt cod fillet, boneless smoked herring, etc.

boneless cod = a superior grade of salted cod from which bones and skin have been removed. See also semi-boneless cod (where some small bones are left).

boneless fillet = a fillet with the pin bones (q.v.) removed.

boneless fish = fish with all bones removed. May mean having a low bone content, or major bones removed; the flesh of a fish separated from skin and bones by mechanical means (see bone separator). Also called minced fish, mechanically recovered fish flesh, recovered fish, recovered fish flesh, and deboned fish.

boneless fish meat = boneless fish.

boneless kipper = herring that have been headed, boned, brined, cold smoked and split down the belly after cutting away a thin strip of belly skin. May be sold fresh, frozen or canned.

bonk = angling slang for killing a fish.

bony fishes = a general term in popular use for most fishes other than sharks and their relatives, the lampreys and the hagfishes, and certain "lower" fishes. Formerly the class Osteichthyes.

bony labyrinth = the skeleton of the membranous labyrinth, composed of otic bones anteriorly, occipital bones posteriorly and dermal roof bones dorsally.

bony stay = suborbital stay (the bone beneath the eye (suborbital bone) extending across the cheek to the preopercle, or almost to the preopercle. Found in Scorpaeniformes).

bony-ridge scale = the cycloid and ctenoid scales of fishes.

bonyfish = the adjective for bony fish, as in bonyfish species.

boobootype = a joke holotype in nomenclature, one that should not have been described such as a species previously described by the author and not recognised as the same as the boobootype.

booby = a brightly-coloured lure with polystyrene eyes, pulled quickly through the water. See also blob.

book = a grade of isinglass (the glutinous or gelatin-like fluid prepared from the collagen of the outer layer of gas bladders of sturgeons or other fishes. Used in clarifying wines and beers, for jams and jellies, in printing inks and as an adhesive cement).

book name = some common names of rare or deepsea species are artificial "book names" as these species are never seen by the general public. They are coined simply to provide a consistent format in books where common names are used or to provide a means of communication with people unfamiliar or uncomfortable with Latin names.

bool = of fish, to play on the surface of the water (Shetland Islands dialect).

booliver = a large and fat-bellied fish (Scottish dialect).

boomerang = butterfly (an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called arm, banana, dan leno arm, dan leno bracket, dan leno spreader, devil's elbow, spreader bar).

boondogging = drifting a boat at or about the same speed as the current so one cast runs the entire length of the run.

boondoggling = boondogging.

boot = an old salmon past the edible stage, spawned out (in British Columbia).

bore = 1) a rapid tidal rise in a river that forms an advancing wall of water. Also called eagre.

bore = 2) a compiler of ichthyological dictionaries.

boreal = of the north temperate region, between the arctic and tropical regions. Opposite of antiboreal or austral.

bosom = the centre part of a trawl lying between the two wings; the bag. Also spelled busom or busum.

bosom hoffle = the highest stake in a row of hoffle stakes (q.v.).

bosom piece = 1) a narrow section of strong netting across the front edge of the belly next to the foot line of a trawl.

bosom piece = 2) similar netting behind the centre of the ground rope of a Danish seine.

bosom tickler chain = a chain attached at each end across the bosom section of the ground rope of a trawl; it functions to stir up sediment and thus scare benthic fish upward and into the net.

Boston cut = a fish fillet that has most of the nape removed leaving some pin bones which break down in cooking.

botargo = a relish made of roe of mullet or tunny, lightly salted, pressed and sun-dried. It can be bought in sausage form and thinly sliced or grated (Italy). See also bottarga.

botcher = a second-year salmon (English dialect).

botches disease = a highly contagious disease evidenced by blood-coloured blotches on the fish skin.

bottarga = a relish made of roe of mullet or tunny, lightly salted, pressed and sun-dried. It can be bought in sausage form and thinly sliced or grated (Italy). See also botargo.

bottle = fish-shaped bottles for various purposes are quite common in cultures world-wide, e.g. for keeping cosmetics.

bottle forceps = long forceps designed for extracting specimens from jars.

bottle trap = a small, portable trap made of available materials and used to catch small fishes. Often a bottle, glass jar, earthenware pot or woven wire or twigs with an inverted funnel as an entrance. The bottle is lowered into the water on the end of a line, to settle on the bottom or be suspended at the required depth. It can variously baited. Used in various forms around the world, e.g. stickleback trap.

bottleneck = a sharp reduction of a breeding population's size to a few individuals with important genetic consequences depending on both its magnitude and its duration. An altered gene pool can result from genetic drift.

bottom = 1) the surface underlying the water column, the bed.

bottom = 2) the innermost part of bay or harbour; may refer to the land surrounding the bay (Newfoundland).

bottom = 3) the section of netting forming the floor of a cod trap.

bottom = 4) the lower part of a trawl.

bottom boundary layer = the lower part of the water flow that is frictionally retarded by proximity to the bed of a river.

bottom configuration = the shape of the bottom of a body of water.

bottom drift = gill nets allowed to drift close to the bottom.

bottom feeding = fish eating organisms found in or at the bottom of a water body.

bottom fish = 1) groundfish (fish that live on or near the bottom, usually those sought commercially).

bottom fish = 2) to fish with a weighted line for fish that feed close to the bottom.

bottom fishing = 1) catching bottom fish.

bottom fishing = 2) buying stocks when prices are depressed during an economic downturn.

bottom ice = ice formed on a river, lake or shallow sea bed.

bottom land = lowland along a river, subject to flooding.

bottom mop = a tightly tied mass of synthetic yarn in various configurations used as a spawning medium in aquaria for fish that normally lay eggs on vegetation. The bottom mop is used for species that spawn at or near the bottom.

bottom otter trawl = an otter trawl towed on the sea floor by one boat; the net is kept open by otter boards that plane through the water and are heavy enough to maintain contact with the sea floor. The otter boards have a steel bottom to protect them against the rough sea bed.

bottom pair trawl = a trawl towed by two boats at the same time, the distance between the boats ensuring the horizontal opening of the net.

bottom roller = one of the steel balls or rubber disks, about 41 to 61 cm in diameter, mounted on the bottom of a trawl.

bottom set = any net set close to or on the bottom of a body of water.

bottom trawl = a net shaped like a bag dragged along the sea floor. The lower edge of the net has a thick ground rope or bobbins to prevent net damage and is heavily ballasted. Some trawls are low-opening to capture demersal species, others are high opening to capture semi-demersal or pelagic species.

bottom trawler = a ship that deploys a bottom trawl.

bottom water = the water mass at the deepest part of the water column.

bottom wing = the lower wing of a trawl to which is fastened the ground rope.

bottom-end float = any float in angling that is attached to the line at the base only. The line can be fed through a rubber ring around the float or held in place by locking shot when the line is fed through the eye at the float base. Leaves the float tip free of line and helps sink line near the float so that float action is more easily detected.

bottom-set longline = a longline set on or near the sea floor.

bottom-set gillnet = a net anchored on or close to the bottom by anchors and ballast.

bottom-set pot = a pot or basket made of wood or osier and used to catch eels (or crabs and lobsters). Also called ground basket.

bottom-side chafer = netting, canvas or other material on the underside of a trawl to protect it from abrasion,

bottom-walking weight = in angling, a banana-shaped weight on one end of a v-shaped wire frame designed to bump along the bottom without snagging.

bottomfish = bottom fish.

botulism = an often fatal form of food poisoning from a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Occasionally carried by fish which are susceptible in the raw, fermented, canned and smoked products.

bough = to cover a flake (q.v.) with conifer branches to allow air circulation for drying of the fish (Newfoundland).

bought = a coil of fishing lines or a fishing line about fifty fathoms long (Shetland Islands dialect).

bouillabaisse = a French fish soup from Marseille based on several species of fish with shellfish, vegetables, white wine, olive oil, saffron, herbs and seasonings. Usually the more people who the soup is made for, the better the soup and the more fish species used. Species include scorpionfish, sea robins, monkfish, John Dories and congers.

boulder = a substrate particle larger than 25 cm (or 60.4 cm, sources differ), usually rounded. The largest body transported by a stream or moved by surf in the ocean, usually taken as heavier than 50 pounds and larger than 8 inches.

boulter = a long and stout fishing line with many hooks attached. May be up to 500 feet with 60 hooks baited with pilchards or mackerel. Also called spiller.

bounce = bringing a hooked fish into a boat without using a gaff or net.

bouncing bomb = fishing in running water with a ledger rig weighted such that it is not quite heavy enough to hold bottom. Feeding out a bow in the line leading to the ledger will cause the bait to bounce slowly downriver.

boundary current = a large-scale mass of water in the upper ocean that separates water masses. Driven by a combination of wind, temperature and coriolis effects.

boundary fishery = a fishery that is carried out at the boundary of some oceanographic feature such as a change in temperature or edge of a current.

boundary sign = a sign indicating areas closed to fishing, often shaped and coloured in a standard fashion to indicate the particular regulations.

boundary water = a river or lake that is part of the boundary between two or more countries or provinces that have rights to the water.

bourdeto = a fish broth from Corfu, cooked in tomato sauce with onion, garlic and red spicy pepper.

bourn = a stream, brook or rivulet in southern England (Saxon).

bourne = bourn.

bow = 1) the pointy end of a ship.

bow = 2) excess fishing line in the shape of a curve between the rod tip and the lure.

bow = 3) a willow twig bent in the form of a crescent to which a fishing net is fastened.

bow fishing = bowfishing.

bow-net = a wicker-work, cylindrical fish trap with a single narrow entrance. More often used for crayfish.

bowater = a man who poaches salmon by night with a light (Roxburgh dialect in Scotland).

bower = a structure used for mating, but not rearing of eggs and young. Males of certain species, e.g. Aulonocranus dewindti, build mounds with a crater on top to attract a mate, cf. nest. Also called spawning platform.

bowfer = a high-prowed, shallow-bottomed coble boat used in Scotland to collect salmon from inshore nets.

bowfishing = fishing with a bow and arrow; in North America often for carp that are competing with more highly prized species such as bass. The arrow is tied to the end of a line and the reel is mounted on the bow.

bowl = 1) a rounded glass container for keeping live goldfish.

bowl = 2) a float or buoy on a fishing net (Norfolk dialect).

Bowman's capsule = the cuplike proximal end of a kidney tubule surrounding a glomerulus.

box = 1) a box for storing and transporting fish, usually 15-50 kg.

box = 2) an area in the sea set aside to protect fishes, e.g. a plaice box to protect juvenile plaice.

box gage = a tidal gage operated by a float in a long vertical box. The tide enters through a hole in the bottom of the box and a graduated rod rises and falls with the tide.

box net = 1) a trap net set under ice.

box net = 2) a trawl comprising top, bottom and two side pieces; the size of the latter can be changed so that the net is flat, semi-balloon or balloon.

box net = 3) a rectangular frame of netting having three sides and moored with stakes and anchors.

box trap = 1) a box with an open entry door through which a fish enters, triggering a release closing the door and trapping the fish. Some box traps have simple funnel entrances rather than a trigger release.

box trap = 2) box net (3), a form of cod trap.

boxed stowage = fish mixed with ice in boxes for storage at sea.

boxing = 1) boxed stowage on board a fishing vessel in ice for high quality fish.

boxing = 2) packing chilled fish in polystyrene boxes for air or overland distribution.

Bpa = the precautionary spawning stock biomass, a higher level than Blim (q.v.) to allow for uncertainties in assessment. See also precautionary approach, Blim, Fpa and Flim.

Br = 1) photophores along the lower jaw of Myctophidae; formerly called maculae branchiostegae by some authors.

Br = 2) abbreviation for branchiostegal rays.

braad = a sharp pull on a fishing line to hook the fish, or to make such a pull (Caithness dialect). Also spelled brad and brawd.

brace line = lines used for lacing the adjoining shots (single net pieces) in a fleet of gill nets.

Brachet's cleft = the visible division between the epiblast and hypoblast in the gastrula.

brachial ossicle = actinost (one of a series of endochondral bones in the pectoral and pelvic girdle on which the fin rays insert. Most teleosts lack or have greatly reduced pelvic actinosts. Teleosts have one row of actinosts between the fin rays and supporting skeleton (coracoid and scapula for the pectoral, basipterygia for the pelvic) while other fishes may have more rows, referred to as radials).

brachy- (prefix) = short.

brack = salt or brackish water.

bracket = one, or a pair of, triangular shaped steel frames hinged to the front face of otter boards, to which the warp is attached on a trawl.

bracketed key = a dichotomous key in which contrasting parts of a couplet are numbered and presented together, without intervening couplets (the brackets are omitted). Used in some fish keys.

brackish = fresh water with some salt content, as in estuaries, in the range 0.5-17.0 parts per thousand.

brad = braad.

braddle = broddle.

brado = block fillet of prime herring, lightly brine-salted and smoked until reddish brown (Netherlands).

bradydont = having slow tooth replacement.

brae = an artificial bank of gravel and stone built across a river as a salmon trap (Scottish dialect).

braid = 1) a synthetic woven material used for fishing lines. Softer and more supple than ordinary monofilament lines, more abrasion resistant and not as stretchy.

braid = 2) to make or mend fishing nets with a mesh and needle.

braided lie knot = a knot used in angling for attaching a hook to braided line. A double loop is run through the hook eye and then eight times around the main line and then through the loop next to the eye. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

braided channel = braided stream.

braided stream = a complex tangle of converging and diverging stream channels (anabranches) separated by sand bars or islands. Characteristic of flood plains where the amount of debris is large in relation to the discharge. See also eyot.

braiding needle = specialised needles used for repairing fishing nets being blunt, broad, flat and with a large eye having a central spike.

brail (noun) = 1) a form of dip net used to lift fish out of a purse seine or other net on board ship. Also called brailer.

brail (verb) = 2) to use a brail.

brail = 3) a stick attached to the outer end of the wing of a trawl or haul seine to keep it spread.

brail = 4) to throw large quantities of chum (q.v.) overboard.

brail = 5) small ropes fastened to the edges of fish nets to truss them up.

brail = 6) to play or splash about on the water surface (Scottish dialect).

brail net = brail (1).

brailer = brail (1).

brailer bag = a very large bag used to lift Alaskan salmon from the fishing boat to the dock.

brailing = 1) transferring of fish in bulk from a net to a vessel or from a vessel to a processing facility.

brailing = 2) the bringing of the lead line of a purse seine to the water surface.

brain = the centre of the nervous system; the complicated enlarged anterior end of the spinal cord which directs the activities of the body and which lies in the cranium. The brain develops by dividing into three regions: the prosencephalon (forebrain), the mesencephalon (midbrain), and the rhombencephalon (hindbrain). The adult brain is achieved by division of the forebrain and hindbrain. The prosencephalon divides into the telencephalon (anterior) and diencephalon. The rhombencephalon divides into the metencephalon (anterior) and the myelencephalon. The mesencephalon remains undivided. Details of the brain structure of a fish (Danio rero) may be found in Wullimann et al. (1996).

brain food = traditionally, eating fish is said to make one smarter. Scientific studies variously show some, or no, support for this. Intake of fish has now to be balanced against pollutant load, particularly mercury.

braincase = neurocranium (the portion of the skull surrounding the brain, including the elements that surround the olfactory, optic, orbital or sphenotic, and otic or auditory capsules and the anterior end of the notochord (endocranium) and the series of overlying dermal bones (dermocranium)).

bran = used in Europe to store maggots in for fish bait and as a bulking item in groundbaits.

branch = a small fast-flowing stream or tributary in the southern U.S.A.

branch line = a thin and strong line by which a hook is attached to the main or back line of a troll or long line.

branch water = pure natural water from a stream, usually mixed with whiskey (southern U.S.A.).

branched ray = a soft or segmented ray which divides distally into two or more parts.

branchia (plural branchiæ) = gill.

branchiæ = plural of branchia.

branchial = relating to the gills.

branchial arch = gill arch (the endochondral skeletal support of the gill which bears the gill filaments and the gill rakers. Consists of pharyngobranchials, epibranchials, ceratobranchials and hypobranchials. Usually 4 in teleosts, can be as many as 16 in some Cyclostomata).

branchial bar = one of the vascularised cartilaginous bars serving as gills in Amphioxi. Also called pharyngeal bars.

branchial basket = the network-like cartilaginous skeleton of the gill region of Petromyzontiformes and Holocephali.

branchial chamber = the cavities in which lie the gills of Cyclostomata.

branchial cleft = one of the internal slits between adjacent arches which permit water to flow from the buccal cavity to the branchial cavity in Teleostomi or to the exterior in Cyclostomata and Elasmobranchii.

branchial groove = the horizontal groove in which gill openings are found in the larval ammocoetes of lampreys (Petromyzontidae).

branchial opening = the opening from the gill area to the exterior, the gill opening or slit.

branchial ray = the cartilaginous rod projecting out from the gill arch into the interbranchial septum which it supports and from the hyoid arch into the first hemibranch. Homologous with branchiostegal. Found in Elasmobranchii and Acanthodii.

branchial region = the area were the branchial arches and gills develop.

branchial sac = gill pouch (the sac containing the gills and communicating with the mouth cavity and with the exterior in Myxini and Petromyzontiformes). Also called ear sac and probably meant to be any pouch or sac surrounding the gills in fishes generally.

branchiate = having gills.

branchictenia = plural of branchictenium.

branchictenium (plural branchictenia) = gill raker or branchiospina.

branchihyal = any small bone at the base of the gill arches (term no longer used).

branchiocrania = plural of branchiocranium.

branchiocranium (plural branchiocrania) = that portion of the skull related to the gills, including the mandibular region, the hyal region (hyoid arch and branchiostegal series), and the branchial arches including their attached dermal plates, or the branchial skeleton proper.

branchiomycosis = a disease caused by the fungi Branchiomyces sanguinis and B. demigrans found particularly in carp and eels. Respiratory distress is caused by gill necrosis as blood vessels thrombose. Gills become discoloured in patches and rot. Occurs in ponds with high temperatures, excess organic matter and high ammonia levels. Also called gill rot and European gill rot.

branchiopercle = a fourth bone of the opercular series in Amia, partially covered by the subopercle and interopercle, but regarded as the most dorsal branchiostegal ray by authors.

branchiospina (plural branchiospinæ) = gill raker (one of a series of variously shaped bony or cartilaginous projections on the inner side of the branchial arch. The rakers have epithelial denticles and both their gross and fine structure serves to retain food particles in the mouth. The gill raker count normally includes all rakers, even the rudiments, and is made on the front half of the first arch. Upper and lower gill raker counts may be presented as the upper and the lower (including the central raker), e.g. 9 + 17; or as upper rakers, central raker, and lower rakers, e.g. 9 + 1 + 16. The most anterior and posterior rakers are often small and delicate, easily torn or lost if the arch is removed. Plankton feeders have numerous, crowded, elongate and fine rakers while predators have few, separated, short and stubby rakers).

branchiospinæ = plural of branchiospina.

branchiospine = branchiospina.

branchiostegal = one of the dermal bony (or cartilaginous) struts inserting on the epihyal and/or ceratohyal and sometimes the interhyal and hypohyal, and supporting the branchiostegal membranes. Of various forms from narrow, to plate-like to hooked, with numbers varying according to phylogeny, up to 50 in Actinopterygii to none in Crossopterygii. Less preferably called branchiostegal rays because of confusion with the fin rays.

branchiostegal membrane = the membrane below the operculum, often attached to the isthmus, supported by branchiostegals and helping to enclose the gill chamber ventrolaterally. Branchiostegal membranes are separate when the membranes of the two sides are separate from one another and the isthmus; they are united and free from the isthmus when the membranes of the two sides are joined to one another and have a narrow or wide margin behind nattached to the isthmus; and are joined to the isthmus when they fuse to the isthmus without a free margin. Often inappropriately called the gill membrane.

branchiostegal photophores = a row of photophores along each mandible in Myctophidae. Abbreviated Br.

branchiostegal ray = branchiostegal is preferred.

branchoses = degenerative condition of the gills.

branco cure = salt cod that has been made whiter by stacking in piles (water-hosed) for several days after washing. Final salt content is about 20% (Portugal).

brandade = salted cod, cooked and then mashed with garlic and olive oil into a paste. Lemon juice, parsley and pepper are usually added (France).

branded herring = pickled herring packed in barrels that carried a Government brand of quality (Scotland and northeast England). No longer practiced.

branding = a means of marking fish by mutilation for subsequent recapture and identification in growth and migration studies.

brandling = 1) a common reddish-brown earthworm (Eisenia foetida) often used as fish bait.

brandling = 2) a young salmon, or occasionally a trout (English dialect).

brandy is Latin for fish = a saying arising from the thirst and the uneasy feeling after eating richer species of fish having led to the use of spirits with this kind of food (popular saying, nineteenth century London).

brash = rubbish brought up in a trawl.

brash ice = sea or river ice fragments less than 6 feet in diameter.

brat = hatchery-raised steelhead salmon.

Brat-bückling = small herring, lightly cured in brine, and cold smoked. Fried before eating (Germany).

brat-rollmops = rolled and fried herring or herring fillets, without the tail and bones, wrapped with pickles, slices of onions etc., and fastened together with small sticks or cloves. Packed with vinegar-acidified brine, semi-preserved or pasteurised (Germany).

Bratfischwaren = fish fried, grilled or heated in edible oil or fat, packed in acidified brine, with spices or other ingredients and also with sauces. Often prepared herring (Germany).

brathering = fried, gutted herring in vinegar brine.

brawd = braad.

brawl = to flow noisily.

Brazil fish = dried and salted cod marketed in the northern provinces of Brazil from the fishery grounds off Newfoundland.

Brazilian invisible fish = an advertising stunt where a bowl of water was placed in the window of a store with a sign saying it contained an invisible fish. The idea was to attract customers. Sometimes a concealed fan produced ripples on the water. Apparently crowds gathered claiming they could see the fish.

breach = 1) launching completely or partly out of the water with a re-entry splash. Tends to be used for larger fishes, and more familiarly with whales.

breach = 2) a swirl, ruffle or break in the water caused by a fish.

bread crust = a favourite bait in Europe either ledgered in winter or floated in summer. It may be coloured and/or flavoured. Used for various cyprinid species like carp, chub, roach and rudd in England.

bread paste = stale bread kneaded into a paste and used as bait for fish in Europe. May be coloured and flavoured.

bread punch = a device that cuts out circular pieces of bread for use as bait in Europe. There are different punches for different hook sizes.

breadcrumbs = used for, or as a base, for groundbait, q.v.

breaded fish = sticks and portions of fish with a non-leavened mixture of cereal products and flavourings, sold raw, frozen or partially cooked.

breadth of river = 1) the distance across a river at any given time.

breadth of river = 2) the width across a river at the near bankfull (q.v.) stage.

break = 1) to emerge above the water surface; said of fish when spawning in shallows or feeding at the surface.

break = 2) break line.

break line = a point in a water body where there is a sudden change, e.g. in depth, in vegetation cover, in bottom type, current caused by a boulder.

break the beam = to add more fish to a scale to make up for accuracy errors of the scale and for loss in weight during shipment (Newfoundland).

break the price = to determine the price paid for fish during a given season (Newfoundland).

breaker = a wave so steep that its crest falls forward, moving faster than the main wave body.

breaker line = any piece of line on trolling gear near the hook that will break more easily than the main line under stress.

breaker zone = the area where waves break on a shore or reef.

breakfast fish = small capelin (Mallotus villosus) for household consumption (Newfoundland).

breaking force = breaking strain.

breaking load = breaking strain.

breaking strain = the maximum strength of a fishing line measured in pounds or kilogrammes as given by the manufacturer, the point at which the fishing line breaks.

breaking strength = breaking strain.

breakoff = when a large fish breaks the line.

breakup = the movement or disintegration of ice in spring.

breakwater = a large structure built out from the land into the sea, protecting a harbour or beach from large waves. Also providing habitat for fishes.

bream pit = pits or depressions about 10 cm across, found on mud bottoms where bream (Abramis brama, Cyprinidae) have been feeding using the sucking power of the tube-like extended mouth.

bream section = bream zone.

bream zone = a European river classification system based on species, in this case the cyprinid Abramis brama, as characteristic; a sludgy bottom of silt and sand with much macrophyte growth.

breast = the anterior ventral surface under the head.

breast band = a stripe across the breast.

breast line = a wire rope running along the forward edges of the side panels of a net or along the forward edge of the side rope in a rope trawl.

breast mark = a land feature lined up from the sea and used to mark a fishing ground.

breast spot = a small mark on the breast.

breathing valve = oral valve (the flap attached just inside the jaws which stop water escaping from the mouth during exhalation, helping to maintain a unidirectional flow. Usually a valve is found just inside the ring of teeth in the jaw. Also called a buccal valve).

breech = cod or fish roe generally where the ovarian membrane is unbroken, i.e. (Newfoundland; and Northumberland and Yorkshire dialects).

breeder = brood fish or mature fish.

breeding age = the age at which fish reach sexual maturity and are ready to spawn.

breeding bottom = part of the bottom suitable for fish reproduction. Also called spawning bottom.

breeding colour = the pigmentation that develops during spawning. Also called spawning colour.

breeding cycle = the period between hatching and first spawning.

breeding efficiency = effectiveness of fecundation or egg production, usually expressed as a percentage.

breeding ground = the area where reproduction occurs. Also called spawning ground.

breeding hapa = hapa (a small net enclosure in shallow ponds used for deposition of eggs or to raise larval and juvenile fish before release into the general pond environment, e.g. for Indian carps).

breeding nursery = 1) an area favoured for birth or egg deposition where young can grow. Also called nursery.

breeding nursery = 2) an establishment for raising and selecting early development stages of fish. Also called nursery.

breeding place = the exact locality where fish spawn. Also called spawning place.

breeding pond = a pond for holding sexually mature fish in a hatchery setting for use as broodstock. Also called spawning pond.

breeding season = that period of a year in which fish are sexually active. Also called spawning season.

breeding spot = special, spongy vascular areas on the body of some male Syngnathidae, e.g. Nerophis lumbriciformis, in which the female deposits the eggs.

breeding stock = fish reared and stocked for breeding purposes.

breeding tank = an aquarium set up for breeding fish, free of predators and disease, and with all the necessary conditions in water quality and physical structures for the species being bred.

breeding trap = a device to prevent the mother and other fishes from eating the newly-born fry in an aquarium. A pregnant livebearer can be placed in a special container within the aquarium, the container confining the female but allowing the fry to swim out through small holes. This type of trap only works where there are no other fishes in the aquarium. An alternative trap allows the fry to enter and seek refuge from the mother and other fishes in a community tank.

breeding tubercle = usually small, raised, epidermal structures on regions of the head, body, or fin rays where two individuals come in contact. May consist of aggregations of non-keratinized epidermal cells, the same with a light, superficial keratinized cuticle, or with substantial number of fully keratinized cells that are organized to form a discrete, usually conical cap. Breeding tubercles may function to maintain body contact between the sexes during spawning; in the defence of nests and territories; in the stimulation of females in courtship; and in some forms perhaps in sex and species recognition. Also called nuptial tubercles. Found in 15 families of 4 orders; Salmoniformes, Gonorhynchiformes, Cypriniformes, and Perciformes (Wiley and Collette, 1970).

breezer = angling term for a fish traveling rapidly just under the water surface, often not biting.

brevetoxin = a neurotoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis which itself forms red tides (q.v.). Causes fish kills and illness in humans who ingest filter-feeding shellfish.

brevotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature where a type is valid but is based on only the minimal requirements of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

brewis = fish and brewis (salt cod and hard bread (or hardtack) soaked in water overnight and then fried and garnished with salt pork and molasses in Newfoundland. Brewis is Middle English for bread soaked in drippings).

brews(e) = brewis.

Bridge's ossicle = one of four ossicles (a, b, c and d) on the posterior part of Meckel's cartilage. They may represent the large bone in palaeoniscids. Their homology is a = retroarticular, b and c = articular, and d = coronomeckelian.

bridger = the small cord or twisted hair to which a fishing hook or a cast of flies is attached.

Bridgestone cage = a pen or sea cage having a flexible collar or float used in exposed environments.

bridle = the rope or wire between the otter board and net in a trawl. May be single, twin or three bridle rigs. The towing bridle refers particularly to the wire between the net and ground wire.

brig = 1) a square-rigged ship with two masts.

brig = 2) bridger.

brigger = bridger.

brigantine = a two-masted ship with the foremast square-rigged and the mainmast fore- and aft-rigged.

brindled = a pattern of dark or mottled gray flecks or streaks.

brine = 1) a nearly saturated solution of salt in water. 100° is saturated brine, 358 g of salt added to one litre of water at 16°C. An 80° brine is used in smoking.

brine = 2) sea water.

brine cured = fish treated with salt in a water-tight container so that they cure in the pickle that is formed. Also called brine cured, brine salted, tank salted, wet cured, wet salted.

brine gauge = salinometer (a hydrometer used to measure the strength of sodium chloride solutions. Used in commercial preparation of fish. Also called brinometer.

brine liquor = pickle, a mixture of brine and fish body fluids extracted by immersion in the brine.

brine mechanically = brining fish with mechanical conveyers and/or pumps and controls.

brine pack = packing fish in barrels of brine.

brine packed fish = pickle cured fish (fish treated with salt in a watertight container such that they are cured in the resulting pickle drawn out from the flesh by the salt).

brine pickle = pickle, a mixture of brine and fish body fluids extracted by immersion in the brine.

brine shrimp = Artemia nauplii are used as food for fry in aquaria and, to a limited extent, adult brine shrimp may be fed to larger fish. They are not very nutritious and should not be used as the sole food. The nauplii are hatched from purchased cysts in warm, aerated, saline water and must be rinsed to remove salt before feeding to fry. Also known as "Sea Monkeys" and sold as such in comics.

brine storage = storing fish in brine until required for further processing or sale.

brined fish = fish immersed in brine as a treatment before further processing.

briner = a person who immerses fish in brine during brining.

brining = immersion of fish in brine before smoking, drying or canning for reasons of flavouring. Dye may be added before smoking.

brink = the gill of a fish (Cornish dialect).

brinometer = brine gauge.

Brisoletten = Fischfrikadellen (cod, coalfish or other white fish made into rissoles by mixing with binding materials and spices, then roasted, fried or hot-smoked, after cooling. Also packed in cans or glass jars usually with vinegar and spices (Germany). Marketed as semi-preserves or canned).

bristle = a stiff hair-like structure.

bristle-tipped float pole = a very sensitive pole float, q.v., with a fine plastic bristle tip.

brit = 1) the young of herring and like fishes. Also spelled britt.

brit = 2) a small sprat-like fish which heralds the approach of a shoal of herrings.

Brit = 3) Brian W. Coad.

britch = fish scored deeply with a knife to facilitate the process of boiling.

britches = breech.

britchet(s) = breech.

britchin'(s) = breech.

British Columbian trawl = a midwater trawl set from the stern. It has curved doors (q.v.) at the end of wire side pennants (or lines) which allows for a wider opening of the net when fishing. The mouth of the net is square and the net has four equally tapering sides. There is no cod end but a section of the net can be opened to empty the catch. The headline has aluminium planing floats, which cause the net to arch upwards, and an iron depressor at each lower corner of the net to pull downwards. Used to catch herring.

British gold = the cod (Gadus morhua), said by William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, in reference to giving fishing rights at Newfoundland to the French when he criticised this part of the Treaty of Paris (1763) in Parliament.

britt = brit.

broach of eels = eels, spitted on a stick or some other sharpened object. Also called a stick of eels, q.v.

broad flake = a platform raised on poles and covered with boughs on which large split cod (or flakes) are laid to dry in Newfoundland.

broadcast spawner = release of eggs and sperm into the water for external fertilisation without parental care.

Brockman body = large and very visible islets of Langerhans (endocrine pancreatic tissue) evident in some fishes.

brodle = broddle.

broddle = to probe in the water with a stick for fish (English dialect).

brog = broggle.

broggle = to fish for eels, by troubling or agitating the water (English dialect).

brogue = broggle.

broiled eel = a popular summer delicacy in Japan.

broken fish = dried and salted cod with an irregular surface, a defect (Newfoundland).

broken ice = ice covering five-tenths to eight-tenths of the water surface. Also called loose ice, loose pack ice, open ice, open pack ice, slack ice.

Bronsonian knot = a knot formed in the body towards the tail and which is moved towards the head in a living Gymnothorax and also presumably in hagfishes. Used to gain purchase in tearing off a mouthful of food from a large piece or in trying to escape from a hook.

brood = 1) a group of fish spawned at the same time.

brood = 2) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for dogfish.

brood = 3) a race, a kind.

brood fish = sexually mature fish, especially those used in aquaculture.

brood hider = an ecological group of reproductive guilds (q.v.) where fish hide their eggs but ds not care for them.

brood pond = a pond in which breeders are held before spawning.

brood pouch = brood-pouch.

brood stock = broodstock.

brood year = the year in which the eggs were fertilised and spawned. In some species, e.g. Salmonidae, the eggs overwinter so the eggs hatch in the following year.

brood-pouch = marsupium (the name applied to the brood-pouch in Syngnathidae and Solenostomidae. In Syngnathidae it consists of a vascularised groove formed by flaps of skin along the underside of the tail of males (subcaudal marsupium); in Solenostomidae it is a pouch formed by the pelvic fins, provided with many long filaments, and found only in the female (ventral fin marsupium)).

brooding establishment = a hatchery, where fish are hatched artificially.

broodline = the generation of pink salmon that reproduces every other year. Even-year pink salmon are reproductively isolated from odd-year pink salmon.

broodstock = mature fish retained at a hatchery to produce eggs and young. The term can include younger fish eventually to be used as spawners but not yet mature. May be used for eggs or juveniles from which subsequent generations will be produced.

broodstock pond = a pond constructed for broodstock.

brook = a small fast-flowing stream, often emerging from a spring, and generally defined as not formed from tributaries. Has a rocky bottom rocky bottom, can be quite wide but often is of no great depth. Also called creek but may be smaller than a creek in some definitions.

brooklet = a small brook.

broose = brewis.

broth = usually as fish broth, meaning water (slang).

brown cuprinol = a chemical once used to preserve fibrous fishing nets.

brown muscle = dark meat (muscle from just under the skin on each side of a fish that is darker and richer in fat than other flesh. Also called blood meat, dark muscle, red muscle).

brown trout = 1) Salmo trutta, a popular Eurasian sport fish, widely introduced.

brown trout = 2) piece of excrement (slang). See also blind mullet.

brownbow = a hybrid of rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and male brown trout (Salmo trutta).

browning = discolouration of fish, especially of dried or canned products, caused by a deteriorative reaction between amino groups of proteins and carbonyl groups of sugars during storage. There are also flavour changes and loss of some nutritive value. Known as the Maillard reaction or non-enzymatic browning reaction.

browse = bruised or damaged fish used as bait (Cornish dialect).

browser = fish that feed by scraping biofilm or aufwuchs, q.v.

Bruce = 1) the nickname of the mechanical great white sharks used in the movie "Jaws", purportedly named for Steven Spielberg's lawyer, Bruce Ramer.

Bruce = 2) the shark in the computer animated film "Finding Nemo".

bruck = the offal of fish or of cattle (British dialect).

bruis = brewis.

bruise = brewis.

bruse = brewis.

brush trap = see brushwood fishery and eel tuft.

brush weir = barricade.

brushpile = small to large piles of brushwood and tree limbs lying in the water, either occurring naturally or made up as a protective area for fishes. See also brushwood fishery.

brushwood fishery = large piles of brushwood deposited in the water forming a habitat or hiding place for fishes. The brushwood can be hauled out en masse to capture the fishes or surrounded by nets and shaken.

BThreshold = minimum stock size threshold or MSST. At stock sizes below BThreshold, the stock is considered to be overfished.

Bu = a photophore above the hind end of the upper jaw in Myctophidae. Formerly called macula buccae by some authors.

Bubba = a Queensland grouper fish that died on 22 August 2006 at the Shedd Aquarium, Chicago. He was given to the aquarium in 1987 by an anonymous donor and at that that time was a female about 10 inches long but, being a protogynous hermaphrodite, became male in the mid-1990s and eventually grew to be 69.3 kg. Bubba was famous for probably being the first fish to receive chemotherapy, to treat a growth on his forehead. He was a favourite with visitors, especially children with cancer. Also called the super grouper.

bubble curtain = bubble fence.

bubble feeding = the entrapment of a school of fish (or krill) by whales. A series of bubbles are blown out by the whale as it swims to the surface. The bubbles form a ringing curtain that rises to the surface of the water and concentrates the prey in the center. The whale charges through this curtain with its mouth open, engulfing the fish.

bubble fence = a stream of bubbles from a perforated hose or pipe used to control fish movements. Also called bubble curtain or bubble screen.

bubble filter = an internal filter in an aquarium using a series of lift tubes to draw water through a foam block.

bubble float = in angling, a round and hollow float made of clear plastic and with stoppers that allow water to be added to adjust casting weight. Used to present a floating bait to rudd or carp in Europe.

bubble nest = nests composed of bubbles and secretions built by Anabantidae. Serves as a protective coating for the eggs and newly hatched young.

bubble screen = bubble fence.

bubble-eye goldfish = goldfish (Carassius auratus) having upward directed eyes accompanied by fluid-filled sacs. The fluid can be extracted for studies on its growth-promoting effects on fish cell cultures; the fluid regenerates and the fish need not be sacrificed.

bubbly-fisher = a fisherman who fails to catch any fish (Scottish dialect).

bubonic disease = boil disease.

buccal = 1) relating to the mouth cavity.

buccal = 2) in relation to teeth, referring to the cheek side.

buccal cavity = the mouth cavity.

buccal cirrus = one of the tentacles surrounding the entrance to the vestibule which leads to the mouth in Amphioxi. Used as an aid in securing food.

buccal funnel = the cone-shaped cavity leading to the mouth in Petromyzontiformes.

buccal gland = the gland in Petromyzontiformes which secretes a saliva-like fluid having anticoagulant, haemolytic and cytolytic properties; the secretion is called lamphredin.

buccal incubation = oral incubation (mouth-breeding or the care and hatching of fertilized eggs in the mouth. Also called, less aptly, oral gestation, e.g. certain Apogonidae, Ariidae, Anabantidae, Osteoglossidae).

buccal photophore = a light organ just above the end of the jaw in Myctophidae. Abbreviated Bu.

buccal valve = oral valve (the flap attached just inside the jaws which stop water escaping from the mouth during exhalation, helping to maintain a unidirectional flow. Usually a valve is found just inside the ring of teeth in the jaw. Posterior valves may also be present).

bucco-branchial incubation = the retention of eggs near or on the gills until hatching, e.g. in certain species of Apogon (Apogonidae).

bucco-hypophysial canal = the canal between the pituitary and the roof of the pharynx, probably representing a persistent Rathke's pouch and possibly having a secretory function, e.g. in Elops, Polypterus, Calamoichthys.

bucco-pharyngeal incubation = the retention of eggs in the mouth and pharyngeal cavities, e.g. in Apogonidae, presumably similar to or a continuation of bucco-branchial incubation.

bucco-pharyngeal papilla = one of the small protuberances on the inner mouth lining and the beginning of the gut.

bucco-pharynx = that part of the mouth used to house larvae and eggs in species which use buccal incubation.

buccopharynx = bucco-pharynx.

bucht = a certain measure of the length of a coil of fishing line. Also called bicht or bight.

buck = 1) male sturgeon or male fish generally, sometimes referring to a spawning male.

buck = 2) a large basket used to catch eels. Also called eel buck.

buck-weel = a bow-net for fish (obsolete).

bucket mouth = angling slang for a large fish, usually a bass.

buckhorn = dried cod, because it is very tough.

buckler = 1) bony shield, scute, modified scales associated with unpaired fins with a presumed hydrodynamic function.

buckler = 2) a circular piece of wood used with a lever to press dried and salted fish into barrels or casks.

buckling = a large fat herring, sometimes headed, lightly salted and hot smoked (correctly Bückling). Also called pickling in the U.S.A.

bucktail = 1) a streamer fly dressed with hair from a deer's tail, resembling a fish. Adds bulk and attraction to a lure. Usually has a long segment of hair, layered back from the hook eye to the hook bend. Also simply the hair from a deer's tail used in tying dry flies and bucktails.

bucktail = 2) jig (one to several bare hooks attached to a weighted line. The hook(s) may have a lead head (lead molded around the hook) and be dressed with, or have a skirt of, rubber, hair, silicone or plastic).

bud = an undifferentiated protuberance that appears at the initial formation of the paired fins.

büddi = buddie (a straw creel (q.v.) (Scottish dialect). Also spelled buidy, buithy, böddie or bødi).

buddie = a straw creel (q.v.) (Scottish dialect). Also spelled büddi, buidy, buithy, böddie or bødi).

buff = to steep salted herrings in water and hang them up (Scotland).

buffed herring = salted herring steeped in water, swollen out (Scotland).

buffer = an alkaline substance with a pH over 7.0 added to preserving fluids to neutralise acids (formalin may turn acidic and should be buffered for long-term storage of fish) or to aquaria to stabilise pH.

buffer zone = an area that separates the core from human interference, as in a core off-limits to fishing.

bug colony = a colony of beetles (usually Dermestes) used for cleaning large fish skeletons of flesh. Also called dermestid colony.

bug fly = a cork-bodied surface fly imitating various aquatic and terrestrial organisms for angling.

buidy = buddie (a straw creel (q.v.) (Scottish dialect). Also spelled büddi, buithy, böddie or bødi).

buithy = buddie (a straw creel (q.v.) (Scottish dialect). Also spelled büddi, buidy, böddie or bødi).

bukat = bykat.

Bukelz, William = see Beukel, William.

bulb = the rounded swelling forming the main body of the esca or bait at the end of the illicium or fishing rod in anglerfishes.

bulbiform = bulb-shaped.

bulbous = swollen or rounded in shape.

bulbus = bulbous.

bulbus arteriosus = a chamber in the heart, q.v., of teleosts (see conus arteriosus in elasmobranchs). The bulbus arteriosus is the enlarged base of the ventral aorta and is incapable of muscular pulsation (unlike the conus arteriosus) but it is elastic and can enlarge or shrink in response to change in blood pressure.

bulbus oculi = eyeball.

bulbus olfactorius = olfactory bulb (a large organ of smell, e.g. in sharks. This is the most anterior part of the brain but is distinct from the telencephalon while anteriorly it merges with the olfactory nerve).

bulbus organ = electroreceptor (an organ which detects the presence of an electric current).

bulbus prop = a mushroom-shaped support for the eyeball in Elasmobranchii.

bulk = 1) to pile split and salted cod during the curing process or, when dry, for storage (Newfoundland).

bulk = 2) the quantity of herring nets shot at one time, about 50 yards.

bulk cure = salmon, cod and related species salted in alternating layers of split fish and salt and arranged so the resulting fluid (pickle) can drain away. Also called kench cure, salt bulk, bulk salted fish, round cure, round salted fish and bulk cure.

bulk fish = split and salted cod, either undried or dried and stacked for shipment.

bulk food = food of large volume and low nutritive value used in aquaculture.

bulk of food = the main mass of food, especially stomach contents.

bulk pen = a large pound on a trawler for placing cod in layers of ice.

bulk salted fish = bulk cure.

bulk shot = a heavy split shot or several shot grouped together on a fishing line. Usually placed below the halfway point between float and hook and used to sink a bait rapidly.

bulk stowage = fish mixed with ice in layers 45 cm deep on board ships at sea.

bulked fish = bulk fish.

bulking = storing loose whole fish mixed with layers of ice in a fish hold or room on a vessel. Also called bulk stowage.

bull = the boat which shoots or hauls the net in bull or pair trawling.

bull net = deep gill nets, very efficient at catching fish.

bull rope = lazy deckie (a rope to haul the cod end to a ship's side).

bull trawling = pair trawling (bottom or mid-water trawling by two vessels towing the same net. Very large nets can be towed in this manner by relatively small boats and the net is generally hauled alternately aboard the two vessels for processing of the catch).

bulla prootica = a swollen bony sheath which encloses the utriculus, q.v.

bulla pterotica = a swollen bony sheath which encloses the sacculus, q.v., and is surrounded by the horizontal semicircular canal in Clupeoidei.

bullate = having a puckered or blistered appearance.

bulldog cod = a deformed Gadus morhua here the upper part of the head has a crown-like shape. Also called seal head cod. Called king cod in Norway and thought to bring good luck and to lead schools of cod to that country.

bullet = a bright fresh fish.

bullet sinker = a cone shaped lead weight that slides up and down a fishing line.

Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature = the official periodical of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature.

bullpen trap = use of nets forming a large enclosure to trap fish in Hawaii.

bully = 1) to transfer cod from a net to vessel for splitting (Labrador).

bully = 2) fishes which are short and thick-set (English dialect).

bully net = dip-net (a bag-shaped net held open by a square or rounded frame on the end of a long pole. Used to scoop fish from the water).

bultow fishing = a series of hooks on snoods set along one line. Also called spilliard fishing, trawl fishing or spillet fishing. See also boulter, spiller, trot line, longline, etc.

bultys = a moored fishing line, with snoods and many hooks attached; used for catching conger, pollack, etc. (Cornish dialect).

bummaree = fish-jobbers or middlemen in Billingsgate Market in London who buy fish from salesmen and then retail them. Corruption of bonne marée (good fresh fish or the seller thereof).

bummareeing = to buy up large quantities of fish to sell retail.

bump = taking of bait by a fish. Also called bite, hit and strike.

bump-net = a stiff net of chicken wire on a long handle, held near the wash of an outboard motor, used to catch male shad (Alosa sapidissima) in California. The shad are attracted by the prop wash, bump into the net and must then be flicked into the boat.

bump-troll = maintaining a trolled bait in the same spot by putting the boat engine in and out of gear (bumping) to hold position.

bumper = a full catch or load of fish.

bumper line = shock tippet (in angling, a heavy section of leader above the fly as protection against abrasion and the teeth of the fish).

bumping = when a lure hits a log, rock, bottom or other structure in a controlled manner in order to attract a bite.

bunch = school (a group of fishes, usually constituted of the same species, which tends to orient and move in the same direction. There are obligate and facultative schoolers. The latter can only be forced to stop schooling momentarily by considerable violence and will not maintain a state of random orientation. See aggregation).

bund = 1) the elevated rim around a constructed pond.

bund = 2) an impoundment used to simulate riverine conditions for breeding major carps. May be perennial or seasonal, common in India.

bundh = bund.

Bunfished = the unfished or pristine biomass.

bung = a small conical piece of plastic inside a fishing rod used as an anchor to hold the end of an elastic, q.v.

bunt = 1) the bag part in a seine or the strengthened, central part of a purse seine, where fish are concentrated when hauling in the net. Also called bag.

bunt = 2) the section of the lower wing of a trawl, overhung by the square.

buoy = a float moored to the bottom that marks a navigational channel, a position such as a shoal, a wreck or a net or trap. Also used to show the position of an anchor for attaching a boat and then called a mooring buoy. Pronounced "boy" in English and "boo-ee" in American. Variously coloured and shaped, of widely different sizes, and may have a whistle, bell or gong.

buoy pole = a buoy with a pole sticking out the top so it can be seen at a distance.

buoyancy compensator = buoyancy control device. Abbreviated as BC.

buoyancy control device = an expandable bladder in the form of an expandable vest used with scuba apparatus. It can be inflated with air from the scuba tank to increase buoyancy while diving and is used for resting, swimming or lending assistance to others under water. It is deflated by special air-dump valves or hoses. Also called a buoyancy compensator (BC). Abbreviated as BCD.

buoyant egg = a free-floating or pelagic egg.

burden = a parcel of fish (Scottish dialect). Also called back burden.

Burial of the Sardine = a Spanish ceremony (Entierro de la sardina) marking the end of carnival and other festivities. An effigy of a sardine is burned after a parade resembling a funeral procession. Such ceremonies symbolise interment of the past and rebirth.

burley = berley, an erroneous spelling.

burn = 1) a small stream, rivulet, or brook (Scottish and Saxon).

burn = 2) in processing cod, too much sun or salt exposure, spoiling the fish.

burn = 3) burn the water.

burn the water = to kill salmon at night with a leister (q.v.) using a light to see (English and Scottish dialect).

burning = retrieving a fishing lure fast enough to cause it to splash at the surface. Also called ripping or buzzing.

buro = dry salted and split freshwater fish, repacked with rice, salt and a fermenting agent (Philippines).

burping = applying pressure on the sides of a fish taken from depth to release expanded air from the air bladder.

bursa = a purse from the Latin and so used for any enclosed sac or pouch.

bursa entiana = a chamber-like enlargement found in the pyloric part of the stomach of some Elasmobranchii.

burst = a sudden and violent appearance of a shoal of fish.

burst belly = severe belly burn resulting in a ruptured abdomen, usually in pelagic fishes.

burst speed = the maximum speed a fish can maintain for a short period (5-10 seconds). Used in seizing prey or escaping a predator. Also called darting speed.

bush rope = the main rope to which the row of herring drifting gill nets are attached.

busk = to dress flies for fishing.

busker = a fisherman who dares all weathers (Cornish dialect).

busktail = a lure or streamer fly having a tail made of long strands of deer hair.

busom = bosom.

busum = bosom.

buss = a boat used in fishing for herrings (English dialect).

bustard = a large moth or artificial bait for fish (English dialect).

but = butt (3).

but = butt (4).

butt = 1) a cask or barrel used to pickle or store fish. Held 4 quintals of fish, 1 quintal in Lunenburg Nova Scotia being 112 pounds.

butt = 2) the bottom or reel end of a fishing rod.

butt = 3) putt (a tapering basket used in making fish weirs on the Wye and Severn rivers of England. Putts are placed in groups of six or nine between pairs of stakes, each group between two stakes is called a puttcher. Also called kype).

butt = 4) any flatfish (English dialect).

butt end = part of the sound-bone or backbone closest to the head of a cod fish (Newfoundland).

butt cure = fish that have been treated with salt in a watertight container (or butt) so that the fish are cured in the pickle that is formed.

butt indicator = a hinged bite indicator clipping onto a fishing rod just above the butt ring. Used in windy conditions as its position can be more easily protected.

butt rest = a small u-shaped rod rest for holding the handle of a fishing rod when ledgering or float fishing.

butt ring = the first ring on a fishing rod above the reel. This ring is usually larger than other rings to facilitate casting.

butt seat = a half-moon seat used by anglers to lean against. Also called bike seat.

butt section = the thicker end of a tapered leader that is tied to a fly line.

butt-end = butt end.

butter a whiting = to flatter or wheedle (English and Scottish dialect). See also "give one whitings but (= without) bones".

butterflied = prepared as a butterfly fillet.

butterfly = an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called arm, banana, boomerang, dan leno arm, dan leno bracket, dan leno spreader, devil's elbow, spreader bar.

butterfly dropper knot = a knot in angling used to form a loop in the main line. May slip if not properly tightened and best for heavier lines. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

butterfly fillet = a fillet from each side of a fish left joined together (usually at the gut region but can be at the backbone) after removal from the backbone. Also called angel fillet, cutlet, double fillet or when smoked golden cutlet.

butterfly net = a net with two wings shaped like those of a butterfly in the form of an oval scoop net. Used on Mexican lakes.

button-up fry = a salmonid fry that has not completely absorbed its yolk sac and has emerged from its spawning gravel (stages at 45°F in chinook salmon are green = 0 days, eyed = 38 days, sack fry = 69 days, swim up = 92 days and button up = 115 days).

buttoned fry = button-up fry.

buy-back = the purchase of vessels and fishing licences from producers by a government agency to reduce fishing effort and capacity.

buzz bar = a horizontal bar screwing onto the top of a rod pod, q.v. Multiple rod rests can be screwed in the buzz bar supporting several rods at once.

buzzbait = buzzer.

buzzer = 1) a spinner designed to make a disturbance in the water's surface by means of rotating blades.

buzzer = 2) an inline spinner with a prop blade instead of a normal blade.

buzzing = retrieving a fishing lure fast enough to cause it to splash at the surface. Also called ripping or burning.

BWD = body weight daily (a measure of food requirement and/or uptake expressed as a percentage or as a decimal fraction).

by boat = bye boat

by boat fishery = cod fishery made from small boats in inshore waters.

by boat keeper = a man who operates inshore fishing craft (Newfoundland).

by boatman = a fisherman engaged in the inshore cod fishery using small craft in Newfoundland.

by (the) salmon = an oath (obsolete). See also so help me salmon.

by-catch = bycatch.

by-product = any part of the catch which is kept or sold by the fisher but which is not the target species.

bycatch = fishes caught incidental to the target species; also called incidental catch or accidental catch. These fishes are usually of lesser value than the target species, and are often discarded. Some bycatch species are of commercial value and are retained for sale. The bycatch often consists of the juveniles of commercial species, and their loss has a deleterious impact on the overall yield obtained from a certain area. In a commercial fishery there are economic discards (fish thrown away for economic reasons, e.g. too small, damaged, not enough commercially value, etc.) and regulatory discards (fish thrown away because of the regulations as to size or species allowed to the fishery). Fish released alive under catch-and-release management programmes are not considered as bycatch. Also spelled by-catch.

bycatch excluder device = a mechanism attached to a net (such as the cod end of a trawl) to allow the escape of young fish or of other, endangered species such as turtles, seals and dolphins.

bycatch reduction device = bycatch excluder device.

bye-boat = a small inshore fishing boat in Newfoundland. Undecked and of varying design, size and rig. Originally owned and operated by fishermen coming from England annually to take cod.

bye-boat fishery = cod fishery made from small boats in inshore waters.

bye-boat keeper = a man who operates inshore fishing craft (Newfoundland).

bye-boatman = a fisherman engaged in the inshore cod fishery using small craft in Newfoundland.

bykat = a male salmon based on its development of a kype (Angus dialect). Also spelled beikat and bukat.

bykill = bycatch.

bypass = bypass channel.

bypass channel = a channel running along the side of an aquaculture pond. Used to regulate water level. See also supply channel.

bypass systems = moving screens lowered into turbine intakes to divert fish away from turbines at hydroelectric dams. Bypassed fish can then be returned directly to the river below the dam. In some cases facilities exist to load bypassed fish onto barges or trucks for transport to a release site downstream from all dams in a series.

C

C = 1) abbreviation for caudal fin.

C = 2) abbreviation for caudal fin rays.

C = 3) Carboniferous, a period within the Palaeozoic Era ca. 365-290 million years ago.

C = 4) the Roman numeral 100.

C = 5) degrees centigrade, a measure of temperature. Note that 12°C is a temperature while 12C° is a number of degrees or a range, e.g. 20-31°C inclusive.

c. = 1) abbreviation for cum, meaning with.

c. = 2) abbreviation for circa, meaning approximately, about.

c & s = cleared and stained (a specimen with some tissues rendered transparent by various chemical treatments while others are stained to enhance their visibility. In fish osteological studies, the flesh is cleared with enzymes or potassium hydroxide and the bones stained red with alizarin red S and the cartilage blue with alcian blue).

C1 = principal caudal fin ray.

C2 = procurrent caudal fin rays.

C/E = catch per unit effort.

ca. = abbreviation for circa, meaning approximately, about.

caal = a mill-dam or weir; the outlet of water from a dam (English dialect).

caapie = cappie.

caavie = kavi (a sinker on a fishing line (Scottish dialect). Also spelled kaavie).

cabbie = a small cod caught near the shore, not big enough for salting down and selling, but of a nice size for eating fresh (Scottish dialect). Also spelled kabbi or kabby.

cabe = to steal fish from the nets or the carts which carry them to the curing cellars (Cornish dialect).

cabelew = cod or pike hung and salted for a few days but not thoroughly dried (Scottish dialect). Also spelled cabylou, kabbilow and kabbelow.

cabesta = the space between the hook and lead in a fishing line (Cornish dialect).

cable = 1) a formerly used, horizontal, nautical measurement. Traditionally 120 fathoms, 720 feet, 219.4 m or 0.1185 nautical mile. The British Navy used the cable to equal exactly 0.1 nautical mile, 608 feet or 185.3 m.

cable = 2) to entangle or twist a net (Newfoundland).

caboolen stone = a stone suspended from a rope, and kept continually plunging, in order to scare pilchards when in the net, and prevent them from escaping (Cornish dialect).

cabylou = cabelow.

cachexia = weight loss, muscle wasting, loss of appetite, and general debility, usually due to a chronic disease, or malnutrition.

cade = an older name for a cask used to pack and measure fish. A cade of herring comprised 720 fish, a cade of sprats at Aldborough was a thousand. Also spelled caid.

cader = a small wooden frame on which a fisherman keeps his line (English dialect).

cadger = an itinerant dealer in fish (English dialect).

caducous = readily shed, deciduous, e.g. scales in Clupea which are easily detached.

caeca = plural of caecum.

caecum (plural caeca) = a blindly ending sac arising from the gut or other hollow organ, e.g. pyloric caeca, q.v.

caecum cloacae = a gland of unknown function communicating with the cloaca of Dipnoi.

caenogenetic = of recent origin.

Cænozoic = Cenozoic.

Café de Paris butter = a mixture of herbs and spices, Worcestershire sauce, and the ichthyological ingredient, anchovies, whipped into a butter. The butter is shaped into a roll and a piece is sliced off and allowed to melt on hot meat.

caff = refuse or unsaleable fish (Cornish dialect).

caffler = to deal in caff or unsaleable fish (Cornish dialect).

cage = a box-shaped enclosure of wire or netting used for controlled aquaculture in open water.

cage culture = rearing of fish in cages, on the bottom or floating. Cages may be made of wire or netting.

cage reel = 1) a fishing reel that is light, made of wire and has donut-shaped spool.

cage-reel = 2) a fishing reel with spools (called skeleton spools) and side plates with pieces cut out to ventilate the line.

cage swimfeeder = in angling, an open-ended plastic or metal mesh container filled with bait. Its structure allows more rapid release of bait through the mesh and it offers less resistance to water currents so that less weights are needed to hold it on the bottom.

CAGEAN = catch-at-age-analysis; the estimated number of fish caught, tabulated by fish age and year of capture, and by other factors such as gear or nation. Catch-at-age may be estimated on the basis of catch-at-size, using age-length keys or cohort slicing.

cahill = coghel.

cain fish = cane fish.

caid = cade.

caisie = cassie.

caiss = cassie.

caisy = cassie.

Caisson's disease = gas bubble disease. Supersaturated gases (>125%) in water entering the the body fluids of fish causing bubbles, an embolism. Also called bends or decompression sickness.

caivel = dividing fish from a catch by lots (British dialect).

cake = fish cake (1) fish flesh mixed with potatoes, seasoning and sometimes eggs, butter and onions and formed into cakes or patties and fried in fat).

cake = fish cake (2) fish before drying in the manufacturing process for fish meal).

calcareous spherule = otoconium (ear dust; a minute transparent calcite crystal with well developed faces secreted within the labyrinth and mixed with mineral particles or otarenae).

calcified cartilage = cartilage containing calcium salts and thus strengthened and hardened. Found in vertebrae and teeth.

calcitran = a substance produced by the ultimobranchial gland (q.v.) which helps regulate the calcium level.

calcium cyanamide = CaCN3, used in aquaculture as a pond disinfectant, especially for Myxosoma cerebralis, the cause of whirling disease. Also called lime nitrogen.

calcium generator = a device maintaining the calcium level in an aquarium having corals. Carbon dioxide and a calcium-rich medium are injected into the aquarium, the carbon dioxide reducing the pH and dissolving the calcium medium for uptake by the corals. Calcium level is about 420 p.p.m.

calcium reactor = calcium generator.

Calcutta style = a fishing tournament where each fisherman or boat contributes fees which are given out as prizes.

caldera lake = a lake formed in a caldera. See also crater lake.

calf = a large piece broken off an iceberg, glacier or floe. See calve.

caliculate = cup-shaped.

calculi = plural of calculus.

calculus = a solid concretion made up of minerals and salts; found in ducts, cysts, hollow organs, etc in fishes, notably urinary ducts.

caldeirada = a Portuguese fish stew with potatoes onions, garlic, tomatoes and parsley. A wide variety of fishes are used including skates, sardines, tuna, mackerel, halibut, flounder, monkfish, cod and haddock.

Californian incubator = a horizontal tray for hatching eggs, especially salmonids.

Californian tray = Californian incubator.

caliology = the study of nests, burrows, tubes, etc. constructed by animals.

calipers = an instrument used to measure thickness or length of an object, such as structures on a fish, comprising a sliding, graduated scale (vernier) and points or jaws. May record distance or width by means of a vernier, a dial or electronically.

call-back = the weir or dam put across a river or stream to turn water to the mill (English dialect).

call-head = the top of a weir or dam crossing a stream (English dialect).

callar = caller.

caller = fresh, in proper season, newly caught or gathered, not flabby or stale, said of fish and vegetables (English dialect). Also spelled callour, callar, calour, caloure, calloure, callowr, and callor.

callicarpone = a plant piscicide from leaves of Callicarpa candicans (Verbenaceae), used in the Caroline and Philippine islands. Other piscicidal plant chemicals include huratoxin, ichthyothereol, inophyllolide, juglone, justicidin, maingayic acid, rotenone, and vibsanine, all q.v.

callor = caller.

callour = caller.

calloure = caller.

callous pad = pharyngeal pad (the covering of the pharyngeal process against which the pharyngeal teeth grind food).

callowr = caller.

callus = any, hard thickened epidermal area, usually the result of irritation or friction.

calour = caller.

caloure = caller.

calve = to break off a portion or calf, as of an iceberg, glacier or floe.

calver salmon = a fish dressed as soon as it is caught (Lancashire dialect).

calvert salmon = a salmon recently caught and still warm (English dialect). Also spelled colvert salmon.

calyculate = covered by cup-shaped structures.

cambered otter board = an otter board, q.v., of trawl curved in fore and aft directions.

Cambrian = the earliest period of the Palaeozoic Era, ca. 570-504 million years ago. Abbreviated as Є.

camera = a chamber or cavity, e.g. those containing the otoliths in the ear.

camera aerea Weberiana = a cranial diverticulum of the gas ladder which separates from the main portion. It can disappear or remain small.

cameral = a spawned haddock (Scottish dialect). Also spelled camerel, cawmril, kameril and kemerel.

camerel = cameral.

cammo lead = a camouflaged lead weight used by anglers and meant to disguise its presence from fish

camp = fish camp (a camp used as a base for angling by a group of people; may be very simple or have accommodation and other facilities).

camptotrich = camptotrichium.

camptotrichia = plural of camptotrichium.

camptotrichium (plural camptotrichia) = rays which support the fin membranes in Dipnoi and Crossopterygii. Actinotrichia are not found distal to the camptotrichia in the fin membrane. This suggests that they are homologous to the ceratotrichia of Elasmobranchii but for the fact that they are segmented, branched and more or less ossified like lepidotrichia. They are covered with scales. It is not clear whether they are segmented and branched actinotrichia or lepidotrichia which have lost their terminal actinotrichia.

can = a hermetically sealed container. Fish are often sterilised and canned.

canal = 1) an artificial watercourse, usually with clearly defined banks and depths, controlled water levels, and often locks to allow movement of vessels between different levels. Canals may allow movements of fishes between previously unconnected drainages.

canal = 2) in anatomy, an open or closed channel; a tube or tubule.

canal bone = one of series of bones of dermal origin that enclose the neuromasts and seismosensory canals. May be formed from one or more ossification centres. Also called sensory canal bone or sense organ bone.

canal catapult = in European angling, a small catapult used in restricted areas like canals to deliver ground bait to an area as an attractant to fish.

canal neuromast = sense organs found in lateral line canals in the dermis. See also superficial or free neuromasts, large pit organs and small pit organs.

canal stand = in European angling, a small metal platform for bait and gear that stands by itself on the hard canal banks.

caniculate = with grooves or channels.

canaliculi = plural of canaliculus.

canaliculus (plural canaliculi) = 1) a small branch of a canal or duct; a groove or tubular channel.

canaliculus (plural canaliculi) = 2) a small tubule interconnecting lacunae to neighbouring capillaries.

canalis hæmalis (plural canales hæmales) = haemal canal (the tube formed by all the haemal arches, through which run the caudal vein and dorsal aorta).

canales hæmales = plural of canalis hæmalis.

canalis neuralis (canales neurales) = neural canal (the spinal cord canal through the neural arches).

canales neurales = plural of canalis neuralis.

canalis Sclemmii = a circular vessel located in the angle between the annular ligament (which binds the iris and cornea) and the cornea.

canales semicirculares = plural of canalis semicircularis.

canalis semicircularis (plural canales semicirculares) = semicircular ear canal (fluid-filled canals embedded in the cranium and concerned with balance and hearing. Gnathostomata have 3 canals, lampreys have 2 (lacking a horizontal canal), and hagfishes have only one canal, perhaps appearing secondarily by the joining of two canals). Fossil Cyclostomata my have had 7 or more semicircular canals.

cancellous = having cavities, spongy, porous, or reticulate, usually of bone.

candidate species = a fish species being considered for protection, e.g. under the Endangered Species Act in the U.S.A.

candle = the rubbery sheath enclosing the fertilised eggs of Squalus acanthias. It dissolves after several months and the pups are free to develop in the uterus.

candlefish = the eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus, Osmeridae) which is so fatty that it can be dried, threaded with a wick and used as a candle. See also grease trail.

candling = placing fish or fish fillets on a transparent table illuminated from below so that parasites and defects can be detected by the light shining through the flesh.

candy bait = in angling, slang for squid used as bait.

cane fish = rent for fishing, paid in kind (Northumberland dialect). Also spelled cain, kain and kane fish.

cane pole = a long bamboo pole used in stillwater fishing, with the line attached to the tip but without a reel or line guides.

Canestrini's organ = a bony process or plate at the base of the first (unbranched) and second (first branched) ray of the pectoral fin of male Cobitis.

Canestrini's scale = Canestrini's organ.

canine = a large, pointed, conical or blade-like tooth. Usually distinctly larger than surrounding teeth and few in number. Some are hinged to permit entry but hinder escape of prey. Often found in carnivores, e.g. in some Blenniidae, Serranidae, Labridae.

caniniform = shaped like canine teeth. Caniniform teeth are used to grasp, pierce and restrain prey and may be hinged and depressible to allow prey to be swallowed, locked erect to capture prey.

canister filter = an efficient form of aquarium filter comprising a canister internal or external to the aquarium. A pump forces water through the canister with its contained biological (bio-substrate), chemical (carbon) and physical (floss) filters. Canisters need to be cleaned regularly. External canisters are not normally used for small aquaria.

canned fish = fish packed in metal containers with hermetic sealing and heating to destroy bacteria. Pickled fish with a pH below 4.5 require less heat than fish products with a higher pH. Some fish types do not can well, e.g. those with white flesh, as major changes in colour, texture and flavour occur in processing. Fatty fish species such as herring, mackerel, salmon and tuna make good canned products.

canned fish ball = haddock or a related type of fish flesh made into balls with potato-flour and cereals, and put in a fish bouillon. Often stored in a one-pound can where they may be heated before serving, or removed and fried or baked. Found in Scandinavia.

Cannery Row = where sardines were canned in Monterey, California and the title of a 1945 book by John Steinbeck.

cannibal viviparity = uterine cannibalism (the condition in some sharks where the embryos feed on eggs and smaller siblings inside the mother).

cannibalism = eating members of one's own species, common in fishes.

cannonball = a very heavy, round weight (up to 12 lbs or 5.5 kg) used in deepwater fishing with downriggers.

canoe = a light, long and narrow boat with pointed ends, curved sides and paddles for propulsion. Often light enough to be carried around obstructions by one person.

canopy = overhanging vegetation, branches and leaves, providing shade and cover for fishes. Crown cover is greater than 1 metre above the water surface while overhanging cover is less than this (or less than 0.3 m). The latter in particular provides protection for fish from insolation and aerial predators.

cantal = quintal (q.v.).

canthaxanthin = an orange-red carotenoid pigment found particularly in salmonid flesh derived from the diet and sometimes added to the diet of cultured fish. It is not a permitted food additive in some countries. See also astaxanthin.

cantor = a small frame of wood on which a fisherman keeps his line (Cornish dialect).

canyon = 1) a deep gorge with steep sides and often a stream, characteristic of arid and semi-arid regions.

canyon = 2) a relatively narrow, deep depression with steep sides, the bottom of which generally has a continuous slope, developed characteristically on some continental slopes in the ocean.

cap = a cover over a container extending down on all sides, a jar lid. For liquid-preserved specimens like fish polypropylene caps are preferred as metal lids eventually rust and harder plastic lids crack.

cap liner = a flat disc fitting inside a cap ensuring a tighter seal. Cardboard liners usually shrink away from the lid when used with liquid-preserved specimens like fish and foam polyethylene liners are preferred.

cap net = any net used to retain or hold fish, even on a commercial scale (Newfoundland). See also keepnet net, kelp net or kipp net.

capacity = fishing capacity is the quantity of fish that can be taken over a period of time (year, season) by a fishing unit, e.g. an individual, community, vessel or fleet, assuming that there is no limitation on the yield from the stock usually expressed as gross tonnage, hold capacity, or horsepower. Reflects potential rather than nominal fishing effort. It may be the maximum amount of fish that can be produced by a fishing fleet if fully utilized, given the biomass and age structure of the fish stock and the present state of the technology.

cape = a prominent land mass jutting out into the sea.

cape boat = a large fishing boat, rigged fore and aft, used to fish the inshore banks of Newfoundland, particularly Cape St. Mary's grounds, on the south coast.

Cape Cod = a Massachusetts cape named in 1602 by Bartholomew Gosnold for the multitudes of fish which vexed his ship.

Cape Cod turkey = a salted cod in Massachusetts.

Cape Island vessel = a speedy fishing vessel, 32-45 feet long (and up to 57 feet), carrying a crew of two, of carvel construction with an inboard engine amidships and a shelter forward. Used for herring and groundfish gillnetting, inshore longlining, shallow water stern trawling, herring pumping and trolling. Also called snapper and Cape Islander.

Cape Islander = Cape Island vessel.

capelin = caplin.

capelin school = capelin scull.

capelin scull = the annual migration of Mallotus villosus to spawn on beaches in June and July. The commercially important offshore cod, Gadus morhua, followed the scull and indicated the start of the inshore fishery in eastern Canada. Also called the "Miracle of the Caplin".

capillary bed = the network of capillaries in a particular area or organ of the body.

capita = plural of caput.

capital stuffing = investment of more money by commercial fishermen in fishing capacity to offset regulations that make fishing effort less effective. Usually involves technical gear such as deck handling machinery, multiple echo-sounders, sonar, etc.

caplin = capelin, Mallotus villosus (Osmeridae) (Newfoundland). This fish appears on beaches to spawn in June and July, followed by the commercially important cod (Gadus morhua) which feeds on them. Capelin are netted for bait, for manuring fields, or dried, salted, smoked or frozen for eating.

caplin bait = capelin netted for use as bait, especially in trawl-fishing for cod in Newfoundland.

caplin baiting = 1) a quantity of capelin taken aboard a vessel in port at one time for use in in the Newfoundland Bank fishery for cod.

caplin baiting = 2) a fishing voyage to the Newfoundland Banks, the length being fixed by the supply of capelin bait aboard ship.

caplin bunting = a grade of net, with very fine mesh, for catching capelin (Newfoundland).

caplin cart = a two-wheeled, horse-drawn cart formerly used to carry capelin from the shore to the fields for fertiliser in Newfoundland.

caplin fishery = the organised fishery for this species on a large scale for processing (Newfoundland).

caplin glut = an abundance of capelin.

caplin mesh = the small mesh of cast-nets used to catch capelin (Newfoundland).

caplin pit = a hole in the ground into which capelin are thrown to be used as fertilizer (Newfoundland).

caplin run = capelin scull.

caplin schule = capelin scull.

caplin scull = capelin scull.

caplin scull fishery = the cod fishery during and after the spawning season of the capelin (Newfoundland).

caplin scull salmon = smaller salmon migrating to fresh water during June and July (Newfoundland).

caplin scull weather = wet, foggy weather which often coincides with the spawning season of capelin in June and July (Newfoundland).

caplin season = the months June and July, when capelin appear inshore in Newfoundland.

caplin seine = a seine with small meshes used to catch capelin (Newfoundland).

caplin sick = cod glutted with capelin.

caplin skiff = a large undecked boat employed to catch caplin (Newfoundland).

caplin spawn = the eggs of capelin on rocks or seaweed.

caplin time = caplin season.

caplin trap = type of fixed fishing-gear used in inshore waters to take capelin.

caplin trip = a voyage using capelin as bait in the Bank fishery of Newfoundland.

caplin voyage = the taking of cod in traps during the period June to July when the fish follow capelin inshore in Newfoundland.

caplin weather = foggy, wet, and sometimes cold weather which usually coincides with the appearance inshore of capelin to spawn in early summer in Newfoundland.

capline = caplin.

capling = caplin.

capon = 1) a castrated cock, fattened for the table.

capon = 2) a red herring or other kinds of fish (slang). See Crail's capon, Glasgow capon, Severn capon, and Yarmouth capon.

capon = 3) called "a fish out of the coop" by monks who wished to evade the Friday fast by eating chickens instead of fish.

cappie = a heavy stone used as a sinker to a fishing line (Shetland Isles dialect). See also caapie, cappie-stone and bolta stone.

cappie-stone = cappie.

capsula auditiva (plural capsulæ auditivæ) = auditory capsule (cartilaginous skeleton about the inner ear in Elasmobranchii, a chondral skeleton in bony fishes comprised of the prootic, opisthotic (or its replacement), intercalar, epiotic (or exoccipital), sphenotic, pterosphenoid and basipshenoid as walls and floor with the parietals and frontals as the roof).

capsulæ auditivæ = plural of capsula auditiva.

capsular ethmoid = a paired perichondral bone on the inner concave walls of the nasal capsule.

Captain Haddock = Captain Archibald Haddock is a character in The Adventures of Tintin, a series of comic books by Georges Prosper Remi (pen name Hergé). Known for his drinking and innovative cursing. A real-life Captain Herbert Haddock was temporarily in command of the Titanic. The name derives from a 1931 Franco-German musical film Le Capitaine Craddock, a favourite of Hergé.

captive brood stock = fish raised and spawned in captivity.

captive broodstock program = collection of individuals (or gametes) from a natural population and the rearing of these individuals to maturity in captivity.

captive propagation = reproduction of fish in a laboratory or hatchery for commercial or conservation reasons. Release in the wild follows.

capturability = the ease or difficulty of catching a given species or stock under defined conditions. Also called catchability.

capture = diversion of water flow in the upper reaches of a stream by the headward growth of another stream.

capture fishery = the sum or range of all activities to harvest a given fish resource. It may refer to the location, the fish species sought, the gear used, the social characteristics, e.g. artisanal, industrial, the purpose, e.g. commercial, subsistence, or recreational, as well as the season.

caput (plural capita) = head (everything on a fish anterior to the posterior border of the opercular bone and/or its membrane; behind this is the trunk as there is no neck in fish).

caput manubrii = head of the manubrium or cranially-directed arm of the incus, the third Weberian ossicle.

capybara = the large, semi-aquatic South American rodent, like the northern beaver, was deemed a fish by the Catholic church and therefore was eatable on Fridays during Lent.

caquès = herring usually stacked in barrels with salt, after removal of viscera by means of a cut below the gills (France).

car = carr.

car names = Plymouth Barracuda, Corvette Stingray and Hyundai Tiburon (Spanish for shark).

car pot = car trap.

car trap = a wooden box or other container to hold live fish (Newfoundland). See also live box.

carangiform = type of undulatory locomotion in which the body inscribes less than half a wavelength at any one time. See also amiiform, anguilliform, labriform, ostraciform, rajiform, subcarangiform, thunniform.

carapace = a bony shield covering the back generally, but also used for the plates encasing the whole body in boxfishes (Ostraciidae).

carbon fibre = a strong and rigid fibre used in manufacturing fishing rods.

Carboniferous = a period within the Palaeozoic Era ca. 365-290 million years ago. Abbreviated as C.

carcass = a fish dressed (prepared) as food.

carcass survey = a method used to estimate numbers of spawning salmon from the carcasses of recently-spawned fish. A representative number of carcasses are tagged, returned to the river, and the number of tagged and untagged carcasses observed during subsequent surveys.

card = a flat piece of wood, thin and oblong, about four or more inches long and of varying width, used as a guide to the size of mesh required when making a net (Newfoundland).

card shark = cardshark.

cardiac = referring to the heart. In the stomach, that portion or region next to the oesophagus (as opposed to the pyloric region). A better term would be corpus or body.

cardiform teeth = short, fine to coarse and numerous pointed teeth arranged in distinct rows, like the wire bristles on wool cards, e.g. in Ictaluridae, Percidae and Serranidae.

cardinal vein = a bilaterally paired longitudinal vein. The anterior cardinal vein returns blood from the head and the posterior cardinal vein from the trunk, joining together as the common cardinal vein (which is also called the duct of Cuvier or incorrectly the vitelline vein). The common cardinal vein leads across the yolk cell to the heart's sinus venosus.

cardioid = heart-shaped.

cardioid scale = a scale with a notch on the posterior edge, e.g. scales between the ventral fins of Esox.

cardshark = an expert card player, usually a professional gambler, and often used for a cheater. Based on the predatory reputation of the shark. Modified from cardsharp. See also loan shark and poolshark.

carina = keel.

carinate = with keel or ridge along the mid-line.

carlin book = karlen book (the book in which a fish catch was registered (Scottish dialect)).

Carlisle hook = a hook shape characterised by a long shank, a round bend and a straight, offset point.

carne carne = carne à carne, a preparation of salted anchovies from which the excess surface salt in the first preparation has been removed. The anchovies are laid out flat in regular layers, sprinkled with salt and then pressed (France).

carnivore = animal or flesh-eater.

carnivorous = animal or flesh eating; zoophagous.

carofur = nifurprazine (a chemical (1-(5-Nitro-2-Furyl)-2-(6-Amino-3-pyridazl) ethylene hydrochloride) used to combat bacterial infections in fishes, particularly with Aeromonas salmonicida).

Carolina rig = a deepwater, weed avoiding angling rig usually comprising an soft plastic worm or crayfish, an18-30 inch leader, a barrel swivel and a hook embedded in the bait. Usually fished just off the bottom.

carotenoid = a carbon compound found in the eggs, gonads, liver, flesh and chromatophores of fishes, to which it imparts yellow, orange and red colours. Taraxanthin, canthaxantin, lutein, zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and carotene carotenoids are found in fishes, although their origin is in the diet as the fish do not produce them.

carotid artery = an artery originating at the junction of the first two aortic arches and supplying the anterior brain.

carouselling = two fish circling one another rapidly, head to tail.

carp = 1) the Carp Family (Cyprinidae), the most speciose freshwater fish family with over 2420 species.

carp = 2) Cyprinus carpio, the common carp, widely used in aquaculture and the eponymous member of the Carp Family, Cyprinidae.

carp = 3) to find fault, complain unreasonably. See also carping.

carp = 4) the shape of the city of Tsuenchen-fu, China, built to resemble this fish when viewed from the air. Ancient Chinese cities were often built in this fashion, to resemble mythological creatures, animals and symbolic designs. See also fish net.

CARP = 5) acronym for Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel, Washington, D.C., which seems fairly self-explanatory and unfishy. Various other unfishy acronyms turn out as carp, have carp, the fish, as an icon or symbol, and are not listed here; includes computer programmes, medical associations, cardiac acronyms, phenomenonology, email service, travel agencies, etc.

carp = 6) term used for the anchovies found on pizzas. See also guppies.

Carp = 7) a town near Ottawa, Ontario where common carp are not native; probably based on members of the family Catostomidae, some of which were called "carpe" in French. Could be carpe à cochon, now meunier noir or white sucker, Catostomus commersonii.

carp = 8) talk, speak, prattle; not necessarily about fish.

carp = 9) a heraldic device, e.g. of Verzej, Slovenia.

CARP = 10) Canadian Association of Retired Persons.

carp czar = nickname for the proposed Coordinated Response Commander for Asian Carp, a U.S. official appointed to protect the Great Lakes from invasion by Asian carp in the Mississippi River system.

carp mumblings = small depressions left by the feeding action of carp, about 0.5-0.7 cm across.

carp papillomatosis = carp pox.

carp pole = a long and strong fishing rod with put-in joints and elastics, q.v., used for carp (Cyprinus carpio) fishing in Europe.

carp pox = one of the oldest known fish diseases found in cultured carp, other cyprinids, pike-perch and aquarium fishes. It is caused by Herpesvirus cyprini. Also known as carp papillomatosis, epithelioma papulosum, fish pox, cyprinid herpesvirus I (CHV). Skin lesions appear as the water temperature drops in winter as small milky-white spots that merge and cover large skin areas.

carp rod = specialised rods used in fishing for Cyprinus carpio in Europe. Usually about 11-12 feet (3.4-3.7 m) long with test curves of 1.5-3.5 lb (0.68-1.59 kg) and stronger than most rods used in fresh waters in Europe (where most fish are smaller than carp).

carp sack = a specialised, dark, padded sack used under water for holding carp caught by angling. The sack covers the head and eyes and keeps the fish calm so it is not injured.

carp sling = a specialised sling used for weighing trophy carp and designed not to injure the fish or remove its protective mucus.

carp streamer = a carp-shaped wind sock flown in Japan on a national holiday called "Children's Day" (5 May). They are flown in the breeze to honour sons and to hope they grow up strong and healthy. The wind socks are made by drawing carp patterns on paper or cloth and are a few centimetres to metres long, the longest having been 100 metres. The Japanese name is koinobori.

carp-like = having a body shape similar to that of the carp, Cyprinus carpio, i.e. deep-bodied and rounded.

carpaccio = raw, thin-sliced or pounded flat fish, served as an appetiser e.g. salmon, bluefin tuna.

carpaggedon = the expected invasion of Asian carp from the Mississippi River basin into the Great Lakes and their devastating effect on the fishing and boating economy (by competition with native species for habitat and food and by leaping out of the water affecting safe boating).

carpaholic = an addict of carp (Cyprinus carpio) fishing.

carper = people ready to catch herrings that break from the net on its rawing on shore (Irish dialect).

carping = 1) nagging or complaining, petty or unjustified criticism, quibbling over insignificant details; nothing to do with carp (Cyprinus carpio).

carping = 2) adjective used by anglers in reference to anything to do with fishing for carp (Cyprinus carpio).

carps = plural of carp in its various meanings above.

carr = a pool, fen or bog. Also spelled car.

carrion = animals used by fish as food when dead and often partially decomposed.

carrying capacity = 1) the biomass of a population or the number and type of species that a given environment can sustain over the long term. May refer to level of use, at a given level of management, which a natural or man-made resource can sustain itself over long period of time.

carrying capacity = 2) the sustainable recreational use of a water body.

carrying capacity = 3) virgin biomass, q.v.

carrying capacity = 4) the holding capacity of a fishing vessel.

cartail bully = cartel bully.

carteel bully = cartel bully.

cartel bully = a large boat or barge used as an extra vessel in carrying fish (Newfoundland). Also spelled cartail and carteel bully.

cartesian well = artesian well (a deep-drilled well where the water is forced to the surface by hydrostatic pressure. Some fishes have been found in such wells).

cartilagines coracoideæ = plural of cartilago coracoidea.

cartilago coracoidea (plural cartilagines coracoideæ) = coracoid cartilage.

cartilage = the flexible, semi-rigid connective tissue consisting of rounded cells (chondrocytes) in a matrix with collagen fibres and low in calcium and phosphate salts. Serves to support the body. It is not as strong as bone but is lighter and more flexible. It is incompressible and returns to its original form. Cyclostomata and Chondrichthyes have an entirely cartilaginous skeleton while other fishes have both cartilaginous and bony elements in the skeleton. Forms include hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage and calcified cartilage, all q.v., cited here in order from least to most dense. Also called gristle, especially when ingested by humans.

cartilage bone = bone formed by the ossification (osteogenesis) of a cartilaginous precursor. Cartilage bones can be classed as parachondral, epichondral or endochondral depending on whether ossification starts in connective tissue surrounding the cartilage, in the perichondrium or inside the cartilage respectively. Ossification may follow two of these paths but the end results cannot be distinguished whichever route(s) are used. Perichondral and parachondral cartilage bones go through two stages, metaplasia where connective tissue becomes cartilage and neoplasia where cartilage becomes bone. Chondrolysis or destruction of cartilage precedes neoplasia. Endochondral bones are formed by this process exclusively.

cartilagines hypobranchiales = plural of cartilago hypobranchialis.

cartilagines meckeli = plural of cartilago meckeli.

cartilagines pharyngobranchiales = plural of cartilago pharyngobranchialis.

cartilagines scapulares = plural of cartilago scapularis.

cartilago hypobranchialis (plural cartilagines hypobranchiales) = hypobranchial (one of a series of deep, paired ventral cartilages on the lower part of the gill arch. The os hypobranchiale in bony fishes, q.v.

cartilago meckeli (plural cartilagines meckeli) = Meckel's cartilage (the functional lower jaw of Elasmobranchii and Holocephali, the embryonic lower jaw of other gnathostomous vertebrates which ossifies at least in part as the mentomeckelian, mediomeckelian, coronomeckelian, articular and retroarticular. It remains in some adult fishes as a pointed rod embedded in the dentary and angular. Also called mandibular cartilage, ceratomandibular cartilage or primary mandible. See also Bridge's ossicles).

cartilago pharyngobranchialis (plural cartilagines pharyngobranchiales) = pharyngobranchial (the deep, endochondral bone at the top of the gill arch. May bear the upper pharyngeal and a dentigerous plate. May occur on arches 1, 2, 3, 4. Also called super-pharyngeals or superior pharyngeals. Suprapharyngobranchials are never associated with teeth while infrapharyngobranchials may be associated with dermal plates bearing teeth).

cartilago scapularis (plural cartilagines scapulares) = scapular cartilage (a rod-shaped cartilage forming the lateral part of the coracoscapular bar in Elasmobranchii, articulating ventrally with the coracoid cartilage and dorsally with the suprascapular. The pectoral fin attaches laterally to its glenoid cavity).

caruncle = a fleshy superficial outgrowth or knob. The modified dorsal fin rays in Ceratiidae are called caruncles.

carver = a person who slices open the belly of a cod before passing it to the splitter (q.v.) (Newfoundland).

cascade = 1) a short, steep drop in a stream bed often marked by boulders and white water; a small waterfall or one section of a broken waterfall. Usually less than a metre high.

cascade = 2) a tiered structure used in aerating and degassing water for aquaculture.

case = a problem in zoological nomenclature referred to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for a decision. The problem is published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature as are comments by others, and is voted on by members of the Commission and their decision is published as an Opinion.

case ending = the inflectional form of nouns and adjectives in Latin grammar used in scientific names, the ending varying according to the declension. The nominative or substantive and the genitive or possessive are the declensions used.

case fatality rate = the number of deaths from a disease in every hundred cases. See also mortality rate.

case hardening = leather-like hardening of fish skin when fish are dried too quickly, rendering the fish unsuitable for sale.

casey = cassie.

cashmarie = a person who carried and sold fish, usually at inland markets (Scottish dialect, from the French chassemarée).

casie = cassie.

cask = a wooden, cylindrical vessel used for shipping fish such as dried and salted cod from Newfoundland. Such a cask contained 4 cwt (hundredweight, 1 cwt being 50.802 kg (long), 45.359 kg (short)).

cask fish = the fish shipped in a cask, e.g. cod from Newfoundland.

casque-like = shaped like a helmet; in fish a bony process on top of the head.

cassen = of meat or fish, spoilt or worthless.

cassie = a straw or rush woven basket for carrying fish. Also casey, casie, caisy, caisie, caysie, cazzie, caiss, kazie, kazzie, kazy, kaisie, keizie and keize.

cast = 1) the result of casting.

cast = 2) the terminal strand of a handline to which hooks are attached by short droppers.

cast = 3) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for fishes.

cast = 4) to throw a net, e.g. a castnet.

cast = 5) a handful of herrings, usually three fish, used in counting the catch.

cast = 6) of fish, to spawn.

cast = 7) to discharge a catch or a season's catch at a fishing station.

cast-net = castnet.

caster = 1) the chrysalis or pupa form of the maggot used as bait in angling in Europe.

caster = 2) one who practices casting.

casting = 1) the act of delivering a lure or bait into the water using a fishing rod and line.

casting = 2) to throw a sounding lead or other object into the water.

casting arc = the path that a fly rod follows when in use; usually related to a clock face to indicate the position.

casting net = castnet.

casting sinker = bell sinker (a weight or sinker shaped like a bell).

casting the mell = allotting poke net (q.v.) fishing rights near the town of Annan on the Solway shore, Scotland. Local fishermen piled up sand heaps on the shore, and then turned away while a neutral observer kicked over one of the piles. The builder of this pile had the first choice of a fishing section. After him, alternate pile builders had a choice of remaining sections. Formerly, the neutral observer through a heavy hammer (or mell) into the circle of sand piles with the pile nearest where the hammer landed getting the first choice.

casting weight = the optimum weight that a fishing rod casts, determined by trying various lead weights until the rod feels sluggish. Usually marked above the butt in ounces or grams.

castnet = a method of catching fish in shallow waters by throwing a circular net over them; the net opens in the air to a diameter of about 2 metres and sinks rapidly because of weights attached to its margin. The rim of the net has a draw rope that enables it to be closed. A Newfoundland fisherman could catch 100 lbs (45.5 kg) of capelin in one throw. Also called throw net or trow net.

castnet ball = a lead sinker around the margin of the net.

castnet mould = a hollow form in which lead balls are cast for use as weights in the net (Newfoundland).

cat's paw = a knot used in angling to attach a swivel. A loop is passed through the eye of the swivel and the swivel rotated vertically through the loop three times. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

cata- (prefix) = down, against.

catadromous = running down; those fishes which spend most of their lives in freshwater and which migrate to the sea to reproduce, e.g. Anguilla (Myers, 1949; McDowall, 1968).

catalog = see catalogue.

catalogue = 1) a list of materials in a collection in the form of a book or electronic, detailing fish species, collection locality, number of specimens, date of collection, identifier, etc.

catalogue = 2) the process of making a catalogue.

catalogue = 3) a compilation of taxonomic literature within a list of species.

catalogue number = usually all specimens caught at one place and one time are given the same catalogue number. Some museum catalogue numbers use the same number as the accession number. The numbers take various forms, e.g. a series of numbers or a year followed by a number, and each number is preceded by the acronym of the museum in systematic papers.

catapult = used by European anglers to project ground bait or loose feed into the water with accuracy in order to attract fish to an area where the baited hook is fished.

cataract = waterfall, a very steep fall in a watercourse.

catastrophic drift = the massive displacement of organism caused by flooding or pollution.

catazygalia = zygalia (four small cranial bones in Osteolepiformes, perhaps formed from elements of the second to the fourth vertebra, a segment of the primordial cranium. The anazygalia are located dorsal to the chorda dorsalis, the catazygalia ventral to the chorda dorsalis).

catch = 1) the act of landing a fish dead or alive or of bringing fish on board a vessel. Live catches may be released or retained.

catch = 2) the number or weight of fish caught by a fishery, by fishing gear or by angling. May be the total amount caught, only the amount landed, or not kept but released. Usually expressed in terms of wet weight.

catch = 3) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for fishes.

catch = 4) ketch (a boat used for fishing and coast work).

catch ceiling = a specific limit placed on the harvest of any given fish species or stock; a quota.

catch composition = the fish species, age, size, numbers, etc. in a catch.

catch control = a measures applied to catches used by managers to regulate fishing.

catch curve = plot of the natural logarithms of the number of fish in various age groups (Nt) against their corresponding age (t). Often used to estimate total mortality from the descending limb of the curve; shows the decrease in numbers of fish caught as the fish become older and less numerous or available.

catch limit = the number of fish allowed to be caught and kept in one day by an angler, cf. possession limit.

catch out = to deplete the stock of fish in a body of water or in a population. See also fish out.

catch per unit effort = an older term for the catch in numbers or weight taken for a given amount of fishing effort over time using specific gear, expressed as a ratio. Often considered an index of fish biomass or abundance - a decline in CPUE usually indicates a decline in the stock. May be used as a measure of economic efficiency of fishing. Also called fishing success, availability, catch per effort. Abbreviated as C/E, CPUE. The more recent form is catch/effort (C/f or Y/f) where C is catch in numbers, Y is catch in weight, taken by a defined unit of fishing effort, f.

catch, photograph, release = a management tool for preserving angling stocks. Abbreviated as CPR.

catch quota = the maximum catch permitted for a group of fishers, vessel, a fleet or a country from a stock. The quota is set to manage the fishery.

catch rate = the time spent to catch fish expressed as catch in numbers or kilogrammes per unit of effort. Also called harvest rate.

catch share = individual transferable quota (a fixed share of the catch assigned to each fisherman or vessel owner as a tradable right, one that can be sold or leased to others. This may make an operation more efficient as some fishers buy the quotas of others and fleets can be reduced or rationalised with less government interference. As above, results are mixed as wealthier fishers benefit and the owner-operator system is disadvantaged. Abbreviated as ITQ).

catch stream = the catch statistics for a kind or stock of fish over a period of time.

catch-all = anything which contains unmatched or unrelated items; used for a genus with species thought to be unrelated but whose relationships remain to be determined.

catch-and-release = angling where the fish are released to preserve stocks. Also called non-retention, closed to retention and daily limit zero.

catch-at-age = the estimated number of fish caught, tabulated by fish age and year of capture, and by other factors such as gear or nation. Catch-at-age may be estimated on the basis of catch-at-size, using age-length keys or cohort slicing.

catch-at-length = catch-at-size.

catch-at-size = the estimated number of fish caught, tabulated by size class and by other factors such as gear or nation. For any given species, catch-at-size should include all fish killed by the act of fishing, not just those fish that are landed.

catch-at-weight = the estimated weight of fish caught, tabulated by weight class and by other factors such as gear or nation. For any given species, catch-at-weight should include all fish killed by the act of fishing, not just those fish that are landed.

catch-up growth = a form of compensatory growth where underfed or malnourished fish are returned to adequate feeding conditions.

catchability = the extent to which a stock is susceptible to fishing, the part of a stock that is caught over a defined unit of time or fishing effort; quantitatively, the proportion of the stock removed by a defined unit of fishing effort. In pelagic fishes, an inverse function of stock biomass. When it is 0.01 or less it can be used as an instantaneous rate in measuring population change (Ricker, 1975). In fisheries models, the factor (q) relating abundance to stock size (x = q.N) and fishing mortality to fishing effort (F = qf.). Also called catchability coefficient, force of fishing mortality. Abbreviated as q or q.

catchability coefficient = force of fishing mortality (the extent to which a stock is susceptible to fishing; quantitatively, the proportion of the stock removed by a defined unit of fishing effort. In pelagic fishes, an inverse function of stock biomass. When it is 0.01 or less it can be used as an instantaneous rate in measuring population change. Also called catchability).

catchability-led stock collapse = the tendency for small schools of fish to aggregate into larger schools, resulting in a continued high fishing pressure although the total stock has declined. Also called hyperaggregation.

catcher vessel = a fishing vessel that delivers its catch to a mother ship, to shore plants or to catcher-processors.

catch-out pond = a pond stocked with fish for fee-paying anglers to catch.

catch-the-salmon = a game in which two boys take the ends of a piece of rope and chase a third boy until they wrap the rope around him, then pulling him to and fro (British dialect).

catcher-processor = a fishing vessel that both catches fish and processes them, enabling a higher grade of product to be produced at on shore facilities, e.g. a trawler, 100-375 feet long.

catching efficiency = a measure used to compare the catching ability of fishing gear.

catchment = 1) the collecting of water, especially rainfall.

catchment = 2) a reservoir or other basin for catching water.

catchment = 3) the water caught in a reservoir or basin.

catchment = 4) watershed (strictly an elevated boundary area separating tributaries draining to different river systems; often used in American usage to mean a drainage basin, i.e. the area which supplies water by surface and subsurface flow from precipitation to a given exit point. Catchment area is more exact).

catchment area = the area drained by a river or body of water or the area draining into a body of water.

catchment basin = the entire area from which drainage is received by a river or a lake; most generally used in reference to surface runoff.

category = a group or level within a hierarchical classification, the main ones being kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. Note - not a taxon (q.v.).

catfish = a member of the Order Siluriformes with over 2870 species worldwide in fresh waters with some families primarily marine. Named for their barbels or "whiskers" likened to those of cats.

catfish ball = a mass of juvenile catfish, such as Ameiurus nebulosus, that schools, presumably as protection from predators. catfish whos eslien they licked to ge high

catfish death = suicide by drowning (slang).

catfish licker = an April Fools joke in 2000 by a Florida magazine editor who claimed that college kids called "slimers" were paying up to to $200 for a fresh catfish to lick for the hallucinogenic slime.

catfish row = 1) an area of town where Black people live (U.S. slang).

Catfish Row = 2) the fictitious tenement on the Charleston, South Carolina waterfront in the opera Porgy and Bess by George Gershwin (based on an actual area, Cabbage Row). The opera is about African-American life.

catfish scam = creating a fake persona on a social media site such as Facebook in order to deceive someone.  A 2010 documentary called "Catfish" had the story of one of its directors purportedly falling for such a scam. Part of the story line was that live fish shipped from Asia became inactive on the journey and developed mushy flesh - adding catfish to the container kept them active, and the people who set up fake personae are like catfish, keeping other people active in life by stimulating their interest.

catfish virus disease = channel catfish disease.

catfisting = noodling catfish (capturing fish by hand, often in murky waters under logs and boulders or in mud holes; may be restricted to use of a hook or snare type device, with or without a short attached line, manipulated by hand when a person is in or under the water. See also grabbling, tickling, catfisting, hand-fishing, dogging and hogging; and Hillbilly Handfishin').

caudad = towards the tail, posteriorly, caudally.

caudal = 1) referring to or concerning the tail.

caudal = 2) towards the tail, although caudad is preferred.

caudal artery = the extension of the dorsal aorta in the tail.

caudal bony plate = any ossified plate helping to support the tail fin. A name given to the first larger pair of uroneurals, situated on the curve of the upturned posterior end of the vertebral column. Preferably called first uroneural.

caudal filament = a thin, flexible, filamentous extension of the caudal fin tip of Chimaeridae.

caudal fin = the tail fin, aiding movement. Also called the uropterygium. The fin at the posterior end of the vertebral column (but in Centriscidae the hind end of the body rotates so that the caudal fin is ventral, and in some Trachipteridae the upper lobe of the caudal may be dorsal (the separate lower lobe may disappear). In other families, such as the Zoarcidae and Anguillidae, dorsal, caudal and anal fins are united and are externally indistinguishable. Various fin shapes are named abbreviate, acaudal, diphycercal, double emarginate, epibatic, epicercal, gephyrocercal, hemicercal, heterocercal, homocercal, hypobatic, isobatic, isocercal, protocercal, pseudocaudal, truncate, etc. (all q.v.) Abbreviated as C.

caudal fin ray count = usually only the principal or main rays are counted, the tiny rudimentary, often procurrent rays are not included. In fishes with branched rays, the principal count is the number of branched rays plus two. These rays are usually markedly larger than the neighbouring ones and originate from the hypural plate. In some fishes there is a gradation in size and all rays are counted (e.g. in Ictaluridae). The count may be expressed in a formula such as iiiI7-8Iiii. The small Roman numerals here represent rudimentary rays, large Roman numerals the unbranched principal rays, and the Arabic numerals the branched principal rays.

caudal flexure = the fold formed at the end of the caudal peduncle when the caudal fin is flexed to determine the position of the posterior edge of the hypural plates. This posterior edge is often difficult to determine as a point for measurement for standard length in fleshy or large fishes; some dissection may be required.

caudal gland = the glandular masses on the caudal peduncle and fin of mature males in the characoid subfamily Glandulocaudinae. The multicellular gland is associated with an enlarged modified scale which overlies the gland on each side. The gland may produce a chemical to attract females.

caudal neurosecretory gland = an area of the spinal cord dorsal to the most posterior vertebrae, e.g. in Ictalurus punctatus. This concentration of neurosecretory or Dahlgren cells is of unknown function but is probably involved in osmoregulation or ion balance and possibly in reproduction.

caudal pad = a tongue-shaped posteriorly-directed appendage behind the seminal receptacle in female Holocephali.

caudal peduncle = the wrist-like portion of the posterior part of the body between the end of the anal fin and the base of the caudal fin. Its length is measured between the insertion of the anal fin and the caudal flexure (the fold shown by the hind edge of the hypural plates when the caudal fin is flexed). Depth is measured vertically at the narrowest point. Called tail wrist in angling.

caudal peduncle scale count = includes all the longitudinal scale rows around the circumference of the peduncle at its narrowest point.

caudal photophore = old name for the Prc photophores.

caudal pit = the notch in the dorsal or ventral profile of the caudal peduncle just before the caudal fin in certain sharks.

caudal scale = a modified terminal scale of the pored lateral line series found towards the medial base of the caudal fin in some Characidae, e.g. Landonia latidens). In some species it supports the caudal pouch.

caudal skeleton = the urophore, formed from various bones of cartilaginous or dermal origins.

caudal vein = a vein in the tail that returns blood from the trunk and tail to the heart. It leads directly into the axial vein in the posterior trunk.

caudal vertebra = one of the posterior vertebrae lacking ribs, found behind the abdominal vertebrae and extending to the tail, each with a ventral haemal arch, canal and spine. The first caudal vertebrae is near the internal, dorsal tip of the first anal proximal pterygiophore. Note that there are some transitional vertebrae with a rib or reduced remnant of a rib and a haemal arch or an incomplete haemal arch.

caudally = in the direction of the tail; caudad.

caudodorsal = confluent caudal and dorsal fins.

cauler = caller.

cauliflower disease = a mildly-infectious viral disease (Lymphocystis) of eels and higher aquarium fishes (not cyprinids and catfishes) causing enlarged cells forming lesions on the jaws, and also on fins and skin. The papillomatous lesions can coalesce to form a cauliflower shape. May be pinkish or red when having a vascular supply or grey-brown to black when melanocytes are present. There is no known treatment and the lesions eventually disappear. Also called lymphocystis disease.

causeway = a raised road over wet ground or shallow water.

cave fish = fishes living in subterranean waters including artesian wells. Not necessarily a true cave.

caveached fish = fish cut into pieces, fried in oil, laid in a large earthenware container and pickled in vinegar, salt, spices, onions, etc. (West Indies).

cavernarius = cavernicolous.

cavernicole = an inhabitant of caves.

cavernicolous = living in caves.

cavernous = containing cavities, e.g. the superficial bones of the head in some species of Sciaenidae. The cavities may be empty or filled with mucus.

cavernous tissue = spongy white tissue embedded in the skin near the anus in most, and near the anal fin in some, Cetomimidae.

cavernosus = cavernous.

caviar = 1) the prepared and salted roe of sturgeons (Acipenser, Huso), or broadly construed, the similarly treated roe of other fishes such as Salmonidae and Cyclopteridae. Only salted sturgeon eggs can be labelled caviar in the U.S.A. The eggs are separated from surrounding tissues, sometimes washed in white wine or vinegar, and pickled with salt or borax, or packed fresh or unsalted and highly perishable. خاگ‌آور or khāgāvar is Farsi (Persian) for roe-generator.

Caviar = 2) a small nineteenth century city in New Jersey on Delaware Bay, processing sturgeon and caviar for New York. See also Ikranoye.

caviar diplomacy = a reference to political relations between European and North American countries and states bordering the Caspian Sea. Either formally or illegally caviar forms part of the relations, served at embassy functions or used as bribes.

caviar fish = a common name for Acipenseridae, especially those species producing caviar.

caviar left = from the French gauche caviar, for socialists who do not follow a proletarian lifestyle, implying their socialist beliefs are not sincere.

caviar substitute = fish roe prepared like true caviar from lumpsuckers (Cyclopteridae), cods, carps, mullets, capelin, salmonids; sometimes dyed and usually with a salt content over 6%.

caviare = caviar.

caviare to the general = a Shakespeare quote meaning not to everyone's taste or appealing only to a highly cultivated taste (Hamlet, Act 2 Scene 2 - general being the general public).

cavil = 1) to extract a hook from a fish mouth by means of a notched stick (Scottish dialect). Also spelled kavle and variants.

cavil = 2) kavle (the rearmost space in a boat where the fishing line is hauled in over the gunwhale and where fish are remove from the hooks. Also spelled kavl, kavel, kavvel, kavvle)).

cavity brooder = a fish that lays its eggs in a cavity, cave or other concealment; the eggs are aggressively guarded by the parents, e.g. in the Cichlidae Apistogramma, Julidochromis, Neolamprologus, and Pelvicachromis.

cawf = an eel box (archaic).

cawl = caal.

cawler = caller.

cawmril = cameral.

cay = key (a small, low island near the mainland composed mostly of sand and/or coral. Also spelled kay).

caysie = cassie.

cazzie = cassie.

Ce = photophore at the upper end of the gill cover where it meets the lateral line in Myctophidae.

CE = common era, a non-religious way of expressing years in the calendar based on the years of the Christian era. Note there is no year 0 so the year before 1 CE (or 1 A.D.) is 1BCE (or 1 B.C.).

CE = equilibrium catch ( the catch (in numbers) taken from a fish stock when it is in equilibrium with fishing of a given intensity, and (apart from the effects of environmental variation) its abundance does not change from one year to the next (Ricker, 1975). Also called sustainable yield, equilibrium yield).

CE = CE.

cebiche = ceviche.

Cecil's fast = William Cecil passed legislation in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I requiring fish, not meat, to be eaten on certain days of the week; hence fish dinners are called this.

cecum = a pocket or blind pouch; caecum.

cedar water = blackwater in the eastern U.S.A. in the Pine Barrens and nearby eastern coastal plain (very soft water, rich in humic acids and poor in nutrients with minimal transparency. pH is around 3.5-4.8 and colour is stained by tannins). Also found in tropical areas where it supports a distinct fish fauna.

cedis incertae = incertae cedis (of uncertain seat, meaning of uncertain taxonomic position or affinities).

Celsius = a measure of temperature on a metric scale used world-wide and by scientists. Abbreviated as C. In North America and in older literature Fahrenheit is used. The conversion is ºF = (ºC x 9/5) + 32 and ºC = (ºF - 32) x 5/9. Usually presented as ºC or ºF but strictly 3ºC is an actual temperature while 3Cº is a range of three degrees.

cement gland or organ = adhesive organ (transient larval organs near the mouth used to attach the larvae to the substrate, e.g. in Protopterus, Lepidosiren, Acipenser, Esox, Macropodus).

cenote = a flooded depression caused by a collapse in a limestone area (Yucatán, Mexico).

Cenozoic = a geological era, the age of mammals, ca. 65-0 million years ago, comprising the Quaternary and Tertiary.

census = an inventory; in fisheries assessment surveys, a census is used to provide the comprehensive basis for analysis and classification of the fisheries systems and, consequently, the basis for statistically representative sampling programmes.

centauri knot = a knot used by anglers to attach hooks through the eye to the line. It is made with a minimum of friction and so does not distort the line, being useful then across a wide range of line diameters. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

centi- (prefix) = hundredth (1/100); one hundred (100).

Centigrade = see Celsius.

centner = 1) 50 kg in the English version of the German zentner.

centner = 2) 100 kg in Russia.

centra = plural of centrum.

central canal = the fluid-filled narrow cavity in the spinal chord.

central nervous system = the brain and spinal chord. Abbreviated as CNS.

centre-console boat = a fishing boat with the control station at the boat's centre allowing all the deck around the edge of the boat to be used for fishing.

centrepin reel = an angling reel with the line wound directly on to a revolving drum. casting distance is limited but this is offset by good tackle control when trotting or fighting fish.

centrepin fishing = float fishing (using a cork, wooden or plastic device to support the line, weights and bait, suspending them at adjustable depths).

centrum (plural centra) = the central body of each vertebra.

centrum tendineum = the large aponeurosis (flattened tendon) at the bend of the bilocular muscular stomach, e.g. in Mormyridae.

cephalic = pertaining to the head.

cephalic clasper = a mace-like spiny-headed rod found on the mid-dorsal surface of heads of male Holocephali. Thought to aid in holding the female during copulation.

cephalic fin = the thick flap-like fleshy appendage projecting from the pectoral fins lateral to the mouth of Mobulidae.

cephalic flipper = the thick flap-like fleshy appendage projecting from the pectoral fins lateral to the mouth of Mobulidae.

cephalic index = the length of the head as a ratio of total or standard length.

cephalic lateral line (or cephalic sensory canals) = the head canals opening to the surface in pores and containing neuromasts (sometimes the canals are lost and the neuromasts are exposed). Similar to the trunk lateral line in structure and function but having different innervation. The following canals may be present: supratemporal (abbreviated ST) running across the top of the head connecting the lateral branch of each side; the opercular (OP), an isolated canal on the anterior operculum; supraorbital (SO) above the eye and extending anteriorly to the nostrils; infraorbital (IO) below the eye and above the upper lip; preoperculo-mandibular (PM) along the preopercle and lower jaw. The pores on the lower jaw are sometimes referred to separately as mandibular pores. Individual pores are sometimes referred to separately by the name of the structure to which they are adjacent:- nasal, postmaxillary, interorbital, etc. The coronal pore is the median dorsal pore (COR) between the eyes formed by junction of branches from each supraorbital canal.

cephalic pit = pore-like structures on the gill covers of snakeheads (Channidae).

cephalic ray = one of the dorsal fin rays on the head behind the illicium.

cephalic spine = on of the spines, probably denticle derivatives, occurring singly or in pairs just behind the orbit on the cheek area in some fossil sharks. May have occurred only in males and may have served to hold the female during copulation, e.g. in the Jurassic genera Hybodus, Asteracanthus and Acrodus.

cephalic spongy sensory area = the area above and behind the eye penetrated by numerous branches and pores of the cephalic lateral line system. Known in Brevoortia (Clupeidae).

cephalic tenaculum = cephalic clasper (a supplemental clasper in Holocephali, on the forehead).

cephalic vesicle = the blister-like inflation over the head of larvae of some species of Gadidae.

cephalofoil = the lateral extensions of the head in hammerhead sharks.

ceramic fish = swanky, in reference to a gift or some new purchase (slang). Derived from the TV show Wheel of Fortune where, in the earlier transmissions, contestants had to purchase prizes from their winnings and left over amounts, after more valuable items were bought, purchased ceramic fish and similar cheap items.

ceratal = referring to the ventralmost elements of the gill arch, i.e. ceratbranchials, ceratohyal and Meckel's cartilage. Compare epal.

ceratobranchial = a long, deep, endochondral bone in the middle portion of the gill arches between the epibranchials and the hypobranchials. There are usually 5 pairs of ceratobranchials, absent in some Anguillidae, Polypterus and Calamoichthys. The fifth pair of ceratobranchials are modified in Cypriniformes and Siluriformes into a strong, tooth-bearing bone called the inferior pharyngobranchial bone. Sometimes spelled keratobranchial.

ceratohyal = the endochondral bone articulating dorsally with the interhyal, anteriorly supporting some branchiostegal rays and ventrally joining one or two hypohyals. The ceratohyal and the epihyal are two ossification centres of the same bone and should therefore be named ventral ceratohyal and dorsal ceratohyal respectively. Since the ventral ceratohyal is probably homologous with a hypobranchial, the correct names should be anterohyal and posterohyal, while the two hypohyals should be called dorsohyal and ventrohyal. In cartilaginous fishes it is a paired element on the ventral part of the hyoid arch.

ceratomandibular cartilage = Meckel's cartilage (the functional lower jaw of Elasmobranchii and Holocephali, the embryonic lower jaw of other gnathostomous vertebrates which ossifies at least in part as the mentomeckelian, mediomeckelian, coronomeckelian, articular and retroarticular. It remains in some adult fishes as a pointed rod embedded in the dentary and angular. Also called mandibular cartilage or primary mandible. See also Bridge's ossicles).

ceratotrich = ceratotrichium.

ceratotrichia = plural of ceratotrichium.

ceratotrichium (plural ceratotrichia) = a long, horny or keratinous, non-cellular, cylindrical, flexible and non-segmented ray which supports the fins of Elasmobranchii and arthrodires. They may replace fin radials or be a third element in fin support in a series basals, radials, ceratotrichia. Used to make shark fin soup. Bony, unsegmented, unbranched rays superficially resembling ceratotrichia of Elasmobranchii are found in the fin membranes of Acanthodii.

cerci = plural of cercus.

cercus = tail filament, e.g. in Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus (Acipenseridae) where the tail ends in a thin core of cartilage sheathed by small scales. More commonly used for the paired appendages at the rear of arthropods.

cerebellum = a thick-walled dorsal swelling of the dorsal metencephalon (anterior hindbrain and perhaps including the posterior midbrain) concerned with locomotory activity. This unpaired structure is found just posterior to the optic lobes, has rounded lateral enlargements which project partially into the fourth ventricle and its posterior end projects dorsally above the fourth ventricle.

ceremonial harvest = a harvest of fish by natives for ceremonies and to support traditional lifestyles. Also called subsistence harvest.

ceroid = yellow-brown pigments of fish, found particularly in the liver and spleen, as end products of peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.

cervical = 1) pertaining to the neck (most fish have no neck).

cervical = 2) extrascapula (a small bone bordering the posterior margin of the skull roof in primitive Teleostomi. It apparently originates from enlarged scales. One of a series of from 2-8 bones known variously as nuchals, postparietals, scale bones, supratemporals or tabulars).

cervical notch = a depression where the head and body meet.

cervical photophore = a light organ in Myctophidae located at the upper corner of the gill cover where it meets the lateral line. Abbreviated Ce.

cervical sinus = cervical notch.

cervical vertebra = one of the anterior vertebrae in sharks.

ceviche = raw white fish marinated in lemon or lime juice and served with sweet limes, avocados, onion rings, garlic, cilantro, chillies, boiled corn and tomatoes. Originally from Peru, variously modified. Also called fish cocktail and spelled cebiche and seviche.

cf. = confer, meaning compare (with). Used with scientific names to indicate a similarity to the named species without certain identification; a provisional identification due to a damaged specimen or other problems.

cfr. = confer.

cfs-day = the volume of water represented by a flow of 1 cubic foot per second for 24 hours (equals 86,400 cubic feet, 1.983471 acre-feet or 646,317 gallons).

cfsm (cubic feet per second per square mile) = the average number of cubic feet of water per second flowing from each square mile of area drained by a stream, assuming that the runoff is distributed uniformly in time and area.

chafer = chafing gear.

chafing gear = any materials attached to wear points on nets. See also top-side chafer.

chafing hair = elongate plastic chafing gear.

chain bracket = a chain used on an otter board in pace of a bracket. Also called angle iron chain, back board chain, board chain, chain triangle, towing chain.

chain mat = a device used in front of a trawl to disturb fish and cause them to be caught by the following trawl net. An interlinked network of lateral and longitudinal tickler chains, q.v. Also called a chain matrix.

chain matrix = chain mat.

chain off = moving the warps (q.v.) from their normal position above the stern down into the stern ramp of a trawler for shooting away and then back up again as the net is hauled back. Used on boats without hydraulic ice davits.

chain triangle = chain bracket.

chain-of-lakes = a series of lakes connected by streams.

chalky fish = an abnormal chalky-white appearance and a watery texture associated with a rapid drop in pH after capture, e.g. in halibut.

chambo seine = a net used to catch chambo (Oreochromis cichlids in Lake Malawi), large-meshed (75-100 mm) and up to 1.5 km long.

change, mandatory = a change in spelling of a name required by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

change of rank = when a name is moved from one level of a classification system to another, e.g. from subspecies to species.

channel = 1) an area that contains continuously or periodically flowing water that is confined by banks and a stream bed. May be natural or artificial.

channel = 2) a narrow stretch of water between adjacent land masses.

channel = 3) a large strait, e.g. English Channel.

channel = 4) a lead in ice.

channel = 5) the deep, narrow and sharply trenched part of some lake bottoms.

channel catfish disease = a disease of fry and fingerlings of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and other Ictaluridae caused by a herpesvirus affecting internal organs. Occurs when water temperatures rise to 25-30ºC. Mortality is very high and survivors are carriers for life. Lowering water temperatures below 19ºC reduces mortality. Fish show loss of equilibrium, spiral swimming and tend to hang vertically in the water. Haemorrhages of the skin and gills occur along with abdominal swelling.

channel dam = lowhead dam (a dam extending across a river of low height, usually 15 feet (about 5 metres) or less. It impounds the water behind it, has minimal effects on the downstream regime and allows water to fall over its whole width. Quite dangerous as boaters and swimmers may not see it until too late and can be caught in the backwash beneath the dam. Also called run-of-the-river dam).

channel plate = a u-shaped, steel bracing bar on the back of an otter board, q.v. Also called back bar and back channel.

channelisation = the process of changing, deepening and straightening the natural path of a waterway.

char = members of the genus Salvelinus of the family Salmonidae with about 20 northern hemisphere species. Important food and game fishes of marine and fresh waters. The name is from the Gaelic ceara meaning red or blood-coloured or possibly from the Old English for turner, a fish that swims to and fro. See also charr and charrr. The variant number of "r"'s on the end of the name is attributed to a rivalry between the late nineteenth century scientists Albert Günther, who used charr, and Francis Day, who used char.

char dish = a Delftware pottery made to hold char (Salvelinus alpinus) preserved in spices. The char came from Lake Windermere in northwest England and the pots were made in Liverpool during the eighteenth century. They measured 2.5-4.0 cm deep by 15-25 cm wide and were often decorated with painted fish.

character = a variable structure or feature of a species or taxon that enables it to be distinguished from another species or taxon. Used in description and identification of species.

character displacement = forced evolution of dissimilar characters in related species where their ranges overlap. Species differ more where they occur together than when their distribution does not overlap. Usually this is detected as morphological features related to resource exploitation.

character polarity = the inferred direction of change of a characters state in a phylogenetic tree. The direction is determined by reference to the character state in an outgroup.

character release = two closely related species become more alike in regions where their ranges do not overlap than in regions where they do. Opposite of character displacement.

character state = the condition of character, e.g. scales present or scales absent, where scales is the character and present and absent are states.

characteristic = often used as synonym of character, strictly it is the distinctive state or expression of that character.

characteristic species = indicator species ((1) a fish species whose status provides information on the overall condition of the ecosystem and of other species in that ecosystem; fish that are sensitive to environmental conditions and which can therefore be used to assess environmental quality).

chardonnay = a mutated strain of zebrafish involving white blood cells, named for the wine. Other mutants are shiarz and chardonnay. These zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used in studies of haemoglobin formation as their inner body parts are easily seen in these small and transparent fishes and their genome has been sequenced.

Chargoggagoggmanchauggagoggchaubunagungamaugg = the Algonqin name of a lake in Webster, Massachusetts, incorrectly said to mean "you fish your side of the water, I fish my side of the water, nobody fishes the middle". Really means "Englishmen at Manchaug at the Fishing Place at the Boundary". Longest place name in the United States.

charismatic megafauna = a large charismatic species, e.g. presumably a great white shark in fishes.

charismatic species = any species that has popular appeal and is used to focus attention on conservation campaigns.

Charlie the Tuna = a cartoon tuna, used as the mascot for the product StarKist tuna from the early 1960s. Charlie had a beret and glasses, believed he had good taste and so was just right for the StarKist company. He was always rejected because the company was looking for tuna that tastes good. The rejection came in the form of a note attached to a hook saying "Sorry, Charlie", which became an American catchphrase (pun unintentional).

charr = char.

charrr = alleged Scottish pronunciation of char.

chart datum = a referenced surface from which soundings or tide heights are calculated, e.g. a tidal datum is the lowest a tide will ever reach (very rarely lower tides are found).

charter boat = a boat available for hire by anglers over a short time period. Usually crewed and with gear and bait supplied.

chase spawner = fish in which the male chases the female during spawning, e.g. Carassius auratus.

chasse-marée = 1) in English used for an old type of decked sailing vessel used to carry fish. Literally "tide-chaser" as the vessel bought from fishermen at sea and took fish to port. depending on an intimate knowledge of tides to reach estuarine ports.

chasse-marée = 2) in English used for a vehicle carrying perishable fish at speed inland, from chasse-marée (3).

chasse-marée = 3) in French a wholesale fishmonger who bought catches landed at ports and traded them inland, cf. rippier.

chaud = a dish in which a cod's liver is an ingredient (Shetland Isles dialect).

chauter = chowter.

cheapskate = a miser, a stingy person, unwilling to spend money (nothing to do with skates (Rajidae); of uncertain origin).

cheater = said of small fish that steal bait meant for larger fish. Sometimes spelled cheeter.

cheater hook = an extra hook added to a single-hook lure. Also called trailing hook.

cheater line = an extra length of line attached to the main line in angling for carrying another lure or hook.

chebacco boat = a fishing vessel employed in the Newfoundland fisheries. The word may be a corruption of Chedabucto, a bay in Nova Scotia, from which vessels are fitted out for fishing or the same as the chebec. Also called pinksterns.

chebec = xebec (a small, three-masted vessel used by Mediterranean pirates and still used in commerce to a limited extent. From the Arabic shabbak. Also spelled zebec).

check = a mark or discontinuity on a scale or other hard structure used for aging, caused by cessation of growth and absorption of deposited material due to spawning (hence a spawning check), injury, disease, parasites, or unseasonal lack of food. Also called split.

check dam = a small dam constructed in a small water course to decrease the streamflow velocity, minimize channel erosion, promote deposition of sediment and to divert water from a channel.

checklist = a list of species arranged in simple format for convenience of use, sometimes annotated with life history notes or other information.

cheek = the area between the eye and the preopercle.

cheek height = the least distance from the orbit to the lower edge of the horizontal arm of the preopercle.

cheek scale count = the number of scales crossing a straight line from the eye to the corner of the preopercle.

cheeks = muscles from the cheek area of a fish sold as a delicacy, e.g. cod cheeks, pickerel (Sander vitreus) cheeks.

cheese = a wooden disk placed on a pile of stiff and dry salt cod in a barrel before the fish-screw, q.v., was applied to pack it tightly. Named for its resemblance to a cheese wheel.

cheeter =cheater.

cheironym = an unpublished scientific name; manuscript name.

cheirotype = a type specimen of a species designated by a manuscript name.

chelation = a method of binding or locking up metal ions, used in water treatment in aquaria.

chemical etching = use of acids, bases of other chemicals in making fishing hooks that gives a very sharp point.

chemical filtration = a cleaning process for aquarium water where filters use chemical processes, e.g. protein skimmers and any filter containing chemical media such as activated carbon, molecular adsorption pads, zeolite, peat or resins.

chemocline = a sharp gradient in chemical concentration, e.g. the transition zone between layers in a meromictic lake, q.v.

chemoreception = the ability to sense chemicals in the environment, e.g. sharks and blood.

chemoreceptor = the receptors for chemoreception, e.g. taste buds on barbels, skin and in the mouth.

chemosensory = relating to taste and small operating on chemicals, dissolved in water in the case of fish.

chemotropic = turning towards a chemical stimulus.

chemotype = chemically characterised portions of of morphologically indistinguishable populations.

cherry bomb = a form of small explosive formerly used by purse seiners in California to frighten and concentrate a fish school.

chest = 1) the anterior ventral surface of a fish, just behind the head; may including the lower jaws and the chin.

chest = 2) a wicker box trap used to catch salmon (Scottish dialect).

chest waders = waterproof boots extending to the chest used by anglers and scientists when fishing. Made of latex, neoprene, Gortex, etc.

chevron = 1) a V-shaped scale found along the edge of the abdomen of clupeids, often providing the belly with a sharp, serrated edge.

chevron = 2) the earliest developmental form of myomeres in larvae where the angle is formed by the epaxial and hypaxial muscle masses.

chhandi jal = a drift gill net used for catching Hilsa ilisha (Clupeidae) in India.

chianti = a mutated strain of zebrafish lacking haemoglobin, named for the wine. Other mutants are shiraz and chardonnay. These zebrafish (Danio rerio) are used in studies of haemoglobin formation as their inner body parts are easily seen in these small and transparent fishes and their genome has been sequenced.

chiasma = the crossing of the fibres of the optic nerve.

chicken haddie = a commercial term for canned haddock, cod, cusk or hake or any combination thereof, that has not been ground. No chickens involved.

chicken of the sea = 1) originally albacore, yellowfin tuna and skipjack tuna canned in oil.

chicken of the sea = 2) a commercial brand name for fish and other marine products and used as a term for any marine food that is light and tasty.

chicken of the sea = 3) angler slang for a seagull.

chiddles = chitlings.

chidlins = chitlings.

chikuwa = a variety of Japanese fish paste cake; kneaded flesh wrapped around a stick and then baked.

chilile = inshore lake bottom.

chill storage = storage of fish at or just above 0°C as a means of preventing spoilage.

chilled fish = fish stored near freezing but not frozen.

chilled water stowage = storing commercial fish in chilled fresh or salt water using ice or mechanical refrigeration. Limited to about 3-4 days as some fish take up water and salt, their eyes become cloudy and gills are bleached as blood is lost.

chiller = 1) a device for cooling water in aquaria.

chiller = 2) choller.

chimaera = 1) an organism having tissues of two or more genetic types. Results from mutation or abnormal chromosome segregation.

chimaera = 2) members of the Order Chimaeriformes which has about 33 species in marine waters world-wide. Anatomical characters are a mix of those found in bony fishes and cartilaginous fishes, leading to the name (the mythical Greek monster had a lion's head, a goat's body and a serpent's tail).

chimaera poisoning = poisoning resulting from eating the flesh or viscera of ratfishes. The oviducts of Hydrolagus are toxic to mice. The flesh of chimaeras is reputed to have a stupefying effect.

chimneyfish = someone who smokes and drinks a lot, often simultaneously (slang).

chin = the tip of the lower jaw or the area between the rami of the lower jaw.

chin appendix = Schnauzenorgan (a German word for the chin protuberance of elephant nose fishes (Mormyridae), where there is the highest density of electrical receptors).

chin crest = an outgrowth of the dentary bone of the lower jaw. The crests from each side of the lower jaws converge anteriorly. Also called mental or submental crests.

chine = 1) backbone.

chine = 2) cut through the backbone.

chine = 3) a cut of fish (and meat) including at least part of the backbone.

chined = a fifteenth century word for dressing salmon (preparing this fish for consumption), no longer in use.

Chinese fishing net = a shore-operated lift net, 20 metres or more across and 10 metres or more tall, found in Cochin (Kochi), south India. The net is a cantilever with the net suspended over the sea and large stones suspended from ropes as counterweights at the other end. Requires up to six fishermen to operate. Named for their supposed Chinese origin.

Chinese herbology = use of herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Seahorses, for example, are ground up with various herbs and used to treat impotence. Import and export of seahorses has been controlled under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species since 15 May 2004.

Chinese major carps = commercially important fishes of the family Cyprinidae, used in aquaculture, namely Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, and Mylopharyngodon piceus. See also Indian major carps and Indian minor carps; there does not appear to be any Chinese minor carps.

chinook salmon disease = infectious haematopoietic necrosis (an acute Rhabdovirus-group viral disease of salmonids transmitted from fish to fish and by eggs in western North America, e.g. in chinook and sockeye salmon and rainbow trout. The disease destroys the haemotopoietic tissues in the kidney and spleen. Fish become lethargic or hyperactive, dark in colour, develop popeyes, anaemia (pale gills) and a swollen belly, and produce faecal casts. Haemorrhages on the skin, viscera and fins occur. Particularly affects fish less than 5 cm long in water below 10°C with high mortality. Potentially dangerous to humans. Abbreviated as IHN).

chip = 1) fish chip (a delicatessen, potato chip-like product made of equal parts of fish and potato).

chip = 2) potato chip fired in fat or oil and often served with fried fish (fish and chips).

chip = 3) said of salmon, to cut the surface of the water without leaping (Northumberland dialect).

chipper = chippy.

chippie = chippy.

chippy = 1) a fish and chip shop in Britain. Also spelled chippie.

chippy = 2) a carpenter.

chirashi-zushi = "scattered sushi", a bowl or box of sushi rice with a variety of sashimi (usually nine, a Japanese lucky number).

chirimilla = a small, D-shaped net used to catch the pelagic cyprinid Engraulicypris in Lake Malawi. Operated from shore and near the surface from canoes or small boats.

chironym = cheironym.

chirotype = cheirotype.

chirping = gulping of air which is then emitted through the gills in fine bubbles causing a chirping sound, e.g. in Glandulocauda inequalis (Characidae).

chistlings - chitlings.

chitlings = small parts of cod intestines cooked as a delicacy (Newfoundland). Also spelled chiddles, chidlins and chistlings.

chloramine = an ammonia-chlorine chemical (NH2Cl)sometimes used as a bactericide in municipal water supplies. It it poisonous to fish, but can be removed with special compounds available in aquarium stores, e.g. a double dose of sodium thiosulphate. Unlike chlorine, it will not evaporate from water by itself. Fish with chloramine poisoning dart around rapidly and may leap out of the water, show pigment changes and exhibit hypoxia, and may die.

chloride secreting cell = a cell in the gills, especially along the bases of the secondary gill lamellae and the pseudobranchs when present, or in the opercular epithelium, which excrete chloride, potassium and sodium ions in marine fishes. These cells maintain the osmotic balance from the loss of water via the gills and the necessity of drinking sea water. Also called ionocyte.

chlorine poisoning = similar to effects of chloramine and like it may be chronic with no specific signs or acute as detailed above. The fish should be removed from the contaminated aquarium.

chlorinity = the total amount in grams of chlorine, bromine, and iodine contained in one kilogramme of seawater, assuming the bromine and iodine to be replaced by chlorine. Salinity in parts per thousand (‰) = 1.80655 x Cl (‰). Abbreviated as Cl.

choana (plural choanae) = an internal canal connecting the nasal and the buccal cavities; internal nares, e.g. in derived Sarcopterygii. The analogous structures in Dipnoi are not true choanae.

choanae = plural of choana.

chocolate fish = a chocolate-covered marshmallow fish, often given as a treat or offered as a reward (New Zealand slang).

choice = 1) the designation of a high quality cure or cull of salted cod-fish.

choice = 2) prolific in fish, in reference to a fishing ground.

choke = 1) a triangular piece at the wing end of a purse seine, used to get the float and load lines while heaving the net by a power block.

choke = 2) a method of baiting herring for slow trolling.

choke = 3) killing fish in a gill net, the squeaking noise made when a herring is removed from a gill net, the act of killing them by removing them from the water, or a combination of the above. See herring choker.

choke stock = an exhausted stock quota for a particular species, preventing further fishing for other species, since the particular species may be caught and can be neither discarded nor landed.

choline = hydroxyethyl trimethyl ammonium hydroxide, a structural component in adipose and nerve tissue which may cause poor growth in fish when deficient.

choller = the gills of a fish (British dialect).

cholly = choller.

chondral = of or pertaining to cartilage.

chondro- (prefix) = of or pertaining to cartilage.

chondroblast = a precursor cell of a chondrocyte; these cells migrate to centres of cartilage formation during development.

chondrocranium (plural chondrocrania) = the cartilaginous skeleton enclosing the brain, olfactory region, eye and inner ear. Part of skull first formed in the embryo. Forms the whole skull in Cyclostomata, Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. Covered by dermal bones in Teleostomi and replaced by the osteocranium with only remnants between bones allowing for growth. Sometimes called the neurocranium or endocranium.

chondrocyte = a cell that makes the supporting matrix (collagen) of cartilage; usually found in lacunae embedded in the supportive matrix. Derived from chondroblasts.

chondroneurocranium = the cartilaginous braincase of Chondrichthyes.

chop = slapping the surface of the water with the tail when swimming in schools or enclosed in a net. said of cod in Newfoundland.

chop-stick = a cross-stick of iron wire, whalebone, or other materials attached to a sea-fishing line to keep the snood and hook clear of the sinker (British dialect).

chopped herring = pickled herrings finely chopped with apples, bread, onions and eggs, and vinegar, oil and sugar (Ashkenazi cuisine).

choppy sea = short and rough waves falling with a short and quick motion, easily breaking at the crest.

choran = a lake formed near river channels (India).

chorda dorsalis (chordæ dorsales) = notochord (the skeletal rod consisting of a sheath firmly packed with cells which lie above the gut and below the nerve cord. The notochord is persistent when it remains as a continuous skeletal support (e.g. Amphioxi, Holocephali, Acipenseridae, Petromyzontiformes, etc.) and is constricted when displaced by vertebral centra, occupying anterior and posterior cavities).

chorda mesoderm = the notochord rudiment.

chordacentrum = the vertebral centrum formed by the conversion of the chordal sheath into a series of ring-like cartilaginous segments around the notochord and subsequently biconcave discs. The bases of the neural and haemal arches abut the chordacentrum. Found only in Elasmobranchii.

chordal = referring to the notochord.

chorion = an embryonic membrane, elaborated by the follicle cells, which encloses the egg. The eggs of truly viviparous fishes are non-chorionated. Usually hardens on contact with the water; after fertilization the egg secretes fluid and shrinks inward leaving a perivitelline space. May lie external to the zona radiata. Called egg shell in fish.

chorionic thread = one a series of threads on the chorion of some eggs, the number and length varying with the species.

choroid = a black pigmented vascular layer of the eye between the retina and the sclera, preventing reflection of light in the eye.

choroid fissure = an indentation at the ventral margin of the eye marking the invaginated borders of the optic cup in larval fish. Usually associated with narrow eyes and often pigmented.

choroid gland = a gland on the dorsal half of the fish eyeball.

choroid tissue = a primordial vascular tissue mass lying below the eye, often unpigmented. In studies of larval fishes its length is measured along its longitudinal axis from the interface with the pigmented portion of the eye to the tip of the choroid mass.

choroidal guanine tapetum = the tapetum lucidum, q.v., in Elasmobranchii.

chorology = study of the processes governing natural geographical distribution.

chorotype = an unofficial term for a local type. In palaeontology, a fossil from the same stratum as the type but a different locality.

chorusing = sound production in fishes associated with reproduction. Various websites have recordings of the sounds made.

chott = a depression surrounding a salt marsh or lake, or the bed of a dried salt marsh (in North Africa). Also spelled shott.

chouder = an older spelling of chowder.

Choupique High Rollers = a Cajun Swing band from Louisiana named for the bowfin, Amia calva, choupique being derived from a a Choctaw word meaning “mudfish”.

chowder = 1) fish chowder (a thick soup mix of cooked fish and/or shellfish and potatoes in a broth made from pork, flour, seasonings and fish stock).

chowder = 2) a fish monger (archaic).

chowter = a female fish-monger (English dialect).

chresonym = an unofficial term in nomenclature for the later citation of a name than the one which established the name. The later publication often has a fuller description.

Christian saints = saints associated with fish and having fish as symbols include Andrew the Apostle (fishing net, fish), Meinrad (a Benedictine monk often show with St. Benedict and eating fish with a widow), Raphael the Archangel (carrying a fish),  Simon the Apostle (two fish).

Christmas fish = dried and salted cod eaten on St. Stephen's Day, 26 December in Newfoundland.

Christmas tree = a purse seine with fishes stuck in the mesh.

chrom(o)- (prefix) = colour.

chromaffin tissue = an endocrine tissue located in or near the kidneys which secretes adrenaline and which controls the blood pressure and regulates the chromatophores.

chromatophore = a dermal pigment cell; sometimes seen in the epidermis. Aggregation or dispersion of the pigment by expansion or contraction of a circular muscle surrounding an individual chromatophore effects colour changes. Chromatophores are of two types, biochromes and schematochromes, q.v. See also melanophore, erythrophore, xanthophore and iridocytes.

chromer = angling term for a bright fresh fish (in British Columbia).

chromosomotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for the type of a new species based only on chromosomal evidence.

chryopsin = a golden-coloured retinal pigment found in deepsea teleosts. Its absorption curve is similar to the spectral emission curve of bioluminescence, indicating that eyes containing it are probably used for observing photophores, e.g. in Myctophum punctatum.

chub = 1) a name applied to various unrelated fishes which have short, thick and rounded bodies and large heads.

chub = 2) a foolish fellow, easily imposed on, from the fish easily caught (obsolete slang).

chub-cheeked = having chubby cheeks, from the rounded appearance of the chub fish.

chub-faced = having a chubby face, from the rounded appearance of the chub fish.

chubber = a hollow, plastic float fished with large bulk shot.

chubby = round and plump; overweight. Supposedly derived from the thick-bodied and round-cheeked cyprinid fish Leuciscus cephalus, the chub of Europe.

chug = a jerk or pull on a fishing line given by a fish.

chugger = a top-water plug having a cup-shaped mouth, splashing or chugging when retrieved. Smaller than a popper, q.v.

chum = cut up fish or meat mixed with blood and garbage and used to attract fishes, such as sharks, to a fishing area. In a sense the British ground bait, q.v., is a form of chum used to attract non-predatory coarse fishes.

chum bag = a mesh bag filled with chum and hung overboard from a boat or, as a small bag, trolled deep.

chum slick = the oily and particle rich trail of chum in the water.

chum the fish = vomit.

chumline = throwing live bait in ones and twos behind a boat to attract fish.

chumming = the act of spreading chum in the water.

chumslick = cut up fish pieces in a bag kept in the water alongside a boat to form a slick attractive to fish, particularly sharks, or the narrow band of water extending behind a boat from chumming.

chundery headed = having a large head, e.g. a lean cod (Orkney dialect).

chunk = 1) a commercial definition of a mixture of pieces of fish flesh which mostly has dimensions of not less than 1.2 cm in each direction and in which the original muscle structure is retained.

chunk = 2) a cross-section of a large dressed fish containing the backbone. Ready for cooking.

chunking = chumming with large pieces of fish or even whole fish.

church key = a name for the small key-like device supplied with canned fish such as sardines used to roll open the can. Mainly used for the differently-shaped beer openers and hence church key is sarcasm.

chute = rapidly flowing water over steep, narrowly enclosed bedrock. The surface water is smooth and without the turbulence occasioned by rocks and boulders.

chutoro = medium fatty tuna, from the upper belly, as served in a sushi restaurant.

ciénaga = a marshland (Spanish).

cigar fish = faeces in a swimming pool or the ocean.

cigar minnow = a scad family member sold as frozen bait in Florida, firm textured. Used for catching offshore fish.

ciguatera poisoning = a poisoning resulting from eating ciguatoxic fishes (or sometimes algae or invertebrates), with tens of thousands of cases each year. Symptoms 3-5 hours after ingestion usually include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, watery diarrhoea, and numbness and tingling in the mouth region which spreads to the extremities. Painful ejaculations and burning sensations during intercourse are also reported and can last for a month. Acute symptoms disappear in 8-10 hours, most in 24 hours in moderate cases. In severe cases weakness, visual disturbances, skin disorders, temperature perception reversals, coma and even death (up to 20% mortality) may occur. Death appears to result from asphyxia. The toxin appears to be an "irreversible" anticholinesterase. An attack does not impart immunity. Diagnosis should be confirmed by history of ingestion and by the observation of the effect of atropine (will cause marked atropinization unless anticholinesterase intoxication is present) and by the estimation of acetylcholinesterase level in red blood cells. Treatment consists of artificial respiration with oxygen added as needed, atropinization (after recovery from cyanosis), dosing with protopam chloride and indicated symptomatic measures. The stomach should be emptied by gastric lavage, emetics or saline purges as soon as possible.

ciguateratoxin = ciguatoxin.

ciguatoxic fishes = those fishes causing ciguatera poisoning. These are usually insular marine fishes in the tropics, subtropics or warm temperature zones, best known in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans and West Indies. But geographical occurrence is spotty, and fish may be poisonous in only part of an island. Numerous species have been found to be ciguatoxic but in other places or in other years they are safe. Ciguatoxic fishes are usually bottom dwellers or feed on bottom dwelling fishes. Toxicity may be due to consumption of an algae (benthic dinoflagellate) by the fish or by one of its prey. The principal dinoflagellate is Gambierdiscus toxicus. Examples of ciguatoxic fishes include Muraenidae, Holocentridae, Acanthuridae, Lutjanidae, Scaridae, Serranidae, Sphyraenidae.

ciguatoxication = poisoning from ciguatoxic fishes.

ciguatoxin = the poison causing ciguatera poisoning. Exact chemical and pharmacological properties are unknown. May be a complex biotoxin with several fractions or several chemically unrelated compounds. May be a phospholipid. The formula C28 H52 NO5 C1 has been proposed.

cilia = plural of cilium.

ciliate = ciliated.

ciliate scale = a scale having comb-like, smooth teeth along its free edge, e.g. in characoids.

ciliated = fringed with projections.

ciliated scale = a ctenoid scale having very elongate, soft, flexible ctenii (spines) on its posterior margin, e.g. Capros aper.

ciliiform = hair-like.

cilium (plural cilia) = a fin thread of cytoplasm projecting from the surface of a cell. Moves fluid surrounding it by beating or is sensory as in the lateral line system, q.v.

cinch knot = clinch knot.

cingulum pectorale (plural cingula pectoralia) = pectoral girdle (the bony support of the pectoral fin behind the gills and usually attached to the posterior part of the skull; the "shoulder" girdle. Composed of the following basic elements (some of which may be lost): coracoid, scapula, pterygials, postcleithrum, cleithrum (main bone), supracleithrum and posttemporal. The "primary" pectoral girdle includes actinosts, scapula, coracoid, and sometimes mesocoracoid cartilage or endochondral bones and supports the fins directly. The "secondary" (and more primitive) pectoral girdle encloses the dermal post-temporal, supracleithrum, cleithrum, and two postcleithra, which are membrane bones and is only indirectly related to the fins. Also called scapular girdle).

cingula pectoralia = plural of cingulum pectorale.

cioppino =a fish stew in Italian cuisine, usually made from the catch of the day including shellfish as well as fish with fresh tomatoes in a wine sauce. Served over spaghetti and toasted buttered bread.

circa = about. Abbreviated ca.

circadian = pertaining to a daily and rhythmic biological cycle.

circalittoral = the lower sublittoral zone in the sea dominated by photophilic algae; the depth zone between 100 and 200 metres.

circannual = approximately one year.

circinate = ring-shaped or circular.

circle gill net = a gill net in shallow water drawn around a school of fish so that the fish may be scared into gilling themselves

circle hook = a wide circular hook with the point curved in such a way that most fish are hooked in the mouth. Useful for catching and releasing fish as it is seldom swallowed. Compared to j-shaped hooks, this hook holds bait better, has greater holding power, and more hookups. The harder the fish pulls the more strongly the hook is embedded.

circular pond = a circular, concrete raceway with a central drain, water being introduced in such a way as to ensure an even circular current. Common in aquaculture.

circular tank = a round tank with an outflow in the centre; common in aquaculture.

circuli = plural of circulus.

circulus (plural circuli) = the concentric ring or polygon found on scales; also called ridge.

circum- (prefix) = around, about, surrounding.

circumaustral = around the southern hemisphere in the higher latitudes.

circumboreal = around the northern hemisphere in the higher latitudes.

circumference scale count = count of all the longitudinal scale rows around the body starting with the scale immediately in front of the dorsal fin.

circumglobal = around the world, as in distribution of certain fishes.

circumnarial fold = a skin fold around the nostrils in Chondrichthyes. Also called perinasal groove or cirumnarial groove.

circumnarial groove = circumnarial fold.

circumneutral = said of water with a pH of 5.5 to 7.4.

circumoral teeth = the innermost row of teeth lateral to the mouth of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes).

circumorbital = one of a series of superficial dermal bones encircling the eye including the suborbitals and supraorbitals. A complete circuit of bones is found only in such primitive fishes such as Lepisosteus and some Osteoglossidae.

circumorbital sulcus = the groove in the epidermis surrounding the orbit that facilitates rotation of the eye in its socket. Present in many fishes but absent in Lepidogalaxias salamandroides (Lepidogalaxidae) which has an immobile eye.

circumpeduncular scale count = number of scales around the narrowest portion of the caudal peduncle.

circumpolar = having a more or less continuous distribution around either pole.

circumscribe = to make a circumscription.

circumscription = the defined or diagnostic limits of a taxon, or the sum of individuals within those limits, as defined by an author.

circumtropical = organisms which occur around the tropics of the world (in sea or on land).

cirque lake = a lake in a rock basin at the head of a high valley.

cirrate = cirrose.

cirrhi = plural of cirrhus.

cirrhus (plural cirrhi) = cirrus.

cirri = plural of cirrus.

cirrose = with cirri; curled. See also cirrate and cirrous.

cirrous = cirrose.

cirrus (plural cirri) = fringe-like fleshy appendages, usually slender and elongate.

cit. = abbreviation for citatus, meaning to cite, cited.

citatus = to cite, cited.

CITES = the Convention on International Trade in Endangered and Threatened Species. Regulates trade in live and dead animals and plants in an effort to conserve those species in danger of extinction.

clacker = a metal device added to buzzbaits, q.v., to make additional noise.

clade = a group defined by at least one shared derived character or synapomorphy inherited from a common ancestor; all descendants of any given species; a monophyletic higher taxon, a branch on a cladogram.

cladism = cladistics.

cladistics = a method used by systematists to determine evolutionary relationships. The distribution of shared derived characters (synapomorphies) is used to test relationships and taxa can thus only be defined by genealogy or descent. Relationships of taxa are presented as cladograms, q.v. The number of characters used is important as the best cladogram will be one supported by the most characters. Characters should be independent of one another so that they are not redundant (expressing the same character state in a different fashion, e.g. large eye and small snout may not be independent as a large eye in a head of uniform size may be larger at the expense of snout length). Each cladogram is a hypothesis subject to testing and rejection. Also called cladism or phylogenetic systematics.

clado- (prefix) = branch, offshoot.

cladodont = a form of early shark tooth, characteristically with a large central cusp, a broad base and smaller lateral cusps, found in sharks such as Cladodus from the Upper Devonian. See also diplodont, hybodont and symmorid.

cladogenesis = the development of a new clade; the splitting of a single lineage into two distinct lineages; speciation.

cladogram = a dendrogram or tree-like diagram expressing the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms in terms of recency of common ancestry or descent. All taxa are terminal in position, the identity of nodes (ancestors) are not specified and connecting lines represent shared derived characters (synapomorphies). Any two branch tips sharing the same immediate node are most closely related. A cladogram only specifies the relative degrees of phylogenetic relationship (sistergroup relationships) of the analysed taxa, as well as their monophyly.

clamp = a type of fish spear with several prongs that hold a fish without excessive injury. The prongs may be pointed and barbed too but the purpose of the clamp is to secure the fish with little damage.

clamped fins = a posture adopted by a fish where it holds its fins tightly against its body. Usually a sign of distress or sickness.

Clarenville boat = a small wooden motor-boat built at Clarenville, Newfoundland by the government during World War II and later converted to refrigerator ships.

clarity = the degree of visibility in a body of water. Determined by water colour and turbidity.

Clark = a measure of hardness. English degrees of hardness are rarely used in the UK. One degree Clark is equal to 14.3 mg/l CaCO3.

Clarissa = an individual Cyprinus carpio weighing about 44 lbs caught in Redmire Pool, Herefordshire, England by Richard Walker in September, 1952. This was a record for the species in Britain, a country not noted for large freshwater fishes. Clarissa became legendary among anglers and lived out the rest of her life at the London Zoo. Originally named Ravioli by Walker but renamed by London Zoo staff.

clasper = the rod-like extension of the medial portion of the pelvic fin in male Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. Claspers are used as intromittent organs (not in clasping), the grooves on their facing surfaces together forming a tube for the transmission of sperm when the claspers are held together. The anterior proximal opening is called the apopyle, the posterior distal opening the rhipidion. Claspers are also known as myxopterygia. A unilateral pectoral clasper is known in certain poeciliids. See also cephalic clasper.

clasper gaff = the hook-like structure on the inside of the clasper. Derived from denticles, e.g. in Squalus.

clasper hook = the reversed denticle on claspers which point toward the base. Found in certain Scyliorhinidae.

clasper spine = one or more needle-like spines which project from the distal end of claspers and are proportionally much larger than clasper hooks. Derived from denticles, e.g. in Squalus and the Jurassic Paleospinax.

clasper spur = the conical or claw-like structure formed by fusion of tesserae on the claspers of certain sharks, e.g. Heterodontus, Ginglymostoma, Alopias, Cetorhinus.

clasping = a common reproductive act in fishes where the males uses his fins to clasp or wrap around the female. The action stimulates egg deposition, brings genital openings close together or facilitates intromission.

clasping organ = clasper.

class = the taxonomic group above order and below phylum. The class-group includes subclass, class and superclass and is not covered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, e.g. Class Actinopterygii.

class frequency = 1) number of individuals occurring in a given class, possessing common attributes.

class frequency = 2) frequency of occurrence of a given class, e.g. age group.

classical = pertaining to a name that is derived from Latin or ancient Greek.

classification = like organisms grouped within a hierarchical system, the process of arranging these organisms.

clat = a bunch of worms, having worsted drawn through them (English dialect).

clathrate = resembling an open latticework.

clatter = a fisher for eels.

clatting = fishing for eels with a cluster or clot of worms, each of which has had a strong worsted drawn through the length of its body (English dialect). See also quod, clotting and reballing.

claustrum = the first of the four Weberian ossicles, q.v. It receives vibrations from the scaphium and transmits them to the perilymph of the sinus impar.

clavate = club-shaped.

clavicle = paired dermal bone ventral to the cleithrum in Acipenseridae and Amiidae. Lost or fused with the cleithrum in Teleostei. Clavicle was sometimes misapplied for cleithrum.

clavicula (plural claviculæ) = clavicle.

claviculæ = plural of clavicula.

clavicular spine = a spine in the shoulder region.

claviform = club shaped.

clavus = the rudder-like lobe at the hind end of the body in Molidae.

claw = a large, recurved, hook-like or blade-like structure in male Poeciliidae, part of the gonopodial tip of the anal fin. Also called hook.

clay = a sedimentary material with grains smaller than 0.2 mm (or 0.004, sources vary) in diameter.

cleach-net = a hand-net or dip-net used in shallow, muddy waters to catch small fish (English dialect).

cleacher = a fisherman using a cleach-net (English dialect).

cleaching-net = a large bag net drawn across rivers in time of flood (English dialect).

cleaching-water = shallow or rain swollen and murky water in which a cleach-net or cleaching-net may be used (English dialect).

clean = water with abundant plankton for the fish but lacking the organisms which cause slub (q.v.) to clog nets (Newfoundland). A good area for fishing even though they water is murky. See also dirty.

clean fish = mended fish (post-spawning fish that have or are recovering).

clean the fish = to skin or lead on a victim as in a carnival game. See also feed the fish.

cleaner = a fish which picks dead tissue and parasites off other fishes. Cleaner fish may establish a cleaning station and have a particular behaviour (dance, invitation posture) and colouration which clues other fishes into their function and prevents them from being eaten.

cleaning = the act of cleaning a fish for food. See fish cleaning in Symbols.

cleaning station = a site visited by fishes, often on a reef where cleaning shrimp or fish remove parasites from their bodies.

cleanplate herring = herring filleted by a machine which removes fins, bones and part of the belly wall.

clear fish soup = fish broth, bouillon.

clear water method = raising larval fish where food is cultured separately and added to the larval tank at intervals.

cleared and stained = a specimen with some tissues rendered transparent by various chemical treatments while others are stained to enhance their visibility. In fish osteological studies, the flesh is cleared with enzymes or potassium hydroxide and the bones stained red with alizarin red S and the cartilage blue with alcian blue. Abbreviated as c & s on labels and in museum catalogues.

clearwater = water with low suspended solids and a high transparency, cf. blackwater.

cleat hitch = a knot for tying up a boat to a wedge-shaped cleat made by passing a line around the arms of the cleat in a figure 8, then partially forming another turn, closing it to make a loop and pulling it taut. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

cleavage stages = initial stages in embryonic development where divisions of blastomeres are clearly marked. Usually the first through sixth cleavages (2-64 cells).

cleek = 1) a barbed hook used to land salmon; a salmon gaff (Ayrshire dialect). Also spelled click, cleik, kleek, kliek and cleeque.

cleek = 2) to hook, catch up or fasten on a hook or to fish out with a hook. Also spelled click, cleik, kleek, kliek and cleeque.

cleek = 3) a salmon net set in a river in a curve form (Scottish dialect).

cleeque = cleek.

cleft = 1) a slit-like opening, e.g. the interruption in the thickened lower lip in Catostomidae.

cleft = 2) any elongate opening, e.g. the mouth in fishes.

cleidoic = said of an ovum containing enough nutritive material for the production of a complete embryo.

cleik = cleek.

cleithra = plural of cleithrum.

cleithral = adjective from cleithrum.

cleithral head spine = a spine on the head of Scorpaenidae members. They are, from anterior to posterior over the top of the head on each side, the nasal, preocular, supraocular, postocular, tympanic, coronal (medial to the tympanic and postocular spines), parietal, and nuchal. Opercular spines are at the postero-dorsal corner of the operculum, preopercular spines line the posterior margin of the preoperculum, and the cleithral and postcleithral spines are just above the opercular spines on the side of the head.

cleithral stripe = a stripe, usually dark and evident, running from the upper gill opening down to the pectoral fin base.

cleithral symphysis = the junction of the ventral and anterior ends of the cleithra, often visible as a cartilaginous ridge in larvae.

cleithrum (plural cleithra) = the principal bow-shaped bone of the pectoral girdle, dermal in origin, forming the rear margin of the gill cavity. It articulates dorsally with the supracleithrum and ventrally with the scapula and coracoid, and meets its opposite pair medially under the heart. Used in age estimation, where it is more reliable than scales in some species, e.g. Esox masquinongy.

clems = fish and potatoes fried together (Cornish dialect). Also called pick-up.

clevis = a swivel attached to a spinner blade which allows it to rotate on retrieval.

clew = corner of a fish net.

click = 1) a cork shaped like a fish used to catch seagulls. It was covered with mackerel skin, baited with meat, and armed with two hooks.

click = 2) cleek.

click drag = a drag or resistance on a reel which makes a clicking sound. It slows and tires a hooked fish.

click hook = a large barbed hook for catching salmon, comprised of hooks bound together shaft to shaft, used in poaching. Poachers throw them beneath the fish, and with a sharp click strike them into the belly.

click net = a net used for holding over the water to catch salmon as they jump.

clicker cork = a styrofoam cork, thin and about 3 inches long, mounted on an 8 inch wire. A yanking retrieval produces a clicking sound similar to the one that shrimp make an this attracts fish to bite. Used on shrimptail jigs above a grass bottom.

clidost = urohyal (a flat, median, deep, endochondral bone below the ceratohyal; a tendon bone arising in the septum between the longitudinal muscles of the isthmus. Absent in such primitive fishes as Lepisosteus. Also called clidost, episternal, interclavicle and parahyoid).

climb a tree to catch a fish = talking much and doing nothing (Chinese proverb).

clinch knot = half blood knot (a knot used by anglers to attach swivels, hooks and lures to the main line. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot).

clinched half blood knot = a knot used by anglers to attach swivels, hooks and lures to the fishing line; seemingly a tautology. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

clinching net = a bag net used for fishing. The net is attached to a semicircular hoop, having a transverse piece, to the centre of which a pole is fixed. The net is put gently into the stream, and drawn towards the bank when the river is in flood, and the fish drawn to the sides (English dialect).

cline = a geographical gradient in a character, e.g. increase northwards in number of vertebrae in fish.

clinker = a form of seaworthy boat construction built with planks overlapping the one below. Also called lapstrake.

clinolimnion = that part of the hypolimnion of a lake where the rate of heating falls exponentially with depth.

clip = 1) clamp.

clip = 2) a gaff or strong iron hook with a wooden handle, used for landing fish (British dialect). Also spelled clep, clipe, klip and klepp.

clipe = clip.

clip-on weight = a flattened lead weight with prongs and of various sizes which can be clipped on to swimfeeders (q.v.) for added weight.

clipfish = salted whole dried fish, often cod (Gadus morhua). Famous in Norway where it is dried in the sun (from the Norwegian klippfisk, klepp being a rock by the water and fisk being fish).

clipped herring = brined herring with the heads and most of guts removed. Also called cut herring.

clipped roe fish = alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) with the heads and guts removed but with the roe left inside.

clipper = high-quality swordfish or dolphin (fish) caught and frozen at sea.

clippet = a large hook fastened to the end of a stick, used in landing fish in sea fishing (English dialect).

cloaca = the vestibule into which empty the urogenital and digestive canals and which opens ventrally to the exterior, usually just in front of the anal fin, e.g. in Elasmobranchii, Acipenseridae.

cloacal appendage = tissue next to the cloaca, enlarge and often pointed.

cloacal aperture = the opening of the cloaca.

clone (noun) = 1) a group of descendants of the same genetic constitution from a single parent; see gynogenesis.

clone (verb) = 2) to produce clones.

clonotype = an unofficial term for the phenotype or homogenous product of cloning.

cloop = a distinctive sucking sound made by fish such as carp (Cyprinus carpio) at the surface when feeding.

close = gutted but not fully split open fish.

close fish = a whole smoked haddock with its backbone retained, usually gutted and headed (Scotland). Initially cold smoked for several hours, then hot smoked. Also known as Arbroath smokie, Auchmithie cure, pinwiddie.

closed area = an area closed to fishing by season or temporarily to protect spawning fish or juveniles.

closed basin = a basin without visible surface outflow.

closed containment system = an aquaculture facility on land or in the sea in which water is re-used, has a processing system for wastes, and escapes of farmed fish are impossible.

closed lake = closed basin.

closed mating system = a breeding programme in which no outside fish are allowed. This ensures the progeny are from a known parental combination.

closed sea = 1) a part of the ocean hemmed in by narrow straits or headlands.

closed sea = 2) a part of the ocean within the territorial jurisdiction of a state. Opposite of open sea.

closed season = a fishing ban by season but also by time, area, or species, usually to protect spawners or young, cf. open season.

closed system = closed containment system.

closed to retention = for conservation purposes, fish caught by anglers must be returned alive to the water. Also called catch and release, non-retention and daily limit 0.

closed waters = waters where it is illegal to fish.

closed-cycle system = an aquaculture unit where the water is treated and re-used rather than being replaced with fresh water.

closed-face reel = an angling reel with a fixed spool enclosed by a housing and the bail arm replaced by a small pick-up pin. The line emerges from a central hole. Used in spinning and light float fishing.

closure = 1) the banning of fishing during a particular time (temporal closure) or place (spatial closure) or both.

closure = 2) completion and start-up of a dam.

clotting = clatting.

cloudbait = a fine groundbait which forms a cloud in the water to attract fish to the hook and its bait. Necessarily used in still or slow moving waters.

clough = a steep-sided valley or tributary to another valley (Lancashire).

clouser minnow = a streamer (q.v.) pattern that imitates baitfish, named for the designer Bob Clouser.

clout = a measure of nets, about 4 yards long (British and Scottish dialect).

clove hitch = a knot used to attach a boat, for example, to a post quickly. It is made by dropping two half-hitches (see double half-hitch) over and around the post. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

clown = a colour used in hard jerk baits comprising a chrome body with a chartreuse back and red head or face.

club = 1) a device used to stun or kill a fish when captured on hook and line or in a trap. Can be a simple piece of wood or intricately shaped and carved as with the Haida fish clubs of western Canada.

club = 2) an association of individuals devoted to angling. See also anglers association.

club = 3) an association of individuals devoted to keeping fish in aquaria.

club cell = a specialised, club-shaped cell in the epidermis which produces, e.g., pheromones in members of the Cypriniformes.

clubbing = swelling of the tips of the gill filaments.

clubcell = club cell.

clupeoid fish poisoning = clupeotoxism.

clupeotoxic fishes = those fishes causing clupeoid fish poisoning; certain clupeiform members of the families Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Elopidae in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and tropical Pacific Ocean. Tropical clupeiform fishes according to some reports are most likely to be toxic during the warm summer months. Toxicity may be due to the fishes consumption of a dinoflagellate.

clupeotoxin = the poison in clupeotoxic fishes. It is a neurotoxin, palytoxin, found in marine algae and presumably ingested by the fish.

clupeotoxism = a form of fish poisoning caused by eating clupeotoxic fishes. A sharp metallic taste on ingestion may be followed by nausea, dryness of the mouth, vomiting, malaise, abdominal pain and diarrhoea, nervous disturbance such as dilated pupils, muscular convulsions, coma and death. Symptoms ensue very rapidly - death may occur in less than 15 minutes and the fatality rate is high (about 45%). Treatment is symptomatic.

cluster = 1) a temporary grouping of a few schools or elementary population of fishes.

cluster = 2) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for porcupinefish.

cluster analysis = a method of grouping taxa on the basis of similarity or distance.

cluster eggs = portions of roe with membranes and eggs adhering.

clustering = milling about exhibited by territorial fishes. May include displays and chases.

clutch = the number of eggs laid at any one time. May refer to groups of eggs laid in a nest.

clutch overlap = superfetation (the simultaneous development of several broods within the ovary where they are nourished; enabled by the entrance and storage of sperm in the ovary, e.g. in Poeciliidae. Also spelled superfoetation).

clutch size = clutch.

clutch tender = an ecological group of reproductive guilds (q.v.) where the fish look after the eggs once laid.

clysotremic = pertaining to tide pools.

C-mormyromast = electroreceptor (an organ which detects the presence of an electric current).

cm3 = cubic centimetre (0.0338 fl oz, 0.00211 pt, 1.0 mL).

CNS = central nervous system.

co- (prefix) = together, sharing, with, jointly.

co-adventurer = a member of a fishing crew whose pay depends on the value of the catch rather than on a fixed wage (Newfoundland).

co-management = the sharing of authority, responsibility, and benefits between government and local communities, non-governmental organisations, research institutions, etc. in the management of fish stocks.

co-range line = a line linking all points on a map having the same tidal range.

co-tidal line = a line linking all points on a map having the same tidal stage or phase.

coachman = a fly-fisher's rod, in allusion to whipping the stream (slang).

Coad = 1) dweller at a wood (Celtic), or pre-7th Century "cod(e)" meaning bag (Old English), or a nickname for a fishmonger from "codde" meaning appropriately fish (Middle English), or a variant of Cody which is an Anglicized form of the Gaelic O Cuidighthigh meaning descendant of Cuidightheach, a byname for a helpful person (also appropriately).

COAD = 2) chronic obstructive airway disease.

coagulant = a chemical compound used in water clarifiers in aquaria. It causes fine particles to stick together such that they are more easily removed by the filter.

coalesced = fused, e.g. teeth of Scaridae are coalesced in varying degrees to form a "plate".

coarctate = crowded, pressed together, constricted.

coarse fish = those kinds of fish not sought after by sports fishermen, or regarded as of lesser importance, perhaps caught for sport but not food. In Britain sport fish are basically Atlantic salmon and brown trout, all other fish being considered coarse fish including northern pike and perch considered as sport fish in North America. Coarse fish are often various members of the carp family (Cyprinidae) in Britain. Catch and release is the norm and keeping coarse fish is against the rules on many waters. Some fish, particularly carp, have been caught many times and are very suspicious of baits and much sought after. Most coarse fishing is static with a bait remaining for long periods in one place (except in rivers), boats are seldom used, groundbait or chum is used to attract fish to a swim or fishing spot, casts can be over a hundred yards away from the angler, rods are very long and rigs are highly specialised and refined. Lures are not in common use in Britain because most coarse fish are not predators and do not chase them. See also match fishing and pole for further details on British methods of fishing.

coarse sediment = sediment with a particle size greater than 2.0 mm. Includes gravel, cobbles and boulders.

coarse vegetation = a loosely used term for emergent plants, especially coarser ones such as reeds.

coast = the contact between the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Variously defined as equivalent to the shore or much wider than the shore. Extends inland to the first major change in terrestrial features.

coast fishery = 1) an inshore fishery.

coast fishery = 2) specifically, the inshore cod fishery of Newfoundland.

coast ice = sea-ice which forms and remains fast along the coast, attached to the shore or to grounded icebergs. Also called fastice.

coastal aquaculture = fish farming in sheltered bays in coastal areas or on low-lying land on the coastal plain.

coastal pelagic = an offshore fish that migrates along the coast but is not a true open ocean fish.

coastal zone = extends from the continental shelf break or 200 nautical miles offshore (the seaward extent of the exclusive economic zone) to the shoreline and up coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence.

coaster = a brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) that spends part of its life at sea or in the Great Lakes.

coastline = seaward margin of the land, which is usually equivalent to the high tide shoreline.

coating = fish products may be marketed with a coating, e.g. of batter and breadcrumbs.

coaxer = decoy (an imitation of a fish used to attract fish close enough to be speared. Used in ice fishing in North America).

cob = 1) a heap of salt herrings (English dialect).

cob = 2) a young herring (archaic).

cobb = cob.

cobbin = a piece or slice of an eel, or of any other fish (obsolete).

coble = a flat-bottomed, single-masted North Sea fishing boat. See also plosher (1).

cobble = 1) substrate particles that are smaller than boulders and larger than pebbles, and are generally 64-256 mm in diameter (other sources have 64-128 mm). Can be further classified as small and large cobble. Commonly used by salmonids in the construction of a redd, q.v.

cobble = 2) coble (2).

cobble = 3) to throw stones into a hole in the river bed in order to drive fish into shallower water (Cumberland dialect).

cobblestone = cobble.

cobesta = cabesta.

coble = 1) an open or deckless fishing-boat used principally on the north-east coast of England, with sharp bows, flat, sloping stern, and without a keel.

coble = 2) a short, flat-bottomed rowing-boat, used in salmon fishing (English dialect). See also net and coble.

coble-gate = the right of salmon-fishing with a coble; as much as can be fished by one coble (Northumberland dialect).

cobleman = a person who used a flat-bottomed boat for fishing.

coccidiosis = a disease caused by various species of the protozoan Eimeria, affecting skin, the intestine, liver and testes, causing nodules, ulcers and granulomas. Important in carp culture.

cochleariform = ear-shaped, bowl-shaped or spoon-shaped.

cock = 1) a male salmonid; also used for some other fish species. Hen is the female fish.

cock = 2) cock-boat.

cock-anterbury seed = a fish-poaching drug, Anamirta cocculus, the seeds of this plant being made into a paste which fish swallow and float to the surface intoxicated where they are easily scooped up. Does not work in running water (Somerset dialect). See also fish berry.

cock-boat = a small rowing boat (English dialect).

cock-fare = a period of fishing for herring using the cock-boat (Sussex dialect).

cock-heaks = the fishing nets of a cock (2).

cock-tail = a small row-boat carried by the larger luggers, with which they communicate with other vessels (Kentish dialect).

cocktail = 1) use of two types of bait on the same hook, e.g. corn and worm, caster and worm.

cocktail = 2) cock-tail.

cocoon = 1) the hard covering of dried mucus formed by Dipneusti inside a burrow formed of dried mud. The cocoon extends into the mouth cavity where it connects the pharynx and lungs with an opening to the burrow so the fish can breathe.

cocoon = 2) the soft covering of mucus formed for overnight protection while "sleeping", e.g. in the daisy parrotfish, Chlorurus sordidus. The fish spend about 2.5% of their daily energy budget secreting this cocoon but it protects them, experimentally, from parasitic gnathiid isopods.

cod = 1) Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Gadidae), a former mainstay of the fisheries and cultural life eastern Canada and in Europe with many terms associated with its fishery. Many of these terms are in dialects of English or are archaic.

cod = 2) a member of the cod family Gadidae, or related members of the Order Gadiformes (which has over 555 species world-wide), mostly in marine waters. Several species are of major economic importance.

cod = 3) to horse around (British slang).

cod = 4) to fool someone (British slang); i.e. to rise to a bait like a cod fish.

cod = 5) to harass someone by continual criticism or carping.

cod = 6) cash on delivery.

cod = 7) collect on delivery.

cod = 8) a husk, pod, bag or scrotum from the Old English codd.

cod = 9) false or imitative, e.g. cod-Italian cafe, an imitation Italian cafe (British slang, presumably based on being a fish and the use of fishy to indicate something dubious).

cod = 10) computing on demand (pay per usage).

cod = 11) mud containing shells from a river bottom.

cod = 12) euphemism for God, as used in oaths from the 16th to 19th centuries, e.g. cods my life, codsfoot, cods sooks, cods woons.

cod = 13) a drunk,

cod = 14) a stupid person.

cod = 15) an old person.

cod banger = a vessel used in the cod fishery.

cod bank = a submarine bank where cod are found and fished.

cod block = fresh filleted cod, packaged frozen.

cod blubber = cod livers rendered for their oil (Newfoundland).

cod box = an area of the North sea or Irish sea where cod fishing is not allowed during the spawning season.

cod brick = compressed pieces of salted, dried cod.

cod cheek = a delicacy, the muscles between the eye and the preopercle.

cod chest = a chest in which cod are kept alive.

cod chowder = a chowder with cod as its main ingredient.

cod coffin = a miniature model of a cod in a coffin made and sold by fisherman Dan Murphy of Dunville, Newfoundland in response to the moratorium on the cod fishery in 1992.

cod equivalent tonnage = a conversion factor applied to any species subject to TAC (q.v.) management and national quotas, equating each species’ market value to that of cod (= 1.0). Used as the basis upon which nations exchange quota in different species.

cod farmer = an aquaculturist raising cod to sellable size.

cod fish = to catch cod (Gadus morhua). See also cod fish.

cod fisher = 1) a fisher for cod.

cod fisher = 2) a vessel used in the cod fishery.

cod fisherman = cod-fisher (1).

cod fishery = 1) fishing for cod, especially referring to a locally-organised fishery.

cod fishery = 2) the main commercial fishery for cod, Gadus morhua, particularly that of Newfoundland.

cod flake = a platform built on poles and spread with boughs for drying split and salted cod (Newfoundland).

cod glut = catch of cod in excess of the capacity to handle or process.

cod hauler = a fisherman engaged in the Newfoundland cod fishery.

cod house = a house built with the profits from the trade in cod in the nineteenth century, e.g. on Jersey whose merchants dominated this trade.

cod jigger = an unbaited hook set in lead sinker, jerked up and down sharply to take cod.

cod jigging = the process of fishing for cod with a cod jigger.

cod head = the head of a cod, used as fertilizer; the fleshy parts being a delicacy in Newfoundland. See also cod's head.

cod line = an eighteen-thread line used for catching cod.

cod liver meal = residues of cod livers after the oil is extracted used in animal feeds.

cod liver oil = 1) oil extracted by boiling the livers. May be made from other gadoids such as haddock. Once used as a basis for paints, to tan leather, and as a dietary and medicinal supplement as it contained vitamins A and D (tastes awful from long personal experience (BWC) in the 1940s and 1950s when taken in liquid form, only marginally better when encapsulated).

Cod Liver oil = 2) a Newfoundland song based on the product above, which in that country was sun-cured and sold raw in bottles.

cod liver paste = a paste made from cod livers with spices and other flavourings.

cod man = a vessel used in the cod fishery.

cod net = twine net placed vertically in the water to enmesh cod by the head and gills; gill-net.

cod nobbin = a fleshy piece cut from the neck of the fish when the head is removed while preparing the body for salting.

cod oil = 1) an inferior cod liver oil used in leather manufacturing.

cod oil = 2) cod liver oil.

cod piece = a fragment of cod but see codpiece.

cod pitchings = the lowest quality of cod liver oil, formerly made by allowing cod livers to decompose.

cod preserves = the island of Newfoundland (slang).

cod run = movement of cod to inshore waters in Newfoundland.

cod seine = a large seine net, up to 600 feet (182.8 m) in length, used to capture cod (Gadus morhua).

cod seine boat = a large, undecked fishing boat used to set and haul a cod-seine in the coastal fishery of Newfoundland.

cod seine crew = six or more men engaged to fish with a cod-seine under the direction of a seine master (Newfoundland).

cod seine fishery = the pursuit of cod with seines.

cod seine skiff = cod-seine boat.

cod sound = swimbladder of Gadus morhua.

cod smack = a vessel used in cod fishing.

cod stage = an elevated platform on shore on which cod are landed and processed before drying.

cod tongue = the tongue and hyoid apparatus of Gadus morhua. It has a glutinous, jelly-like consistency and delicate flavour when lightly fried, and may be salted.

cod trap = a pound net designed to capture cod. Consists of a net floor and walls in a box-like shape with a small opening on one wall called the doors. Leader nets running from the shore or a shoal directed the fish into the net.

cod trap berth = a place on the fishing ground where a cod trap is placed, the position assigned by lot.

cod trap crew = a group of 3-6 men working under a skipper on the share system to operate cod traps.

cod trap fishery = a fishery using a cod trap.

cod trap linnet = twine knitted or made into meshes to form a trap.

cod trap season = the summer months when cod appear in schools in inshore waters of Newfoundland.

cod trap twine = hemp, cotton or nylon thread used in knitting or making a cod trap.

cod trap operator = 1) the captain of a cod trap crew.

cod trap operator = 2) operator of a boat which uses cod traps.

Cod Wars = a series of disputes between Iceland and Britain over the rights to fisheries off the coasts of the former country from 1958 to 1976. On three occasions, the Icelanders extended their territorial limits from 7 km to 19 km, from 19 km to 80 km, and then to 370 km (200 nautical miles). Nets were caught, rammings occurred and some shots fired. The limit was accepted when Iceland threatened to close the NATO base at Keflavik, an important defense against the Soviet Union in the Cold War (and Cod War may be a tabloid press play on words from Cold War).

cod whanger = a resident of Newfoundland involved in processing cod on shore.

cod worm = a parasitic annelid transferred to cod by seals.

cod's head = 1) the head of a cod (Gadus morhua) used as fertiliser or the fleshy part eaten as a delicacy (Newfoundland). See also codhead.

cod's head = 2) a type of woollen mitten (Newfoundland).

cod's head = 3) a stupid fellow (English slang).

cod's head and shoulders = a stupid fellow (English slang).

cod-bag = a net in which cod were kept in the water until they could be loaded onto a vessel or towed ashore for processing (Newfoundland).

cod-banger = a vessel used in the cod fishery.

cod-bank = a submarine bank where cod are found and fished.

cod-chest = a chest in which cod are kept alive.

cod-chowder = a chowder with cod as its main ingredient.

cod-end = 1) the end of a trawl net which retains the catch and the part of the net where most size-selection takes place. In shape either cylindrical or tapering. Cod end mesh sizes and structure are usually regulated. From the Anglo-Saxon codd, a small bag.

cod-end = 2) a netting bag comprising one or more panels of the same mesh size attached together along their sides in the axis of a trawl by a seam where a side rope may also be attached.

cod-end knot = an easily released but secure knot opening the cod-end and releasing the fish onto the deck.

cod-fish = cod (1), and the usual form for naming this species in cultural works and the Newfoundland fishery. See also cod fish.

cod-fish weather = the foggy and chilly weather associated with the appearance of cod in coastal waters of Newfoundland in June and July.

cod-fisher = 1) a fisher for cod.

cod-fisher = 2) a vessel used in the cod fishery.

cod-fisherman = cod-fisher (1).

cod-fishery = fishing for cod, especially referring to a locally-organised fishery.

cod-hauler = nickname for a fisherman engaged in the Newfoundland cod fishery.

cod-man = a vessel used in the cod fishery.

cod-napping = the theft of the Sacred Cod of Massachusetts (q.v.) on 26 April 1933 by members of the Harvard Lampoon magazine, as a practical joke. It was later returned.

cod-oil = 1) an inferior cod liver oil used in leather manufacturing.

cod-oil = 2) cod liver oil.

cod-pitchings = the lowest quality of cod liver oil, formerly made by allowing cod livers to decompose.

cod-seine = a large seine net, up to 600 feet (182.8 m) in length, used to capture cod (Gadus morhua).

cod-seine boat = a large, undecked fishing boat used to set and haul a cod-seine in the coastal fishery of Newfoundland.

cod-seine crew = six or more men engaged to fish with a cod-seine under the direction of a seine master (Newfoundland).

cod-seine fishery = the pursuit of cod with seines.

cod-seine skiff = cod-seine boat.

cod-smack = a vessel used in cod fishing.

cod-trap = cod trap.

codder = a person or vessel engaged in the cod fishery.

codding = fishing for cod.

Code = the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a system of rules and recommendations regulating nomenclature. The most recent version of the Code is the Fourth Edition published in September 1999 and taking effect on January 1st 2000.

coded-wire tag = a small (0.25 mm diameter x 1 mm length) wire etched with a distinctive binary code and implanted in the snout of a fish (usually a salmonid) for mark-recapture studies. Abbreviated as CWT.

codend gag = hauling leg (a wire rope extension of the halving becket joined to the lazy deckie (both q.v.). Also called bag becket leg, gagline and lazy deckie leg).

codend lashing = codline.

codend lift = 1) the part of a trawl containing fish hauled on board in a single operation.

codend lift = 2) the act of emptying the codend; usually involves several stages when the catch is large.

codfish = 1) cod-fish.

codfish = 2) a fool.

codfish = 3) someone who thinks themself superior to their peers.

codfish aristocracy = any pretentious, newly-rich people. Based on the Boston nouveau riche of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries who made their money in the cod fisheries.

codfish ball = flaked salt cod and mashed potatoes.

codfish brick = pieces of salted dried cod compressed by mould into solid brick of about 1 to 2 lb weight (New England).

codfish cake = flaked salt cod and mashed potatoes.

codfish flats = the poor area of town (U.S. slang).

codfish vertebrae = a medical condition in humans characterised by an exaggeration of the concavity of the upper and lower end plates of the vertebrae, as demonstrated radiographically in various types of thinning of the bone mass.

codge = a tangle in fishing lines.

codhead = a person from Fleetwood, Lancashire, a traditional fishing port. See also cod's head.

codland = the island of Newfoundland (slang). See also bacallaos and cod-preserves.

codlin = a small cod. See also codling.

codline = a rope closing the rear of a cod-end (sometimes also strengthening chafers). The knot can easily be loosened by hand or mechanically to let the fish catch out.

codling = a small cod. See also codlin.

codology = nonsense, the science of fooling someone. See cod.

Codpeace Foundation = an organisation set up in Newfoundland in 1979 in mockery of anti-sealing groups like Greenpeace and to support the "noble cod".

codpiece = a flap or pouch covering a man's genital area and making it appear larger. An important item of dress in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Europe, and at other times and places. From cods (2) and nothing to do with the fish.

cods = 1) two or more cod (Gadus morhua or related fish).

cods = 2) testicles (human).

codswallop = nonsense, rubbish. Origin obscure and probably not connected to the cod (Gadus morhua). May be derived from a bottle with a glass marble in the neck invented by Hiram Codd and sold with mineral water - the slang for fizzy ale was wallop, hence codswallop.

coefficient of condition = condition factor.

coefficient of decrease = the ratio of number of deaths per unit of time to population abundance during that time, if all deceased fish were to be immediately replaced so that population does not change. Also called instantaneous rate of total mortality.

coeliac artery = a branch of the coeliaco-mesenteric artery (from the dorsal aorta) that serves the stomach, particularly the right side, and has branches serving the swimbladder and anterior dorsal mesentery (pneumatic artery), the liver (hepatic artery), the spleen (splenic artery), the enlarged proximal loop of the intestine and the intestinal diverticula (anterior intestinal artery), the straight posterior terminal portion of the intestine (posterior intestinal artery), and the dorsal surface of the ovary (ovarian artery) (the spermatic artery runs from the coeliaco-mesenteric artery to the left testis and from the gastric artery to the right testis).

coeliaco-mesenteric artery = a branch of the dorsal aorta that itself branches immediately into the gastric and coeliac arteries, q.v.

coelom = the fluid-filled abdominal cavity or body cavity containing the guts, gonads, kidneys, etc.

coelomic funnel = a ring-shaped peritoneal fold in female Salmonidae, for example, that guides the mature ova into the genital cavity from whence they exit to the exterior.

coeval = of the same age; existing or originating in the same time period.

coffee grinder = slang for a spincaster reel, q.v.

coffin = 1) a large container, often of stainless steel, used for storing large fish specimens in a museum.

coffin = 2) a box in which bluefin tuna are delivered to the Tokyo fish market.

cofilament = an angling line made of a core, low-stretch polyester and an outer layer of tough and flexible nylon. Less stretch than nylon monofilament and more sensitive to bites.

coggle = a small fishing boat.

coghel = a fishing net, generally an eel net, long and bag-like, narrowing to a point, and fixed on a hoop (Irish dialect). Also spelled cahill.

cognate = related through common ancestry.

cognomen = a working name or number used to label specimens thought to be a new species but not yet formally given a scientific name. Also called informal name, interim name, provisional name or taxon label.

coherent = sticking together, as with body organs, cf. adherent.

cohort = a group of individuals of the same age recruited into a population at the same time, e.g. the 1999 cohort refers to fish age 0 in 1999, age 1 in 2000, etc. Also called age class, q.v.

cohort analysis = virtual population analysis (an algorithm for computing historical fishing mortality rates and stock sizes by age or length, based on data on catches, natural mortality, and certain assumptions about mortality for the last year and last age group. Assumes that, in a given time period, all fishing takes place instantaneously in the middle of the time period. Essentially reconstructs the history of each cohort or year class over its life in a fishery, assuming that the observed catches are known without error).

cohort replacement rate = the rate at which each subsequent cohort or generation replaces the previous one.

cohort slicing = a method used to assign ages to fish, given length measurements, e.g. used to convert catch-at-size data into catch-at-age data before the application of age-structured assessment models. Cohort slicing assumes that there is a one-to-one correspondence between length and age, i.e. the approach ignores individual variability in growth.

coil = 1) a Danish seine rope with 2½ leads and a length of 120 fathoms. Up to 20 coils may be set, linked by G-shaped hooks.

coil = 2) line or rope arranged in a circular pattern, and the act of arranging thusly.

coiled = said of the gut when it is convoluted in a regular, circular fashion.

coin in the fish's mouth = a miracle by Jesus in the Gospels (Matthew 17:24-27) where the temple tax is paid by a 4-drachma coin taken from the mouth of fish caught by Peter n Jesus' instruction (generally assumed to be St. Peter's fish, Tilapia zillii).

coins = fish appear on various coins as they have long been important economically and symbolically.

coish = cosh.

colbert = where the backbone and bones are removed leaving the fillets attached to the head, usually in sole or whiting.

cold chain = the series of steps from capture through transport to preparation for eating where a fish is refrigerated to maintain its commercial viability.

cold fish = a person who is very reserved or aloof in manner or who lacks normal cordiality, sympathy, or other feeling; emotionless; a sexually frigid person.

cold marinade = acetic acid and salt as marinade in which fish are immersed without heat.

cold monomictic = said of a lake with a summer overturn and with a temperature never above 4°C.

cold resistance = the ability to survive temperatures below 0°C.

cold rooz = close the net, a word of command given in pilchard fishing (Cornish dialect).

cold seep = an area of the deep sea floor where cold water, rich in sulphides and/or methane, emerges, supporting bacteria and thus a food chain including fishes without sunlight.

cold smoking = salt cure fish smoked at less than 33°C to prevent cooking of proteins.

cold storage = fish stored well below the freezing point.

cold storage flavour = an unpleasant flavour and odour found in lean fish during frozen storage. Likened to wet dogs, to turnipy, leathery and carboardy odours (presumably in their wet states). The chemical involved is hept-cis-4-enal formed by oxidation of phospholipids. Not all people can detect this odour, about 10-15% being insensitive.

cold store flavour = cold storage flavour.

cold water = 1) water bodies characterised by summer temperatures not exceeding 20°C.

cold water = 2) the species found in water bodies characterised by summer temperatures not exceeding 20°C.

cold-smoked = said of fish that have been lightly brined and smoked at a low temperature; such fish must be cooked before consumption, cf. hot smoked.

coldkill = a mortality among marine fishes caused by a sudden drop in temperature.

coldwater disease = a bacterial disease of juvenile and yolk-sac fry of salmonids caused by Cytophaga psychrophila (or Flexibacter psychrophilus). It occurs at temperatures below 10°C and is an external and systemic disease with lesions on the fins skin and muscles, often concentrated on the caudal peduncle. Survivors may lose the caudal fin. Severe outbreaks leave fish lethargic and spinal deformities develop, or some fish may show spiral swimming, dorsal swelling and dark pigmentation on one side of the body; mortality is common. Also called peduncle disease or low temperature disease.

coldwater fish = fish found in waters of 20°C or less, optimally 4-15°C.

coldwater period = the stable period of water temperature of very late fall and winter to early spring.

coldwater pond = a pond for aquaculture where waters are 20°C or less.

coldwater Vibrio = a disease of farmed Atlantic salmon among others caused by certain Vibrio species active at temperatures below 10°C and producing muscular and myocardial degeneration. Red or bloody streaks appear on the body and fins and can lead to fin and tail rot with, in severe cases the tail and/or fins falling off. Also called red pest and Hitra disease.

colère =a breaded fish skinned, eyes, gills and fins removed, and the tail bent around into the mouth, e.g. in whiting.

coll. = abbreviation for collector (a person or institution who finds and secures specimens. Abbreviation often occurs on labels and is scientific descriptions of species. See also leg.).

collapse = reduction of a stock abundance by fishing and/or other causes to levels at which the production is negligible compared to historical levels. Normally used when the reduction is sudden. May be wrongly used to describe overfishing.

collar = 1) a ring of feathers or hair arranged immediately behind the head of an artificial fly.

collar = 2) collar bone.

collar boat = a small rowboat (Newfoundland).

collar bone = the bone at the shoulder of a fish that forms the leading edge of a belly flap, q.v., in preparing fish as food. The collar is discarded when a fish is made into a steak or fillet but left on headless fish for sale because it helps retain the fish's shape. Also called lug bone, nape bone and shoulder bone.

collar day = the date on which sharemen and fisheries servants commence their voyage (1 May) (Newfoundland).

collar punt = collar boat.

collar time = spring, the period of preparation for the summer fishery in Newfoundland.

collateral type = any specimen, other than the primary types (holotype and paratypes), used in a species description.

collecting pool = a place where fish concentrate during the drying up or draining of a pond, usually behind the monk, q.v.

collection = 1) a permanent repository of preserved fish specimens available for scientific study and display.

collection = 2) a group of specimens with a common association such as geography or taxonomy.

collection = 3) the act of collecting fish for study.

collection and bypass system = a system at a dam that collects and holds the fish approaching the dam for later transportation or moves them through or around the dam without going through the turbine units.

collection manager = a person responsible for the care, maintenance, documentation, organisation, development and access to a collection.

collective group = an assemblage of nominal species that cannot be placed with certainty in known genera; names proposed expressly for collective groups are treated as generic names. Also applies to life stages such as eggs or larvae.

collective group name = 1) a name established expressly for a collective group. As collective groups have no type species their names cannot compete with other genus-group names for priority, but they do compete with them for homonymy.

collective group name = 2) a name established for a nominal genus or subgenus and later used for a collective group.

collective noun = a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit. For ichthyology these include:-

army = herrings

battery = barracuda

bed = eels

bind = eels

bind = salmon

brood = dogfish

cast = fish

catch = fish

celebration = tuna (Richard Ellis, 2008)

cluster = porcupinefish

company = archer fish

cran = fish

draft = eels

draught = fish

draught = salmon

drift = fish

drought = fish

drought = a catch of fish

elongation = anglers

exaggeration = fishermen

family = sardines

fever = stingrays

fleet = bass

float = tunas

flote = fish

flotilla = swordfish

flutter = fish

fray = fish

fry = eels

glean = herrings

glide = flying fish

glint = goldfish (coined)

grind = blackfish

haul = fish

herd = seahorses

host = angelfish

hover = trout

knot = eels

lap = cod

leap = salmon

leash = trout

nest = fishes

pack = perch

party = rainbowfish

pod = billfish

pod = sailfish

pod = whiting

quantity = smelt

release = anglers (coined as a joke)

run = fish

run = salmon

scale = fish

scale = ichthyologists (coined as a joke)

scholl = fish

school = butterflyfish

school = salmon

school = sharks

shiver = sharks

shoal = barbels

shoal = bass

shoal = fish

shoal = herrings

shoal = mackerel

shoal = minnows

shoal = perch

shoal = pilchards

shoal = roach

shoal = salmon

shoal = shad

shoal = sharks

shoal = sticklebacks

shoal = trout

spread = sticklebacks

steam = minnows

stream = minnows

swarm = dragonets

swarm = eels

swarm = minnows

take = fish

throw = fish

troop = dogfish

troop = tunas

troubling = goldfish

troup = trout

troup = tunas

warp = fish

wisp = eels

collective species = superspecies (a monophyletic group of allopatric species that are too distinct to be regarded as a single species; a cluster of incipient species (semispecies)).

collector = 1) a person or institution who finds and secures specimens. Abbreviated as coll. Abbreviation often occurs on labels and is scientific descriptions of species. See also leg.

collector = 2) a person who stores specimens including those not personally collected.

collector = 3) a boat used to transport live cod from a cod trap to a cod farm (Newfoundland).

collectotype = a joke name in nomenclature for specimen(s) in a private collection recognised by an expert as a new species but which the collector refuses to surrender for a formal description.

coller an eel = cooked eel pieces packed in a gelatin preparation. See also jellied eels.

colloquial name = 1) a common name, q.v.

colloquial name = 2) a locally used name for a species but one that would not be found in a general dictionary.

collum = an interruption in the sulcus acusticus of an otolith which marks the location of the nucleus.

Colombo cure = Indian mackerel gutted and cured in wooden barrels with salt and tamarind.

colonisation = the establishment (reproduction) of a species in an area not currently occupied by that species. Colonisation often involves dispersal across an area of unsuitable habitat.

colony = a protective grouping of spawning fish to protect young from predators.

Colorado blade = in angling, the basic rounded blade pattern of a spinner or spoon. Produces the most vibration and is good at night or in murky water.

colour = 1) water may be coloured, affecting light penetration, plant growth and fish habitat. May be measured in colour units related to a standard.

colour = 2) fish have a characteristic colour depending of the type of commercial cure, e.g. light-salted fish have a yellowish cast, may show a slightly greenish cast and are translucent near the surface while green, heavy-salted fish are white to near white in colour.

colour = 3) fish have a variety of colours and colour patterns, varying with sex, season, developmental stage, trophic characters, lighting, behaviour, in water and out of water, etc.

colour enhancer = a chemical added to fish food; reputed to make the fish more colourful.

colour in life = colour of fish when alive; changes when dead or in preservative. Some fish change colour drastically when caught or hooked.

colour morph = a group of pigmented individuals, one of several such that may be fixed but also subject to individual change.

colouration = combination of colour with pattern.

-colous (suffix) = to inhabit, inhabiting.

colt = a young seahorse (Hippocampus spp.).

column feeder = a fish that takes food in mid-water or near but not at the surface.

columna vertebralis = vertebral column (the vertebrae from the skull to the caudal fin, protecting the spinal cord and haemal artery and forming an attachment for muscles used in swimming).

columnar = column-shaped.

columnaris disease = a systemic and skin disease of young-of-the-year freshwater fishes caused by Flexibacter columnaris (or Flavobacterium columnare). Usually occurs in summer and is associated with stress, crowding, injury and poor water quality. Virulent forms may show no external symptoms, less virulent forms show grey-white lesions on the body, fins and gills. Lesions first appear on the caudal fin and the head. Heavy infections appear yellow or orange. Scaleless fish show lesions comprising a dark blue area overlain by a milky veil and with a red-tinged margin. See also saddleback, saddlepatch disease, mouth fungus and mouth rot, depending on locality on body.

colvert salmon = calvert salmon.

comb hook = hooks aligned on a bar and dragged along the bottom to snag bottom fishes.

comb. nov. = abbreviation for combinatio nova, meaning new combination.

comb. rev. = abbreviation for combinatio revivisco, meaning combination revived when a combination is reinstated , e.g. from an earlier synonymy.

combined live bearer = a reproductive guild (q.v.) with eggs having a large yolk volume and density (lecithotrophy) combined with feeding on sibling remains, histrotrophe and with simple placenta-like structures. Large specialised young are produced at parturition, e.g. Latimeria chalumnae.

combination = a scientific name comprising a genus group name followed by one or more names peculiar to the taxon.

combination vessel = a vessel capable of more than one type of fishing, e.g. longliner/dragger, midwater trawler/purse seiner, bottom trawler/purse seiner.

combination polyculture = aquaculture of fishes with vegetables, fruit trees, ducks, pigs, chickens, etc. in various combinations.

combinato novum = new combination. A new name results from a change in rank or position of an epithet from an earlier name, e.g. transfer to a new genus producing a new combination.

combined description = when a monotypic species description uses the same character states to describe both genus and species.

combined gill net/trammel net = gear set on the bottom made of a gill net, the lower part of which is replaced by a trammel net. Bottom fish are caught in the trammel net while semi-demersal or pelagic fish are caught in the gill net.

comfort zone = a fish species ideal environmental conditions, water temperature, oxygen, pH, etc.

comm. = abbreviation for communicavit, meaning (s)he communicated.

common of piscary = the right to fish in another man's waters (legal).

commensal parasite = a parasite which derives its substance from the food of its host.

commensalism = the close association members of different species which live together to the benefit of one without harm to the other, e.g. Amphiprion with a sea-anemone. See also symbiosis.

commercial abundance = commercial stock.

commercial catch = fishes caught by commercial fishing activities.

commercial extinction = fish stocks too rare to catch profitably.

commercial fish culture = aquaculture carried out for profit and/or socio-economic benefits.

commercial fishery = a fishery intended to harvest one or more species of fish for the purpose of selling them to fish buyers or directly to the public. Includes fisheries resources, fishermen, businesses related to harvesting, processing and sales.

commercial fishing boat = a boat used to earn a living by catching fish.

commercial harvest = commercial fishery.

commercial nape fillet = a fillet of fish with the belly flap removed, essentially boneless.

commercial size = minimum size that may be caught in a fishery.

commercial stock = that part of a commercial fish stock which could potentially be used by the fishery.

commercial yield = that part of the total fish stock which a commercial fishery could, or does, obtain.

commercially extinct = too rare to be fished for profit.

comminuted = minced or fragmented fish flesh. It may be mechanically comminuted such that the type and form of the fish is no longer recognisable, or be fish fillets minced after removal of skin and bones, or disintegrated fish with some protein removed as in surimi (q.v.).

Commission = the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). The duties and operation of the Commission are regulated by the Code (q.v.), and the powers and duties of the Commission are authorized by the International Zoological Congresses.

commissure = a site of union of corresponding parts, e.g. the jaw symphysis.

commodity = any fish which has value and is produced or gathered for consumption or sale.

common cardinal vein = the duct of Cuvier. The anterior cardinal vein returns blood from the head and the posterior cardinal vein from the trunk, joining together as the common cardinal vein (also called incorrectly the vitelline vein). The jugular vein from the lower jaw also empties into the common cardinal vein. The two common cardinal veins empty into the sinus venosus, q.v.

common of fishery = common of piscary.

common of piscary = the common law right of someone to fish in another person's waters.

common fishery = those fisheries not belonging to any state; the right to fish in all public waters, Compare free fishery and several fishery and, particularly, common of fishery.

common language = a language in use today as opposed to a classical one like Latin or ancient Greek used to form a scientific name. See also vernacular name.

common law right = in England, the right of access to the commons, including that of taking fish in tidal waters, dating from Magna Carta in 1215.

common name = the vernacular name of a species, varying from place to place, by language and over time. Scientific names, in contrast, are in Latin or Latinised Greek world-wide and are subject to rules of usage that cannot apply to common names. Some common names of rare or deepsea species are artificial "book names" as these species are never seen by the general public. They are coined simply to provide a consistent format in books where common names are used or to provide a means of communication with people unfamiliar or uncomfortable with Latin names. Official common names are an attempt to standardise usage and some countries have recommended lists. The Latin or scientific name provides accurate identification and should be used at least once in any article to fix the identity of the species being discussed. Of course, popular articles will use names without reference to official lists and restricting the common name to one choice loses diversity, cultural significance, history, etc. See also name.

common pool resource = a natural resource (e.g. a fishery) that is difficult to divide up or control such that the take by one person affects that of another.

common property resource = a fishery resource owned by the public and regulated by the government. Not the same as open access since regulated.

communicavit = (s)he communicated.

community = 1) the different species of fish kept together in an aquarium. Certain species thrive while others cannot be kept together because of predatory behaviour, aggressiveness, different environmental requirements, etc.

community = 2) a group of organisms in a given place and at a given time, at different trophic levels, and implying known or assumed relationships between the organisms (in contrast to an assemblage, q.v.).

community development quota = allocation of a portion of a catch to small communities which then form partnerships with large fish companies to harvest, process and market their share of the catch, e.g. along the Bering Sea shore of North America.

community fishery = fishing activity exerted in public or communal waters generally designed to meet community needs. May involve different levels of community involvement and participation.

community stage = a waterfront facility erected to serve the common needs of fishermen for landing and handling of a catch (Newfoundland).

compactor = a storage system where shelving or other storage units are mounted on rollers and tracks and moved together to minimise space and apart for access. Often used to store specimens in museums.

companion cell = a Sertoli or follicle cell enveloping the cysts of spermatogenic cells in the testis.

company = a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for archer fish.

company and fish stink after three days = guests should not outstay their welcome.

compatible = said of fish species that can live together without mutual harm, whether in aquaria, aquaculture or nature.

compensation = 1) management activities that replace all or part of fish stocks or their habitat lost through development or other activities.

compensation = 2) mechanism by which the effect of one factor on a population tends to be counteracted or compensated for by a consequential change in another factor, e.g. compensatory growth, reduction in egg production may be compensated for by an increased survival rate of eggs.

compensation = 3) the maintenance of an appropriate physiological rate in the face of temperature change.

compensation depth = the depth at which oxygen production by photosynthesis is balanced by respiratory uptake (usually correlated with the depth at which light is 1% of its incident intensity). This is the lower limit of the photic zone below which there is no net plankton growth.

compensatory growth = an increase in growth rate shown by fish when their populations fall below certain levels. This may be caused by less competition for food and living space.

compensatory survival = a decrease in the rate of natural mortality that some fish show when their populations fall below a certain level. This may be caused by less competition for food and living space.

competing name = one of two or more scientific names that are available or legitimate that must be taken into consideration when determining the correct name for a taxon.

competition = the detrimental interaction between two or more organisms of the same or different species which utilise a common resource (excludes predation).

competition index = a measure in the change in yield in aquaculture when raising several species together rather than a single one.

competitive exclusion = two species cannot coexist when they have identical needs of a limited resource, one is excluded, the species that is the poorer competitor.

competitive release = the expansion of a species' ecological niche, associated with the lack of competition with other species.

competitive total allowable catch = a total allowable catch (TAC), q.v., under which participants are not allocated a portion of the total catch limit but the catches from all participants are summed to ensure that the sum of all catches does not exceed that TAC.

complanate = flattened together, compressed.

complemental male = the small, usually degenerate (except for gonads) male which lives attached to the female, e.g. some Ceratioidei. Also and less preferably called parasitic male.

complementary distribution = two taxa occupying adjacent geographical areas with little or no overlap.

complementary fish = a freshwater fish, often diadromous and belonging to marine groups which become dominant in freshwater faunas only in paucity or absence of primary, secondary, and probably also vicarious freshwater faunas, e.g. Agonostomus, Joturus, Cestraeus, Sicydium, Sicyopterus, Stiphodon, certain New World Gobiesocidae.

complemented survey = an angling survey using two or more contact methods.

complete = whole, entire, having all its elements, e.g. a complete lateral line runs from the head to the base of the tail and generally all scales in the line are pored.

complete diet = in aquaculture, a diet that satisfies all the nutritional requirements of a fish.

complete fertiliser = in aquaculture, a fertiliser with a full or complete complement of the necessary elements (especially nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium).

completed trip interview = an interview in an angling survey conducted as the angler finishes fishing.

complex = 1) a group of closely related species that have yet to be adequately described and distinguished.

complex = 2) a group of closely related species which are not easily distinguished although named.

complex life cycle = a life cycle that consists of more than one stage, e.g. ammocoete and adult.

complexing = items that add complexity to a stream channel, altering flow and providing shelter for fish , e.g. rocks, vegetation.

composed hook = a hook consisting of several pieces, usually natural material such as whalebone, mother-of-pearl, tortoiseshell, thorn, horn, wood, etc.

composite = the use of two or more materials in constructing a fishing rod, usually carbon fibre and fibreglass.

composite fish culture = aquaculture of two or more fish species that are compatible but have different feeding habits.

compound = a word or scientific name formed from two or more words combined excluding prefixes and suffixes, e.g. novaezealandiae.

compound epithet = an epithet formed from two or more words.

compound feed = a fish feed composed of several ingredients.

compressed = flattened from side to side, e.g. Chaetodontidae, Embiotocidae. Opposite to depressed.

compressed pellet = a type of fish feed formed by forcing steam-conditioned ingredients through a die under pressure. Less durable than expanded and extruded pellets.

compressiform = flattened from side to side, compressed. Usually fish having a body depth at least one-third of standard length (length without tail fin). Opposite to depressiform.

con- = together, with, joint, e.g. conspecific.

concave = curved in, e.g. a fin in which the middle rays are shorter than the outer. Opposite to convex.

concealment = methods used by fish to hide from predators and prey, e.g. counter shading, vegetal colouration, camouflage.

conceit net = a fishing-net inclined upwards and fixed by poles, enclosing a portion of a tidal river or bay (Scottish dialect).

concentrate = in aquaculture, a feed that is low in fibre and high in total digestible nutrients.

concentration phase = a stage in the life cycle of a fish at which the individuals are particularly concentrated, e.g. spawning in streams, marine fish larvae is surface waters.

concept, hypothetical = a taxonomic concept that when published contained no animal then known to exist in nature, past or present, but only in the mind of the author whether a prediction or not.

conch = a large sea-shell used to signal the arrival of bait fish in inshore waters of Newfoundland.

concholin(e) = a protein concentrated in the opaque zone of otoliths causing the dark appearance of this zone.

concoctotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a complete holotype made from several incomplete specimens.

condensed fish solubles = a thick syrup (40-50% solids) produced during fish meal manufacture. May be marketed as such or added back to the press cake before drying. Also called stick water.

conder = huer (formerly a sentry on a high cliff, pointing out pilchard schools (reputedly by waving a small bush) in Cornwall to seine netters. Also called balker, herring caller).

condition = the nutritional status of a fish or the amount of flesh on a carcass, varying with reproductive status and feeding. A measure of plumpness and general health.

condition coefficient = a figure calculated from length and weight which expresses the plumpness or fatness of a fish or the changes in the food reserves stored in muscle. The condition factor (K) is the ratio of the weight of the fish (without the gonads) to the cube of its length (K = W/L3, where w = weight in grams less the weight of the gonads and L = standard length in mm). A coefficient factor (C) can similarly be calculated using the English system with total length in inches and weight in pounds. Conversion from C to K may be made using the formula C = 36.1 r3k where r = the ratio of standard length to total length. Low K values indicate a fish in poor condition while fish at sexual maturity will typically have a high K. Also called condition factor, condition index and coefficient of condition.

condition factor = condition coefficient.

condition index = condition coefficient.

conditional = 1) of a proposed scientific name which is made with strong reservations about its status.

conditional = 2) of the inclusion of a taxon in another taxon at a higher rank, made with stated reservations.

conditional fishing mortality rate = the fraction of an initial stock which would be caught during the year (or season) if no other causes of mortality operated (Ricker, 1975). Also called annual or seasonal fishing mortality rate. Abbreviated as m or m.

conditional natural mortality rate = the fraction of an initial stock that would die from causes other than fishing during a year (or season), if there were no fishing mortality (Ricker, 1975). Also called annual natural mortality rate, seasonal natural mortality rate.

conditionally suppressed name = in nomenclature, the older of two names considered as subjective synonyms which may still be used when either the taxa denoted by the names are regarded as distinct or it is the valid name of a taxon subordinate in rank to, and included in, the taxon denoted by the later name, e.g. a subgenus within a genus.

conditioning = 1) keeping young fish in a confined space so that the gut is emptied.

conditioning = 2) keeping fish in a confined space so that they become accustomed to it or to other environmental variables.

conditioning = 3) preparing adult fish in aquaria for spawning, e.g. feeding live foods, raising the water temperature, changing the light regime, changing the water, etc.

conditioning = 4) softening frozen fillet blocks slowly so that fish fingers or fillets can be made from them without damaging and losing parts of the block.

condom = endangered species condoms were handed out on New Year's Eve 2010 by the Centre for Biological Diversity in an attempt to increase awareness of human overpopulation. The Tennessee River drainage snail darter was the fish example and the condom carried the slogan "Hump smarter save the snail darter".

conductivity = the ability of water to pass an electric current as determined by the negatively-charged anions (chloride, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate, etc) and the positively-charged cations (sodium, magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, etc). Temperature also affects conductivity, rising with increased temperature. Measured in micromhos (mho) or siemens (S). Used as a general measure of water quality.

conduit spring = freshwater spring where the water has flowed through large subsurface openings.

condyle = the articulating, rounded surface of a bone, e.g. the occipital condyle is the surface of the skull articulating with the atlas vertebra.

condyli = plural of condylus.

condylus (plural condyli) = condyle.

condylus occipitales = occipital condyle (see above).

cone of vision = the area above, below, in front and behind a fish which it can see.

confamilial = confamiliar.

confamiliar = belonging to the same family.

confer = compare (with). Abbreviated as cf., cfr.

conferre = confer.

confluence = 1) the meeting or junction of two or more streams or the place where these streams meet.

confluence = 2) the stream or body of water formed by the junction of two or more streams; a combined flow.

confluent = 1) joining another smoothly, flowing into another, e.g. dorsal, anal and caudal fins in Zoarcidae.

confluent = 2) a stream which unites and flows with another.

conformer = an organism which has a physiological state identical to and varying with the environment, e.g. for most fishes, body temperature is the same as the water.

confused name = a name based on heterogenous elements from which it is not possible to select a lectotype (nomen confusum).

congeneric = belonging to the same genus. Congeneric applied to generic names usually implies that the names refer to the same taxon, i.e. synonymous genera.

congenital transmission = transmission of a pathogen at the time of gamete release.

congenor = a member of the same genus.

conger = 1) Conger is a genus of marine eels (Congridae).

conger = 2) a term of abuse (in Shakespeare's Henry IV, part II).

conger cuddling = a fund-raising game for the lifeboat in Lyme Regis, England where two teams try to knock each other off six-inch high wooden blocks using a dead conger eel suspended from a rope. The eel is usually about 5 feet long. A derivative of mangel dangling where a mangel-wurzel is used to knock people off the blocks.

conger douce = conger doust.

conger doust = the conger (Conger conger) dried and powdered for making fish soup (Cornish dialect).

conger head = a term of abuse.

conglomerate = gathered into a mass, e.g. fish eggs.

congruence sign = (≡) used to indicate objective synonyms (q.v.) in nomenclature.

conical = cone-shaped.

conjoined = coming together to touch or overlap.

connective tissue = any animal tissue with much dead, secreted material between the cells, e.g. ligaments, fibrous tissue, blood, bone, cartilage, fat.

connectivity = the movement of organisms from place to place through dispersal or migration.

conner = to fish for the wrasse Tautogolabrus adpserus (Newfoundland).

connivent = converging; said of nostrils in some balitorid loaches.

conodont = the problematical small tooth-like fossil of the Cambrian, Silurian and Devonian periods which could well be a tooth of Cyclostomata.

cons. = abbreviation for conservandum, meaning to be conserved.

consecutive hermaphrodite = a protandrous or protogynous hermaphrodite, q.v., where either the male or the female sexual organs become functional first followed subsequently by the other one.

conservandum = to be conserved. Abbreviated as cons.

conservation = 1) in the museum context, maximising the usefulness and endurance, and minimising the deterioration, of specimens.

conservation = 2) the science of examining and treating museum specimens and the study and improvement of their museum environment in order to safeguard them.

conservation = 3) the planned management of natural resources.

conservation = 4) the act of conserving (see conserve).

conservation pool = a pool in a reservoir maintained at times of low water to conserve fish stocks.

conservation storage = storage of water for later release, e.g. for power generation, irrigation, municipal water supply.

conservator = a person trained in the preventative care, maintenance and restoration of museum specimens and in the research on methods to do this.

conserve = to set aside or modify any provision of the Code, q.v., so as, e.g. to preserve or permit the use of a name as a valid name by removing the obstacles to such use, to preserve the use of a name in a taxonomic sense that would otherwise be incorrect, or to deem a work to be published or available despite its not satisfying the normal criteria. In each case conservation is by a ruling of the Commission using its Plenary Power.

conserved name = a generic or family name that is retained by authorization of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature by the use of its Plenary Power although strictly it contravenes the Code (nomen conservandum).

conserved type = a name conserved with a particular nomenclatural type. Also called typus conservandus.

conserved work = a work (i.e. a publication) that the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has ruled to be an available work.

conservotype = a joke term in nomenclature for a type described so that it will have the status to be listed as an endangered species.

consexual = of the same sex.

conspecies (noun) = two or more species belonging to the same genus.

conspecific (adjective) = belonging to the same species, conspecific subspecies are subspecies belonging to the same species. Conspecific applied to species names usually implies that the names refer to the same taxon, i.e. synonymous species.

constricted = abruptly narrowed.

constructed hook = composed hook.

consummatory beahviour = a feeding behaviour where the food item is taken into the mouth, tasted and then accepted or rejected.

consumer surplus = the difference between the amount consumers would be willing to pay for fish and the amount they actually pay.

consumptive harvest = total number or weight of fish that are caught and retained in a fishery over a time period.

consumptive use = activities such as fishing, which remove parts of the resource.

consumptive wildlife use = consumptive harvest.

contact method = any method used to contact anglers for a survey, e.g. mail, email, telephone, door-to-door, roving, aerial, access, etc.).

contact organ = the dermal bony outgrowth or spicule projecting from a fin ray or scale margin and surrounded by the epidermis through which bony outgrowths may protrude. Present in those parts of the body and fins of the male which come in direct contact with the female during the spawning act. May be tactile in function. Found in 9 families of 3 orders: Cypriniformes, Atheriniformes, and Scorpaeniformes (Wiley and Collette, 1970).

contacting = the behaviour of fry that bump into the side of the parent to take food from the parent's skin, e.g. in cichlids. See also secretoctye.

container = a receptacle that holds a specimen(s) and its preserving fluid, e.g. a vial, bottle, jar, tank.

container list = a list of materials in a container, used to facilitate retrieval and especially useful for large tanks that are not as visually accessible as glass jars where both a label and the fish specimen can be seen.

contaminant = any substance present in a fish product and originating from outside sources. The contaminant affects the safety or quality of the product. Contaminants can be environmental or from processing and include chemicals and various foreign bodies.

contemporary evolution = directional selection as human activities change ecosystems. In fisheries, size limits on catches restrict fishing to the larger specimens. In Atlantic cod, for example, this has led to maturity at smaller sizes and, since smaller fish produce less eggs, this hinders recovery of the stock. Arguably, catches should be restricted to medium-sized fish, allowing young to grow to catchable size and for some to survive to be very large and reproductively effective.

contiguous = touching but not joined, as in anatomy.

contiguous fishery zone = the area seaward from the territorial limits.

continental margin = the zone, generally consisting of shelf, slope and rise, separating the continent from the abyssal plain or deep sea bottom.

continental rise = the area of gently sloping sea bottom between the base of the continental slope and the abyssal plain at 2000-5000 metres.

continental shelf = the area of gently sloping sea bottom from the shore out to a depth of about 200 metres. It may be only a few kilometres offshore where the sea floor descends rapidly to great depths or may be extensive and form an accessible habitat for many commercial fishes.

continental slope = the steeply sloping sea bottom from 200 to 2000 metres (or 100-300 m to 1400-3200 m) and 3-6°C. Average angle of slope is 4° with a maximum about 20° near the upper margin.

continuity = the principle that a continuity of usage of a name should take precedence over strict priority of publication in determining which of two or more competing scientific names should be adopted.

continuity, principle of = uniformitarianism (the present is the key to the past. The physical and biological factors which link today's variations must have been in operation in the past).

continuous = unbroken, uninterrupted; used to refer to a lateral line without a break, a dorsal fin with the spiny and soft portions joined, or where the dorsal, caudal and anal fins are joined.

continuous breeder = a fish that may breed at any time of the year.

continuous culture = aquaculture where the larger fish are removed continually, and young fish continually stocked, rather than the whole pond being drained and re-stocked (batch culture).

continuous fishing = removal of fish from a net such as a trawl by pumps, rather than hauling the net onboard, or the continual removal of fish from the neighbourhood of an attractant like light or an electrode.

continuous smoking = a process of smoking fish where they are loaded and unloaded without interruption.

contorted = twisted, bent or curved irregularly.

contortotype = a joke term in nomenclature for a badly twisted or dried type specimen.

contour pond = an aquaculture pond on sloping ground.

contra- (prefix) = opposite, against.

contralateral = opposite side. Opposite of ipsilateral.

contranatant = swimming or migrating against the current; movement of adults towards the spawning area. Opposite of denatant.

control dam = a dam with gates to control water flow from an upstream reservoir or lake.

control date = the date established for defining the pool of potential participants in a given management programme for a fishery, e.g. control dates can be a range of years in which a participant must be active in the fishery to qualify for a quota share.

control rule = a protocol for specifying harvest rates in relation to stock status and limit and target reference points. A harvest strategy expected to result in a long-term average catch approximating the maximum sustainable yield. Also called decision rules or harvest control laws.

controlled access = a chart showing the number of fish caught in certain categories, e.g. weights. A cumulative frequency distribution shows the number in a category, plus the number in previous categories. See also limited entry.

controlled drift = fishing while drifting with the current or wind but using oars or motors to effect greater control.

controller = a device which measures some parameter of an aquarium, and then switches on and off another device to affect the aquarium. Typical controllers include redox, and pH.

controls = various measures that managers impose to regulate fishing; may be effort controls or catch controls, depending on what they intend to regulate.

conus arteriosus = a chamber in the heart, q.v. It leads blood out of the heart to the ventral aorta.

conveniotype = a joke term in nomenclature for a type that still has its distinguishing characters to be established.

conventional tag = any marker used to identify an individual fish, e.g. tags, dyes, disks, flags, etc.

convergence = 1) evolution of similar characters in unrelated taxonomic groups, in cladistics a synonym of parallelism, e.g. fin-like structures in fishes and whales.

convergence = 2) the meeting of ocean currents or water masses with different physical properties (temperature, salinity, density) with the result that colder, saltier or denser water sinks, or the line or area where convergence occurs.

convergence = 3) deep cell movement toward the dorsal side of the embryo during the gastrula and early segmentation periods.

convergence zone = the line where two oceanic water masses meet.

convergent evolution = convergence (1).

conversion efficiency = a measurement of fish growth as a %, equal to G/R x 100 where G is the specific growth rate and R is the ration in % weight of body weight per day.

conversion factor = a multiplier to convert landings into nominal catches. These factors vary with the species involved and with the whether the fish are fresh, frozen, gutted, etc. May also vary by country and over time.

conversion rate = an index in kilogrammes of the amount of food needed to produce one kilogramme of fish.

converter smack = a vessel used for both trawling and drifting.

convex = curved outward, e.g. a fin in which the middle rays are longer than the outer rays. Opposite to concave.

convoluted = twisted, coiled.

co-occurring stocks = different stocks of fish that swim near one another and may be caught together.

co-ordinate = of names or categories within a given group that are of equal nomenclatural status.

Cook and Traganza method = a means of estimating the original fresh weight of all fish from archaeological remains. All bone is weighed and multiplied by a factor to give total edible weight. The original factor was 20 based on the observed ratio of dead bone to fresh weight. This was increased to 40 since some bones could have been thrown away, carried off by animals or used for other purposes. See also White's method.

cooked marinade = a marinade where the fish are preserved by acid and salt content and also by heat or pasteurisation.

cookie = a disk of rubber strung on a wire or chain to protect the trawl net from abrasion and to stir up mud and scare fish into the net. May be stamped out from tyres.

cool water = 1) water bodies characterised by summer temperatures of 20-24°C.

cool water = 2) the species found in such waters.

cooler = cooling tub.

cooling tub = a wooden container or half-barrel used for washing fish (Newfoundland).

cooling water = water used for cooling canned fish; has a chlorine residual of 2 p.p.m.

coolwater fish = fish species living in relatively cool waters, optimally 10-21°C.

coop = 1) a circular and wickerwork trap used in, e.g. Ceylon, narrowing from a five foot circumference at the bottom to an arm's width. A light is used to attract and distract the fish over which the coop is plunged and extracted via the narrow end. See also fish-coop.

coop = 2) a hollow vessel made of twigs with which fish are caught on the Humber River, used to take eels.

coop = 3) a large trap net made of stakes or a fence.

cooperative = a jointly owned organisation furthering the catch, processing and sale of fish. Abbreviated as fish-coop (pronounced co-op).

coordinate name = a family, genus or species group name; names within the groups have equal status. See Principle of Coordination.

coordinate status = said of names subject to he Principle of Coordination (q.v.).

Cope's Rule = size tends to increase during phylogeny.

Copenhagen jar = a wide-mouth glass container with a snap-on polyethylene lid. Also called Danish jar.

coprolites = fossilized faeces. Those of some sharks for example may be recognized because of the distinctive form produced by the spiral intestine.

copropel = a mixture of plant fragments, algal remains, spores, pollen, aquatic arthropod fragments, grains of sand, etc.

coprophagy = feeding on faecal material.

copula = 1) dermal bone(s) overlying the basihyals.

copula = 2) united basibranchials in sharks.

copular plate = the tooth plate on the basibranchials of Cetomimidae.

copulin = a substance secreted by male Poecilia reticulata which reportedly triggers growth of the ovipositor in females and synchronizes their oestrus cycles. Further studies by other investigators do not support these findings.

copyist's error = an incorrect spelling made in copying, not intended by the original author.

Coquitlam = a town in British Columbia whose name derives from "smell like fish" or "stinking of fish slime" in the Halkomelem language (or a Coast Salish term meaning "red fish up the river", sources vary). Local Indians sold themselves into slavery during a famine and while preparing salmon for their masters became covered in fish slime.

COR = abbreviation for coronal pore.

coracle fishing = the use of a pair of coracles to catch fish. The coracle is mainly a Welsh boat shaped like half a walnut shell, with a shallow draught, difficult to manoeuvre but light enough to be carried. Each fisherman uses a paddle with one hand and handles the net spread between the coracles with the other. When a fish is trapped in the net, each fisherman pulls up his end of the net and the two coracles are brought together and the fish is secured.

coracoid = the lower, paired endochondral bone on which the pterygials or actinosts of the pectoral fin rest. Dorsally it has a notch which, with a similar ventral notch on the scapular, frames the scapular foramen. It attaches anteriorly to the cleithrum.

coracoid bar = coracoid cartilage.

coracoid cartilage = a U-shaped bar comprising the ventral part of the pectoral girdle in Elasmobranchii, supporting the pectoral fins.

coral = 1) the rocklike deposits consisting of the calcareous skeletons secreted by various Anthozoa. Coral deposits can form reefs or islands in warm seas and are major habitats for fishes.

coral = 2) fish eggs or the egg-filled ovary, having a grainy texture.

coral fish disease = gold dust disease (an infectious disease caused by dinoflagellates evidenced by a golden or brownish dusty appearance on the fish skin through mucus production. The fish may show irritability, flashing, respiration difficulties and clamping of the fins. A very contagious and often fatal disease in aquaria. Called velvet disease when Oodinium (or Piscinoodinium), coral fish disease when Amyloodinium, and also rust from the appearance).

coral rock = consolidated material, greater than 3 cm in diameter, made of fragments of dead coral and which may include cemented sand, coralline algae and sedimentary rocks, Used in the aquarium trade. See also live rock.

corallivore = a feeder on corals, e.g. parrotfishes (Scaridae) which are important agents of marine bioerosion and sand formation.

corallivory = coral feeding.

corallophile = coral loving, in the sense of species limited to coral reefs, e.g. Scarus coeruleus, Acanthurus coeruleus, Pomacanthus arcuatus.

corange line = a line passing through places of equal tidal range.

cordate = heart-shaped.

core = the area surrounding the primordia of a otolith and bounded by the first prominent D-zone. Salmonidae have multiple cores.

core area = 1) the area of habitat essential in the breeding, nesting and rearing of young, up to the point of dispersal of the young.

core area = 2) the central and most highly protected part of a protected area.

core fish = undried salted cod (Newfoundland). See also corved.

corf = a basket used for taking fish (obsolete).

corf-house = a house or shed erected for the purpose of curing salmon, and for keeping nets in, during the close season (Scotland).

corft = fish boiled with salt and water.

coriaceous = having a leathery texture.

corium = the dermis, the lower skin layer.

cork = float (a plastic, cork or wood device that enables a baited hook to be suspended in the water column and enables fish biting on the hook to be detected by movement of the float. Usually painted distinctively, e.g. fluorescent colours, particularly at the tip. Floats are attached to the fishing line through small holes at the bottom of the float or by means of silicone tubes slipped over the float with the line trapped between the tube and float. Split shot or some other weight is attached to the line below the float so that the line sinks and the float achieves a suitable level above the water and is sensitive to bites. Bites may be evidenced by the float zooming underwater, by wiggling movements, by a slight rise as a fish picks up bait off the bottom, and other subtle movements. Strikes can be made immediately the float moves or delayed to give the fish time to take in the bait - this varies with bait type, species of fish and sophistication of the individual fish. Immense number of types and materials used, some with carbon fibre stems and tips or heavy and stable lignum stems. Also called bobber in North America or waggler in Britain).

corkline = the top line of a net that has cork floats for support.

cormorant fishing = the use of tame cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.) to catch fish, originating in China and also seen in Japan, Korea and other parts of Asia, and, later, as a hobby in Europe. The cormorant wears a ring around the neck to prevent large fish being swallowed and disgorges the fish on its owner's boat. Small fish may be swallowed despite the ring. Up to 150 fish an hour can be caught by a cormorant. The cormorant may be attached by a rope to the fisherman in the boat or may be free-diving. James I and Charles I of England had a Master of the Cormorants but this was more of a sporting venture than for serious food gathering. See also bird fishery.

cornea = the thin and transparent anterior part of the sclera, q.v., of the eye allowing light to fall on the retina for vision.

corned alewife = washed and lightly-salted alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) without guts, packed in salt in barrels.

corner = the angle formed by any two walls of a cod trap (Newfoundland).

corneous = in reference to keratinised epithelium.

cornification = conversion into horny tissue; hardening.

cornified = corneous.

Cornish duck = a pilchard (Sardina pilchardus, Clupeidae).

Cornish sardine = a pilchard (Sardina pilchardus, Clupeidae). In Britain pilchards are regarded as somewhat inferior food although the juveniles, called sardines, q.v., are popular. The name Cornish sardine was invented as a marketing ploy in 2003 and increased the sale of pilchards ten times. The name is now a Protected Geographical Indication, q.v.

cornobbled = hit with a fish. Note some sources state it means an itch, anything causing one to fidget, or anxiety. Joseph Wright's English Dialect Dictionary (1898-1905) gives the definition as "to beat on the head" and other sources suggest that the original was "hit with a fist" which got mis-transcribed at some point.

cornua = plural of cornus.

cornus (plural cornua) = a horn-like projection, usually from the head area and used in osteology.

coronal commissure = the branch of the head canal sensory system extending across the top of the head between the eyes joining the two supraorbital canals.

coronal head spine = a spine on the head of Scorpaenidae members. They are, from anterior to posterior over the top of the head on each side, the nasal, preocular, supraocular, postocular, tympanic, coronal (medial to the tympanic and postocular spines), parietal, and nuchal. Opercular spines are at the postero-dorsal corner of the operculum, preopercular spines line the posterior margin of the preoperculum, and the cleithral and postcleithral spines are just above the opercular spines on the side of the head.

coronal pore = the dorsal median pore of the cephalic lateral line system (q.v.) at the point of juncture of the branches from each supraorbital canal. Abbreviated COR.

coroner of the seas = Receiver of Wreck (a British government official concerned with shipwrecks and their legitimate ownership. Also tasked with disposing of Royal fish, q.v.

coronet = protuberances and spines on the top of the head of a seahorse.

coronoid = a paired dermal bone bearing teeth located on the upper edge of Meckel's cartilage. One pair is found in Acipenseridae and two pairs in Amia and Lepisosteus. Also called presplenial. splenial, prearticular and intradentary.

coronoid process = a dorsal hump on the dorsal wing of the dentary, or on the angular or on the posterior end of Meckel's cartilage.

coronomeckelian = a small bone on the postero-lateral part of Meckel's cartilage of the lower jaw. Often a point of insertion of the adductor mandibulae muscle. Also called sesamoid angular, supraangular, sesamoid articular, articular sesamoid, splenial, os meckeli or d bone.

corpus = 1) body; used in anatomical descriptions or to any solid part of an organ.

corpus = 2) that portion of the stomach next to the oesophagus (as opposed to the pylorus next to the intestine). A term preferred over "cardiac" region.

corpus cerebellum = cerebellum.

corpuscles of Stannius = the bud-like evagination(s) from the wall of the pronephric duct anterior to the opisthonephros (Holosteans) or in the posterior region of the opisthonephros (Teleosteans) in the kidney. Function unknown according to some, said to be that of parathyroid glands of other vertebrates, which are lacking in fishes. This organ secretes hypocalcin (teleocalcin) to regulate calcium metabolism.

corr. = abbreviation for correctus, meaning corrected (by).

corral = an enclosure formed of nets supported on poles; fish are trapped in the enclosure when the tide falls because of the narrow, v-shaped entrance.

corral fish culture = a pen made of a frame of bamboo, sticks, twigs or similar materials stuck in the bottom of a shallow lake with netting strung on these materials.

corre fish = core fish.

corrected name = nomen correctum (a corrected name or 'improved' name, an available name which is a mandatory and allowable emendation of an imperfect name or of a taxonomic name higher than family (which is not subject to name form and ending regulations). Does not depend on transfer in taxon rank or assignment (an emended name).

correctus = corrected (by). Abbreviated as corr.

corrie loch = tarn (a small mountain lake, often occupying a cirque or corrie).

corrigenda = plural of corrigendum.

corrigendum (plural corrigenda) = a note published by an author, editor, or publisher of a work, expressly to cite one or more errors or omissions in that work together with their correction.

corroboration = a term used in age determination studies where two people agree on the numbers of annuli or two different structures give the same results.

corrugated = having a surface of parallel and alternate ridges and grooves.

corrugation = alternating and parallel ridges and grooves, anatomical features in fish structures.

corselet = scaly armour or enlarged scales behind the pectoral fin in some Scombridae.

corved = undried salted fish, cod or herring.

Corynebacterial disease = bacterial kidney disease (a bacterial infection with Renibacterium salmoninus or Corynebacterium sp. affecting salmonids, usually when temperatures are falling. The disease may be chronic or acute and has no treatment. Causes swelling of internal organs (oedematous, grey and corrugated kidneys with off-white lesions) and haemorrhages. Lesions may occur also in the liver and spleen and muscle contractions occur. External symptoms may be absent or include exophthalmy, skin darkening, abdominal swelling, and skin ruptures and vesicles. Also called Dee's disease and kidney disease).

cosh = a river estuary cut off from the sea at low tide (Newfoundland). Also spelled coish.

cosmic fish = a symbol of the whole of the physical universe.

cosmine = a form of dentine covered by a layer of enamel and with clusters of dentinal tubules which open to the surface pores and lead into flask-shaped cavities. The cavities are are connected by canals (the "pore-canal system"). Enamel may or may not penetrate and cover all or a part of the inner surface of the pore cavity. The pore-canal system has been suggested to house an electrosensory organ but there is no clear evidence of this (Bemis and Northcutt, 1992).

cosmoid scale = scale with four layers, an outer, thin, porous layer of vitrodentine (sometimes denticulate or lacking denticles, adenticulate), a middle layer of dentine with pulp cavities or canals (cosmine), a spongy deeper layer of loose spongy bone containing osteoblasts, and lastly a laminar layer of isopedine with osteocytes and Sharpney's fibres. Grows by adding to inner layer only, e.g. Crossopterygii, Placodermi; not found in extant fishes.

cosmopolitan = occurring in all the oceans or all the continents (excepting usually Antarctica, or the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans).

coassack = a form of salmon trap used in Scotland on rivers. The entrance comprises two light doors or leaves which the swimming motion of the fish pushes open, and these leaves close behind the fish.

costal = pertaining to a rib.

costermonger = a British term for a seller of foodstuffs, sometimes including fish, from a stand, barrow, cart or stall in the street.

costiasis = an infection of the skin, fins and gills of aquarium and hatchery fish by the flagellate protozoan Costia necatrix (or Ichthyobodo; and also Chilodonella, Trichodina). Found in young fish just as they start feeding externally, in colder waters. Stress may be a factor. Fish may show lethargy, appetite loss, flashing, respiratory distress in the form of gill flaring and gasping, fin erosion, and produce abundant mucus, giving a cloudy appearance, hence the other names blue slime disease or skin slime disease. The skin and scales may peel away in strips in acute cases.

costiform = rib-shaped.

costule = a short, vertical ridge on the inner and/or outer tooth crown base in Chondrichthyes.

cotidal line = a line on a chart or map passing through places having the same tidal hour.

cotriade = a Breton stew of several species of fish with potatoes usually poured over toasted French bread. Does not contain shellfish like bouillabaisse (q.v.).

cottoid bubblemorph = a large space under the skin in larvae of the Liparidae; it may help to maintain buoyancy.

cotton seed cake = a cake or compressed pellet of the seeds of Bombyx malabaricum, the Indian cotton tree used as fish feed.

cotton wool disease = a fungal disease caused by Saprolegnia sp. and Achyla sp. Appears as fluffy, whitish growths often at the site of an injury or diseased part of a fish. The fungi may turn grey to reddish-brown over time owing to dirt or algal accumulation. Can prove fatal if untreated as it will spread to healthy tissue. Occurs, for example, on salmonid gills and mouth, and on fins it is called fin rot. May also attack fish eggs, especially those that are infertile or damaged, but it may spread to healthy eggs (parental care fishes usually pick out infected eggs and broadcasts spawners usually have the eggs widely dispersed). Stress, chilling, old age and poor aquarium husbandry all contribute to this disease. Mouth fungus and columnaris disease (q.v.) have a similar appearance and may be called cotton wool disease but are bacterial diseases.

cotyle = an articulation in the form of a rounded pit. Also called cotylus.

cotyloid = cup-shaped.

cotylus = cotyle.

cotype = obsolete term for either syntype (q.v.) or paratype (q.v.), not recognised by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

coulee = a streambed or stream, often dry in summer, or a deep ravine with a stream also often dry (U.S.A.).

coulibiac = salmon or sturgeon with a grain (usually rice or buckwheat), mushrooms, hard-boiled eggs, dill, vesiga (q.v.) and sauce, wrapped in brioche dough or puff pastry. Originally a Russian dish, kulebyaka.

count = the number of items in a fixed weight or volume when marketing fish. The product is sorted and packaged by count ranges. Size ranges have such names as small, large and jumbo which need not be the same in all markets even though size grades will be harmonised.

count-it-down = countdown method.

countdown method = estimating the depth at which to start retrieving and fishing a lure by counting as the lure sinks. Special lures are designed to be used with this method. Also called count-it-down.

counter-current heat exchange = exchange of heat between blood vessels going to surface structures with vessels going deeper into the body. This exchange preserves core body temperatures and reduces surface heat loss so that the fish can function more effectively in cool waters or penetrate cooler waters not otherwise favourable.

counter-illumination = having bioluminescent organs that are concentrated on the ventral surface so as to increase the effect of countershading, q.v.

countershading = condition of fish in the water column that are dark-coloured on top but light-coloured on the bottom. The effect is to obscure the image of the fish to predators by blending with the dark sea floor when viewed from above, the light sky when viewed from below, and with the general diffused pattern of light when viewed from the side.

country of harvest = in food inspection, the country from which the fish species comes.

country fishery = all the fisheries of a country. May be used for a fishery by native groups.

country food = fishes forming a significant part of the diet of native people, caught locally by traditional or modern methods but not commercially packaged and sold.

country mile = an informal measurement of distance, usually longer than the statute mile (1760 yards or 1609 metres) or straight distance of one mile, as it can involve winding roads or rough terrain. More a measure of traveling time than distance, being the time needed to cover a certain portion of a route between two places. Still used in some countries to the confusion of the metrical scientist. See also farsakh.

country of origin = the country where a species is native.

coup = a basket used to catch salmon (Scottish dialect). Also spelled coupe, cowp, and cowpe.

coupe = coup.

couple of chips short of a fish dinner = not very intelligent.

couplet = a pair of contrasting descriptive statements; used in identification keys to give a choice leading to a species identification or to the next couplet.

courge = a basket hung on the side of a se-fishing boat, used to keep bait and fish alive (English dialect).

course = the path over which something moves as in water in a river (watercourse).

course-bag = in the Newfoundland Bank fishery, a container from which lots are drawn assigning areas for dories to fish.

court = fish court (the holding chamber in a trap net or the last chamber in any net).

court bouillon = court-bouillon.

court-bouillon = a stock of salt water, black pepper, spices, herbs, vegetables, vinegar and white wine used in cooking fish. Court means short in the sense of not rich, and generally the bouillon (thin broth) is not served as part of the finished dish.

cove = a small, sheltered indentation in the shore of lake or sea.

covel = a half-barrel or tub with handles or rope affixed to the sides or with holes for inserting a staff for two men to carry in Newfoundland.

cover = 1) any materials placed in a water body to create fish habitat, spawning and nursery areas.

cover = 2) natural items such as weeds, logs, overhanging banks, boulders, roots, etc. providing shelter for fishes.

cover bait = plugs and other lures designed for use in heavy cover.

cover net = 1) castnet.

cover net = 2) an often conical, accessory, hand net with a circular, rigid-framed mouth used to trap fishes caught in larger nets or a fish shelter.

cover pot = a wide-mouth basket with a smaller hole in the opposite end, plunged into the water over a fish spotted by a wading fisher, the fish being caught and extracted by hand through the smaller hole. Often used in turbid water or areas of rich plant growth. See also fish dance (2). Also called plunge basket. See also lantern net.

covering bone = dermal bone (any of the the superficial bones in Teleostomi derived from the dermis and overlying the deeper elements of the skull. Primitive fishes have more dermal bones than higher ones, e.g. the armour of Ostracodermi. Dermal bones are a form of membrane bones, i.e. they arose directly from connective tissue membranes without the cartilaginous precursors which precede endochondral bones. They may be divided into laterosensory canal bones that develop in relation to the sensory canals, bones derived from mesenchymous tissue and anamestic bones (q.v.). Also called achondral, membrane and investing bones).

cow = an egg-laden sturgeon.

cowble = coble (2).

cowboy caviar = baked beans.

cowell = cowl (2).

cowl = 1) fish bladder (Cornish dialect).

cowl = 2) a fish basket carried on the back (English dialect).

cowl-net = a large hand-net used in salmon poaching (Yorkshire dialect).

cown = a basket for catching fish.

cowp = coup.

cowpe = coup.

CPR = abbreviation for catch, photograph, release.

CPUE = catch per unit effort.

CPY = current potential yield.

CR = critically endangered.

cracken = crackin.

crackin = the refuse of fish liver after oil has been extracted (Scottish dialect). Also spelled cracken and cracking.

cracking = crackin.

cradle = a device to hold a fish while the hook is extracted, the fish measured and weighed, or photographed. It consists of two long poles with a soft mesh between them. The fish is cradled in the device while still in the water so that stress and injury is lessened.

craft = 1) a group of boats (there is no plural, "crafts").

craft = 2) fishing gear (Newfoundland).

craft liftnet = a framed liftnet which is placed on the bottom of a water body, baited, and then hauled to the surface rapidly at intervals to secure a fish catch.

craiging = a tradition where the first fish brought into a boat had its neck broken, some blood squeezed out and then rubbed over the hands (Scotland).

Crail's capon = a dried haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Gadidae). See also capon.

craive = cruive.

cran = 1) an old unit of measure for fish such as herrings by volume (ca. 37.5 Imperial gallons or 170.5 litres) equivalent to about 750 fish or over 1000 fish (sources differ). 5.5 crans is 1 metric tonne. May now be used informally to indicate a volume of fish weighing one hundredweight (112 pounds or 50.8 kg).

cran = 2) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for fishes.

crania = plural of cranium.

cranial = 1) pertaining to the skull.

cranial = 2) to the direction of the skull.

cranial endothermy = maintenance of elevated temperatures of the eyes and brain in fishes that move from warm to cold water on migrations. This condition is thought to stabilise vision, e.g. in lamnid sharks, billfishes, mackerel and tunas.

cranial nerves =

Nerve

Motor (M) or
Sensory (S)

Origin

Function

0 Terminal (Preoptic) S Telencephalon; ventral border of olfactory bulb Smell? and sensory endings of snout
I Olfactory S Telencephalon; anterior end of olfactory bulb Smell
II Optic S Diencephalon; optic lobes Sight
III Oculomotor M Mesencephalon; posterior ventral end of medulla between optic lobes and cerebellum All eye muscles but lateral rectus and superior oblique
IV Trochlear M Mesencephalon; dorso-lateral anterior surface of medulla Movement superior oblique muscle
V Trigeminal MS Mesencephalon; anterior lateral border of medulla oblongata a) sensory to snout, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body (ophthalmicus); b) sensory to upper jaw and snout (maxillaris); c) sensory to lower lip and teeth, motor to mastication muscle (mandibularis)
VI Abducens M Metencephalon; anterior ventral end of medulla oblongata Lateral rectus eye muscle and retractor bulbi muscles in part
VII Facial MS Metencephalon; lateral border of medulla oblongata just posterior to trigeminal and with acoustic Motor to muscles of hyoid arch (hyomandibula); sensory to geniculate ganglion, sensory to taste bud system; sensory to lateral line organs of snout
VIII Acoustic S Myelencephalon; with facial from lateral border of medulla oblongata Sensory to equilibrium, hearing, acceleration
IX Glossopharyngeal MS Myelencephalon; posterior lateral border of medulla with vagus Motor to third visceral arch; sensory to pharyngeal area and posterior tongue region; sensory to lateral line components of posterior head region
X Vagus (Pneumogastric) MS Myelencephalon; posterior lateral border of medulla with glossopharyngeal Sensory to pharynx, oesophagus, thoracic and abdominal viscera. Pharyngeal musculature, visceral musculature. Trunk lateral line. Visceral arches behind third. Respiratory movement.

craniobuccal pouch = Rathke's pouch (an embryonic invagination of the stomodeal ectoderm (roof of the embryonic mouth) which migrates dorsally to come into contact with diencephalon. It differentiates into the anterior pituitary gland or adenohypohysis. It becomes a blind naso-hypophyseal canal in some Agnatha or develops secondary opening to the outside with or without a connection to the mouth).

cranium (plural crania) = the skull.

crank = the technique in angling used to retrieve a plug, either a deep-diving one or a shallow one, continuously reeling in the lure to give it its proper action.

crankbait = an imitation fish or plug designed to dive when retrieved (or cranked) slowly, usually having a lip at the front, larger lips giving deeper dives.

crap = crop.

crape = creep.

crappen = crappin head.

crappie-doo = a ball of oat meal mixed with chopped onions and seasonings and boiled in fish stock (Scottish dialect).

crappin head = crappit head.

crappit head = heads of haddocks or cod stuffed with a compound of oatmeal, suet, onions and pepper. See also crappen and crappin head and variant spellings using k instead of c.

crate = wooden container in which cod are processed in the Newfoundland Bank fishery.

crater lake = a lake formed in a volcanic crater or caldera. May be formed also by a meteorite strike.

crateriform = having the form of a shallow bowl.

cravatte = a fillet tied in a knot.

crave = cruive.

craw-pockies = the eggs of sharks and skates (Orkney Islands dialect).

crawler = a surface lure that is designed to have the appearance of crawling across the water surface when retrieved.

crease = 1) the area where fast and slow water meet, often with fish in the slower water next to the crease conserving energy and picking up food as it passes in the faster flow.

crease = 2) a depression containing the backbone which is left in a cod when it is split (q.v.) (Newfoundland).

creasing = an increase in the number of meshes to alter the shape of a net.

crèche = a congregation of unrelated young, often under the care of some parental fish.

credit water = fish credit water (water set aside in reservoirs for release downstream to maintain fish stocks).

creek = 1) a small fast-flowing stream. A creek is smaller than a river and larger than a brook, but actual dimensions are relative according to locality and usage varies. Often pronounced "crik" in North America.

creek = 2) or a small bay or inlet of the sea.

creel = 1) a basket-like structure used for carrying angling gear and caught fishes, usually and traditionally made of wicker.

creel = 2) the number and kinds of fishes caught in a day.

creel = 3) a wicker trap for catching fishes (and crayfishes).

creel census survey = creel survey.

creel survey = the estimation of anglers' catches, usually by a sampling program involving interviews and inspection of individual catches on a particular stream, lake or other area; a survey of the recreational fishery that quantifies the fish landings at public piers and docks. Components include type of fishing, time of fishing, time spent, species caught, size, catch per unit effort, waters fished, baits and gear, etc.

creeler = a fish worthy of putting in a creel.

creep = dragging the sea bed for lost nets with a grapnel or creeper.

creeper = a grapnel, a device with one or more hooks for grasping or holding. Used for searching out lost lines or drawing up night lines for eels.

creeve = cruive.

credit system = the arrangement in which a fisherman is supplied by a merchant with supplies and gear against the season's catch (Newfoundland). Also called truck system.

credit time = the period of preparation for the summer fishery (Newfoundland).

crenal = adjective for crenon. Also spelled krenon.

crenal zone = an area of headwater springs.

crenate = margined by small, rounded scallops.

crenated = 1) margined by small, rounded scallops.

crenated = 2) shrunken.

crenicolous = living in springs or streams fed by springs.

crenobiont = organisms found in springs and spring brooks.

crenocoa = the biotope and biocenosis of a crenal zone.

crenon (adjective crenal) = strictly the organisms in an area of headwater springs but also used in the sense of crenal zone.

crenophile = an organism preferring spring environments but may also occupy similar habitats.

crenulate = minutely crenate or scalloped.

crenulate scale = a scale intermediate in form between a ciliate and a ctenoid scale, e.g. in characoids.

crep = to strike an anchor on the bow head of a skiff on moonless nights, thus startling fish which could be seen by phosphorescent trails (Scottish dialect).

crepuscular = relating to dawn or dusk, often used in the sense of when a species is active.

crescentic = shaped like the moon in the first or last quarter.

crest = 1)a ridge; a median bony or fleshy ridge on the upper surface of the head.

crest = 2) the high water mark of a flood.

crest = 3) the top of a dam.

crest stage = the level of a flood, usually the highest.

Cretaceous = a geological period of the Mesozoic Era ca. 140-65 million years ago. Abbreviated as K.

crevicular = inhabiting crevices.

crib = 1) a fish shelter placed in lakes lacking sufficient cover for bait fish and smaller sport species. May be built of logs in a cabin shape and then filled with brush. Can be towed into position and sunk or built on ice in northern lakes and left to sink in spring.

crib = 2) a solid structure of logs, rocks and other materials used to support a stream bank, bridge, road, etc.

crick = creek.

cricket can = a container used to keep crickets alive when used as bait in fishing.

crickotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a holotype and only known specimen that has been ground up for DNA analysis.

crimp = 1) crimp sleeve.

crimp = 2) a cruel manner of cutting up fish alive, used by London fishmongers in the past to render the flesh firm. Once a favourite dish among epicures.

crimp sleeve = a small cylinder of metal used in angling for making connections in wire or very heavy monofilament line; the sleeve is crimped with pliers.

crimping = transverse slashes across the flesh of fish being sold to prevent toughening when rigor mortis sets in.

crisp = fish crisp (a delicatessen product made from fish mince mixed with starch and sugar, expanding when cooked in oil and not like a potato chip).

crista (plural cristae) = crest.

crista ampullaris = a ridge at the bottom of the ampullae, the widening in the base of the semicircular canalss of the inner ear. This ridge bears sensory epithelia.

crista inferior caudae = the crest or ridge extending along the ventrolateral surface of the tail region (behind the anus) in Syngnathidae.

crista inferior trunci = the crest or ridge extending along the ventrolateral surface of the trunk in Syngnathidae.

crista media trunci = the crest or ridge extending along the midlateral surface of the trunk in Syngnathidae.

crista neglecta = macula neglecta or crista quarta, q.v.

crista occipitalis (plural cristæ occipitales) = occipital crest (a vertical blade on the occipital bone formed from ossification of the connective septum separating occipital myomeres).

crista quarta = macula neglecta (a sensory structure located in Teleostomi in the utriculus of the inner ear near the opening of the ampulla of the posterior vertical semicircular canal, in selachians within a duct (posterior canal duct) through which the posterior vertical semicircular canal connects with the sacculus, while in the batoids it lies in the wall of the sacculus adjacent to the opening of the duct. It may have a neuromast associated with its sensory tissue. This structure has been demonstrated to be a sensitive vibration receptor in Raja. Also called crista neglecta or papilla neglecta.

crista superior caudae = the crest or ridge extending along the dorsolateral surface of the tail region (body behind the anus) in Syngnathidae.

crista superior trunci = the crest or ridge extending along the dorsolateral surface of the trunk of Syngnathidae.

cristae = plural of crista.

cristate = having comb-like ridges or crests.

cristiform = crest-shaped.

cristophore = the fused first six dorsal fin pterygiophores supporting the dorsal fin crest in Regalecus species (Regalecidae).

critch = crutch.

critical age = the average age of the fish in a year-class at which the instantaneous rate of natural mortality equals the instantaneous rate of growth in weight for the year-class as a whole. At this age, the biomass of the age class is maximum.

critical depensation level = level below which a stock or population cannot sustain itself even in the absence of harvest.

critical flow = 1) minimum flow needed to prevent fish deaths.

critical flow = 2) very high flows impeding fish migrations.

critical habitat = a habitat crucial to the life cycle of a fish, e.g. spawning area, nursery area.

critical period = supposedly the time in larval life when yolk is exhausted and there may be high mortality through starvation.

critical size = the average size of the fish in a year-class at the time when the instantaneous rate of natural mortality equals the instantaneous rate of growth in weight for the year-class as a whole (Ricker, 1975). Also called optimum size.

critical standing crop = when natural food is fully utilised for maintenance and maximum growth of fish.

critical stock = a stock of fish experiencing production levels that are so low that permanent damage to the stock is likely or has already occurred.

critical thermal maximum = in fish exposed to a constant rate of heating, the temperature at which there is a loss of equilibrium or onset of muscle spasm. Abbreviated as ctmax.

critical thermal minimum = in fish exposed to a constant rate of cooling, the temperature at which there is a loss of equilibrium or onset of muscle spasm. Abbreviated as ctmin.

critical velocity = a flow through which fish will not swim.

critically balanced = a fishing rig where the bait is counterbalanced by a small weight near the hook so the bait only just floats above it.

critically endangered = in the IUCN Criteria for threatened species, a taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future. Abbreviated CR.

critter cam = a camera attached to an organism, e.g. a shark, recording picture, sound, temperature, depth, etc., allowing the daily life of fish to be studied in real time.

criv = cruive.

crive = cruive.

cro = croy.

croakwood = horn-like devices which make a hollow, croaking sound when thrust into the water. Used to attract the European wels, Silurus glanis, through a similarity to frogs croaking or to the sounds made by female wels.

crock = a large glass or ceramic container, usually cylindrical, and used for preservation of fish specimens in a museum. The glaze of ceramic crocks is penetrated by preservatives over time and the seal is often poor. Replaced with stainless steel containers and lids.

crockuns = remains of fish livers after the oil has been extracted (Scottish dialect).

croffis = cruive.

crooked as a barrel of fish hooks = very dishonest (slang).

croos = a dumpling filled with fish liver (Shetland Isles).

croove = cruive.

crop = 1) to supply a fisherman from a merchant with personal equipment, supplies or fishing gear against the profits of a voyage (Newfoundland).

crop = 2) crop note.

crop = 3) yield (1) catch in weight. Catch and yield are often used interchangeably. Amount of production per unit area over a given time. A measure of production. The sustainable yield is the quantity of fish which can be taken from a stock (usually on an annual basis) without severely depleting or eliminating that stock). crop note = a merchant's chit authorising personal equipment, supplies or fishing gear to as fisherman against profits from the voyage (Newfoundland).

cropping moggie = the liver of a cod mixed with flour and spice, and boiled in the fish's stomach (Shetland Isles dialect). See also liver moggie, liver muggie and livered moggie.

cropshen = herring refuse, headless and broken fish, gills, eyes, intestines, etc. Once made into compost (Norfolk dialect).

croquette = a patty of at least 35% fish and/or crab, mixed with breadcrumbs or another binding material.

cross cut fillet = a flatfish fillet where the flesh from each side is removed as a single piece.

cross pile = to make a rectangular pile of dried cod with each layer at right angles to the one below (Newfoundland).

cross-over point = junction of two threads in knotless netting.

cross-row of scales = the diagonal scale row (the almost vertical rows of scales slanting backwards and downwards across the sides of the body. Divided into scales above the lateral line starting at the front of the dorsal fin (from, but not including, the scale in the middorsal row, to but not including, the lateral line scales) and below the lateral line similarly ending at the front of the anal fin. The number of transverse rows themselves along the body may also be counted).

cross-sectoral issue = an issue where the actions of one sector affect one or more other sectors. Habitat degradation is an important cross-sectoral issue for fisheries.

crossbar = a vertical pigmentation, usually referring to one on the base of the tail.

crossbreeding = reproduction between two distinct conspecific gene pools, e.g. between evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). Note that hybridization refers to reproduction between distinct species or higher taxa.

crossfish = not a fish but another name for starfish (Echinodermata).

crosshanded = a single fisherman on board a vessel who fishes with jigs or handlines.

crosshanded dory = a dory so rigged that one man could handle it and fish (Newfoundland).

crossing over = cutting over.

crotch trolling = use of stick to throw a bait out without a fishing rod. A reel is used to retrieve the line. Used by poachers as there is no rod to attract attention (Norfolk).

crove = cruive.

crowd = a fishing crew as an organised group (Newfoundland).

crowding externality = the effect of one fisherman's catch of a species on another fisherman's catch of the same species, cf. stock externality.

crowis = cruive.

crown = 1) the top of the head, or of other anatomical structures like teeth.

crown = 2) an enamel tooth part.

crown = 3) a shoal area on a fishing ground (Newfoundland).

Crown Brand = an official mark on barrels of pickle cured herring packed in Scotland and northeast England to indicate that contents conformed to regulations governing size, condition and cure. No longer in use but some terms still used to describe various products:- large full = full of milt or roe and not less than 11¼ inches long; full = full of milt or roe and not less than 11¼ inches long; matfull = full of milt or roe and not less than 9¼ inches long; medium = maturing or filling fish not less than 9½ inches long and with the long gut removed; and mattie = not less than 9 inches long and with the long gut removed.

crown group = all the taxa descended from a major cladogenesis event, recognized by possessing the clade's synapomorphy.

crownfull = a certain quantity of herrings (Shetland Isles dialect).

croy = a semi-circular enclosure or pen, made on the beach, for catching fish on the falling tide (Scottish dialect).

crucial habitat = habitat that is basic to maintaining viable populations of fish during certain seasons of the year or specific reproduction periods.

crucifix = 1) a Christian symbol (†) used before the name of an author to indicate (s)he died before publication or, in an ongoing website with several authors, that this contributor is deceased. Also called a dagger.

crucifix = 2) in a synonymy, used to indicate a misidentification. Also called a dagger.

crucifix = 3) a footnote marker. Also called a dagger.

crucifix fish = Ariopsis felis (hardhead sea catfish, Ariidae) head skeleton sold as having attributes of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. The arrangement of bones on the ventral surface of the head resemble a crucified person, a section looks like the shield of a Roman soldier, another section looks like a Roman sword and, when shaken, a sound like dice being cast is heard, reminiscent of Roman soldiers gambling for Christ's garments. The sound is presumably loose otoliths.

cruciform = 1) having the form of a cross.

cruciform = 2) x-shaped (incorrectly).

crude density = the number of individuals in an area.

crudo = raw fish or sashimi, Italian-style.

crue = a wickerwork fish trap.

cruiser = a migratory fisherman catching cod from a schooner on the Labrador coast.

cruising = in angling, used for fish looking for food.

cruising speed = extended swimming by fish without stress or fatigue.

cruive = a fish trap made by enclosing a space in a river, traditionally with wicker or wood (English dialect). Also spelled criv, craive, crave, crove, croove, crowis, coffis, cruve and crive.

crumble = food particles compounded artificially as fish food, of a certain size for ingestion and made not to disintegrate in water.

crumenal organ = bilaterally flattened pair of somewhat angular pouches or purses involving the last two gill arches and the anterior oesophagus whose posterior origin is supported by the fifth ceratobranchial and the posterodorsal tip of the fifth epibranchial (bones of the gill arch) which are united by special accessory cartilage in the Argentinoidei (Argentinoidea and Alepocephaloidea). Food particles are trapped dorsally in the pouches by large interlocking toothed gill rakers.

cruncheons = scrunchins (pieces of fish liver after the oil has been removed (Newfoundland). Also spelled scrunche(o)ns, scrunchings or scrunchions).

cruppy-dow = a cake made of oatmeal and fish (Northumberland dialect).

crura = plural of crus.

crus (plural crura) = the functionally distinct anterior lobe of the pelvic fin in Rajidae. It has three flexible joints and is used to push skates off the bottom, enabling them to glide a short distance.

crus commune = that part of the inner ear where the vertical canals meet.

cruisie = an iron basket filled with knabs, resinous fir roots, burned to give light for poaching fish (Scottish dialect).

crutch = a forked structure fastened to side of boat to hold the head of a net or cod trap above water (Newfoundland).

crutching = a form of fish locomotion which is hesitant, using the pectoral fins in a manner similar to that used by humans on crutches, e.g. in mudskippers and frogfishes. Also called amphipedal progression.

cruve = cruive.

crux herring = a class of herring for curing. Caught on or after 14 September (Exaltio Crucis).

cry stinking fish = belittle one's own goods; to foul one's one nest.

cryal = adjective from cryon. Also spelled kryal.

cryocoa = the biotope and biocensois of a cryal zone.

cryal zone = the area of a glacial stream or river, or a sea ice community .

cryo- (prefix) = pertaining to cold, cold.

cryogenic freezing = blast freezing, q.v., accelerated by using liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide sprays at -150°F or less. Used for individually quick frozen products (q.v.).

cryon (adjective cryal) = the organisms of a glacial stream or sea ice community.

cryopelagic = at or near the water surface under ice.

cryophilic = association with temporary or permanent ice.

cryoprotectant = chemicals such as sucrose and sorbitol that can be added to fish muscle before freezing to prevent adverse chemical reactions. Usually added to surimi (q.v.) before it is made into blocks and frozen.

crypsis = hidden, concealed, camouflaged. Often used in terms of colour or fringes and flaps used by fishes to conceal themselves from predators.

cryptic = adjective for hidden, concealed, camouflaged. Often used in terms of colour or fringes and flaps used by fishes to conceal themselves from predators.

cryptic biomass = the fraction of the stock that is unavailable to a fishery.

cryptic introduction = an undocumented introduction of a species to a drainage to which it is not native.

cryptic species = 1) those valid species that are morphologically indistinguishable but reproductively isolated. Also called sibling species.

cryptic species = 2) species names in the literature that have not been used for long periods of time.

cryptocaryon = a ciliated protozoan parasitic infection of marine fishes in aquaria caused by Cryptocaryon irritans. White spots develop on the body and fins and fish will scratch themselves against rocks. Gills may become infected and respiration affected. Also called white spot disease.

cryptodepression = a lake basin with its deepest parts below sea level.

cryptogenic = of obscure or unknown origin, e.g. a species may be an exotic or a native but little is known of its natural distribution and no conclusion can be made.

cryptophilic = loving concealment.

cryptotype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type published in an obscure place such as a newsletter or non-scientific magazine.

cryptotype = 2) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type from a private collection that was not labelled as such.

crystal flash = a trade name for synthetic material available in string shapes and used in streamer (q.v.) patterns to add flash and colour.

crystal waggler = a transparent plastic waggler, q.v., supposedly less visible to fish.

crystallised otolith = an otolith displaying inadequate calcification making age determinations difficult if not impossible due to missing annuli.

ctenactinia = plural of ctenactinium.

ctenactinium (plural ctenactinia) = the curved rod-like clasper on the posterior side of the priapium in Phallostethidae.

ctenidia = plural of ctenidium.

ctenidium (plural ctenidia) = microscopic tooth-like structure or a row of spines, e.g. in Poeciliidae.

ctenii = plural of ctenius.

ctenius (plural ctenii) = small spines or denticles on scales, usually most evident on the posterior margin but sometimes covering the whole scale. The scales are termed ctenoid scales on this basis. Each ctenius consists of a base and a spine. Also used for bony combs along the pelvic fin rays of some fishes. Also called spinules.

ctenoid scale = a scale having small spines (ctenii) on the posterior exposed portion and which hence feel rough when stroked towards the head. Typical of many Teleostei.

ctenus = incorrect spelling of ctenius.

cubbag = a small bag of leather used for carrying bait or fish (Caithness dialect).

cube = bite (a small piece of fish breaded or coated with batter, weighing less than 1 oz. Of various shapes such as round, square, or irregular. May be cut from regular blocks or blocks of minced fish. Generally sold by count, 25-35 per lb. Also called nuggets, petites, and tidbits).

cubic centimetre = 0.0338 fl oz, 0.00211 pt, 1.0 mL. Abbreviated as cm3.

cubic foot = 957.5 fl oz, 59.84 pt, 28.317 mL, 0.0283 m3. Abbreviated as ft3.

cubic feet per second = 28.317 L/s, 7.841 gal/sec. Abbreviated as ft3/s.

cubic metre per second (m3/s) = rate of discharge, typically used in measuring streamflow. One cubic metre per second is equal to the discharge in a stream of a cross section one metre wide and one metre deep, flowing with an average velocity of one metre per second.

cuckoldry = in nest building fishes, a male that is not the parental nest-guarder fertilises some eggs. Sneaker males dart out from hiding while satellite males mimic females to gain access to the nest site.

cuckoo-fish = upside-down catfishes (Synodus multipunctatus and S. petricola, Mochokidae) in Lake Tanganyika that lay their eggs at the same time as mouth-brooding Cichlidae. The cichlids pick up these catfish eggs along with their own but the catfish eggs hatch more quickly, being smaller, and the young feed on the cichlid's eggs.

cue = a stimulus, e.g. temperature is often a spawning cue.

cuesta = a ridge with a steep slope on one side and a gentle slope on the other.

cul du canard feather = fine, downy feathers from the rear end of duck used in fly-tying. There are few of these on each duck and they have a natural flotation because they are impregnated with preen oil.

cull = 1) the removal or killing of selected fish in a breeding stock or a group of fry, to improve overall quality.

cull = 2) removal of poor quality fish products by inspectors.

cull = 3) removal of damaged or duplicate specimens from a museum collection or lot.

cull = 4) releasing smaller fish caught in a contest as larger ones are taken when there is a limit in number of fish eligible for prize winning.

cull = 5) the lowest commercial grade of cod in the Newfoundland fishery.

cullage = the inferior fish from a cull.

culler = a person who sorted dried and salted cod into grades by cure, quality and size (Newfoundland).

culling board = a wooden table, or even simply a plank, used for sorting and grading dried, salted cod in Newfoundland.

culprit worm = an artificial plastic worm with a ribbon tail, originally manufactured by a company of that name.

cultigen = a species or subspecies cultivated by humans and not occurring naturally.

cultivation of ponds = agricultural usage of dried-out ponds so as to improve their productivity when used again.

cultrate = with a knife edge.

cultriform = knife-shaped.

cultural eutrophication = enrichment of the nutrient load of water bodies by human activities. Contributes to deterioration of the life-supporting features of the water body.

cultural keystone species = a fish that has major significance in the lives and traditions of a group of people, e.g.eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus, Osmeridae) in the Pacific northwest to the Nuxalk. See also grease trail.

culture = the artificial breeding and raising of fish.

culture-based capture fishery = capture fisheries which are maintained by stocking with material raised within aquaculture installations.

culture-based fishery = supplementing or sustaining stocks beyond the natural level. May include introduction of a new species, stocking, habitat improvement, removal of undesirable species. Often used in the sense of stocking hatchery-reared juveniles into the natural environment for recapture when grown.

cultured stock = a stock that depends upon spawning, incubation, hatching, or rearing in a hatchery or other artificial production facility.

culturist = a person engaged in aquaculture.

culvert = a drain or waterway under a road, rail or other obstruction.

cum = with. Abbreviated as c.

cumulative catch limit = cumulative limit.

cumulative limit = the total allowable amount of a species of stock that can be taken over a set time. Usually measured in weight that a vessel can take and keep, possess or land. The vessel or fisher can take or land as much fish as they like as long as they do not exceed the cumulative limit during the designated time period.

cumulative catch limit stacking = cumulative limit stacking.

cumulative limit stacking = the association of cumulative limits with permits rather than vessels. A vessel with multiple limited entry permits can harvest multiple cumulative limits. Also called permit stacking.

cund = to show which way a school of fish has gone (archaic).

cuneate = wedge-shaped.

cuneiform = wedge-shaped.

cuneiform area = the thickened wedge-shaped area on the dorsum of the caudal appendage ventral to the proximal portion of the Batoidean sting (spine). The glandular epithelium of the cuneiform area is believed to produce venom.

cuneiform bone = rocker bone (a prominent, median, bean-shaped bone in Ophidiidae and Carapidae which is drummed against the anterior end of the gas bladder for sound production).

cup = a kind of fishing-net or trap (English dialect).

cuprinol = a copper naphthenate solution used as a preservative on nets.

cupula = 1) dome-shaped structure.

cupula = 2) a gelatinous rod or flap enclosing the sensory hairs of the neuromast cells in the acoustico-lateralis system (trunk and head lateral line and inner ear). Sometimes called cupula terminalis.

cupulate = adjective for cupula.

curation = the identification and organisation of museum specimens according to a set system and in accordance with the scientific literature, thus adding to scientific knowledge.

curator = a person responsible for a collection of organisms, for carrying out research on them, for increasing and improving that museum collection and for exhibiting the materials to the public.

curd = 1) a creamy material covering the surface of canned salmon and tuna produced from previously frozen fish. It is coagulated, denatured protein formed during poor cold storage prior to heat processing and is considered unsightly, reducing marketability.

curd = 2) thick slime on the exterior of spoiled fish.

cure = preserving fish by salting, smoking, fermenting, drying or pickling, or any combination of these.

curing = 1) preserving fish as food by smoking, salting, drying, fermenting, acid curing and various combinations of these. Often removes moisture from the fish to retard bacterial growth but is now used to give a pleasant flavour and refrigeration is used to prevent or retard decay.

curing = 2) processing of cod-liver oil (Newfoundland).

curio = any rare, unusual or curious article. In the fish world, various items have been curios in the past and some, to the detriment of conservation, today, e.g. dried seahorses and pipefishes, shark jaws, puffer fishes and porcupinefishes in and expanded state, sawfish saws, Jenny Hanivers (q.v.), fur-bearing trout and furfish (q.v.), crucifix fish, etc. Sharks, seahorses and porcupinefishes are the three marine fish groups most traded in the U.S.A. which imports about one million fish annually as curios worth more than $1.7 million.

current = 1) a part of a body of a water moving in a definite direction.

current = 2) in general circulation or use; in progress.

current annual yield = the one-year catch that can be taken from a stock which maximises the average catch at an acceptable risk level.

current meter = an instrument for measuring water velocity. A wheel with cups is rotated by the current and gives the velocity.

current potential yield = the catch that can be taken given the current resource abundance and prevailing ecosystem considerations. Abbreviated as CPY.

current system = areas strongly influenced by currents, e.g. tidal currents, geostrophic flows, longshore currents, all q.v. Important in transporting fish eggs and larvae, in productivity, in habitat formation, and in flushing pollutants.

currie = a small stool used by fishermen (Scottish dialect).

curtain of death = wall of death (drift nets which entangle non-target species of fish and marine mammals, turtles, seabirds, sharks, etc.).

curve cast = a fly casting technique that avoids an obstacle or minimises the influence of water current or wind on the fly or line.

cusec = abbreviation for cubic foot per second. Used outside North America where the equivalent is cfs.

cusp = projection or point as on a tooth or spine.

cuspate = with cusps.

cuspid = with cusps.

cuspidate = with cusps.

cusplet = a small or secondary cusp; also a denticle.

custom cut = regularly shaped triangle cut from a block of frozen fish. Usually breaded and battered.

custom processor = a business which does not own the fisheries resources it is processing.

customary right = a customary right is a right of individuals or groups founded upon customary, long continued practices and usage, such as a fishing right.

cut = 1) a narrow body of water cutting through land.

cut = 2) a canal.

cut = 3) a portion of netting in a cod trap raised by ropes so as to force the fish back toward the end of the net for easy removal (Newfoundland).

cut = 4) a cross-section of a fish.

cut bait = any bait cut into small pieces or chunks, but usually fish.

cut herring = headless and mostly gutless pickled and spiced herring. Also called clipped herring.

cut lunch herring = marinated split herring with the skin and bones; cut into small pieces and packed in vinegar or wine sauces.

cut pole = fir branch or thin trunk, needles removed, used as a fishing rod (Newfoundland).

cut spiced herring = filleted and skinned herring cured in salt, sugar and spices and packed in brine with vinegar, sugar and spices. May refer to herring prepared this way but cut into small pieces.

cut surface = the exposure of a fleshy surface in a fish product by forming steaks, by heading, by heading and gutting, by filleting or splitting.

cut-off = 1) a new natural or artificial channel circumventing a river bend.

cut-off = 2) a lake formed by the closure or cutting off of a bend in a river.

cut-off the linnet = cut (3).

cut-off the twine = cut (3).

cut-tail = a cod identified by a notch or cut in its tail made by an apprentice fisherman or supernumerary such fish being hids only share of the voyage's profits (Newfoundland).

cut-throat(er) = member of a fish-cleaning crew in Newfoundland who cuts the throat of the cod-fish and slits the belly open from gills to vent in preparation for heading, splitting and salting. A two-edged knife used in this process.

cutaneous = pertaining to the skin.

cutaneous artery = an artery running horizontally near the lateral line and serving the superficial muscle layers. It is formed from the joined superficial branches of the intercostal arteries.

cutis = dermis, the lower skin layer.

cutlet = flesh cut from both sides of a fish joined at the back. Herring cutlets may be packed in wine, sour cream or tomato cocktail sauces. Also called block fillet, q.v.

cuttbow = a hybrid between cutthroat and rainbow trout, having the red cut throat and rainbow flank stripe.

cutter = 1) a single-masted fore and aft rigged sailing vessel.

cutter = 2) a steam-powered fish carrier which brought the catch to market.

cutter = 3) a fish filleter, a person who prepares fish for eating by removing fins, internal organs and bones and cuts large fish into fillets and steaks.

cutthroat = a person who cuts the throat and splits the belly when a fish is processed.

cutting board = a piece of wood used for cutting up fish or bait and protecting expensive boat gunnels.

cutting edge = 1) the leading edge of a fin.

cutting edge = 2) the ridge on the mesodistal edge of the crown in shark teeth.

cutting over = a disruption of the circulus pattern on scales resulting from erosion of the edge. Circuli formed after the erosion appear to intersect or cross over others that had been formed earlier. If the scale edge erosion is an annual event, the cutting over marks may be used to detect annuli. Also called crossing over.

cutting rate = the sequential cutting of meshes to reduce net width at a given rate.

cuttlefish = not fish but a cephalopod mollusc with 10 arms and a calcified internal shell.

Cuvierian duct = the common cardinal vein. The anterior cardinal vein returns blood from the head and the posterior cardinal vein from the trunk, joining together as the common cardinal vein (also called incorrectly the vitelline vein). The jugular vein from the lower jaw also empties into the common cardinal vein. The two common cardinal veins empty into the sinus venosus, q.v.

Cuvierian sinus = large vessels at the back of the gills which collect venous blood from the body and return it to the heart.

CWT = abbreviation for coded-wire tag (a small (0.25 mm diameter x 1 mm length) wire etched with a distinctive binary code and implanted in the snout of a fish (usually a salmonid) for mark-recapture studies).

cwt = hundredweight (50.802 kg (long), 45.359 kg (short)). Abbreviated as cwt, long and cwt, short respectively.

cyan = dark blue.

cyanide fishing = use of sodium cyanide (or another cyanide compound) to stun and capture coral reef fishes for the aquarium and live food trade.

cyano- (prefix) = dark blue.

cyanomorph = a colour morph with a dominant blue colour.

cyarlin = 1) a line or net that has not caught any fish (from the witch whose spell binds the nets or lines, the spell being broken only when the first fish has been caught) (Scottish dialect). Also spelled kyarlin.

cyarlin = 2) the first fish caught on a line or in a net (Scottish dialect). Also spelled kyarlin.

cyarlin = 3) fines imposed on fishermen whose nets or lines catch the fewest fish, the various fines being pooled to provide a feast for the whole crew (Scottish dialect). Also spelled kyarlin.

cyclamen = Cyclamen, a genus of plants of the Primulaceae, the Primrose family, used as a fish poison in a paste or thrust among rocks, enabling fish to be scooped up.

cyclo-ctenoid scale = a scale intermediate in form between cycloid and ctenoid scales; teeth are present but are small, smooth and few in number, e.g. in characoids.

cycloid = having a smooth-edged margin.

cycloid scale = a smooth-edged round or oval scale composed of acellular dermal bone lacking small spines on the posterior exposed edge. Typical of many Teleostei. Some cycloid scales may have a serrated margin and are then termed spinoid scales.

cyclomorial = fish scales of a form in which large, stout units are added anteriorly and light thin, elongated units are added posteriorly. The bases of the large lepidomorial units grow concentrically around the previously added bases and are partially fused.

cyclospondylous = a type of vertebra consisting of calcified rings around the notochord in Elasmobranchii and Holocephali. The calcification extends only to the chordacentrum or notochordal sheath, the arches are cartilaginous.

cyclospondyly = the condition of a cyclospondylous vertebra.

cyclostome poisoning = poisoning from eating Myxinidae or Petromyzontidae generally characterized by nausea, vomiting, dysenteric diarrhoea, tenesmus, abdominal pain, and weakness, with recovery within several days. Most poisonings are reported as due to failure to de-slime the fish. Poison is reported removed or inactivated by covering the fresh fish with salt and leaving it in concentrated brine for several hours prior to cooking.

cylinder pump = a type of air pump for aquaria which can produce great volumes of air. Noisier than the more common diaphragm pumps.

cylindriform = cylindrical in shape.

cypress swamp = a wetland with cypress trees as the dominant species, usually with areas of permanent water cover (in the southeastern U.S.A.).

cypriere = a cypress swamp in Louisiana.

cyprinid herpesvirus I (CHV or CyHV-1) = carp pox (one of the oldest known fish diseases found in cultured carp, other cyprinids, pike-perch and aquarium fishes. It is caused by Herpesvirus cyprini. Also known as carp papillomatosis, epithelioma papulosum, and fish pox. Skin lesions appear as the water temperature drops in winter as small milky-white spots that merge and cover large skin areas).

cyprinid herpesvirus II (CyHV-2) = a haematopoietic necrosis herpesvirus which affects goldfish and is closely related to carp pox or CyHV-1 and koi herpes virus or CyHV-3. A member of the family Herpesviridae as above.

cyprinid herpesvirus III (CyHV-3) = also known as koi herpes virus (KHV). This is a deadly virus affecting carp including koi. A member of the family Herpesviridae as above. There is no cure for the disease and it is difficult to detect.

cyprinin = the toxic substance obtained from the milt of the carp, Cyprinus carpio.

cyrioplesiotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for the principal or typical specimen among several plesiotypes (q.v.).

cystic vein = one of several veins draining capillaries of the gall bladder to the hepatic portal vein.

cystoarian condition = where peritoneal folds grow around the gonad and form oviducts which conduct the eggs to the exterior. The duct may also function to conduct the sperm to the egg in groups with internal fertilization, e.g. Clupeiodei. Compare gymnoarian.

cytotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a portion of a type prepared to show identical cytological features, e.g. chromosomes, as those originally described for the taxon.

D

D = 1) abbreviation for dorsal fin (rays).

D = 2) Devonian, a geological period within the Palaeozoic Era ca. 413-365 million years ago; called the Age of Fishes.

D1 = abbreviation for first dorsal fin (rays).

D2 = abbreviation for second dorsal fin (rays).

D3 = abbreviation for third dorsal fin (rays).

D30 = number of dorsal fin rays to the 31st vertebra, e.g. in Carapidae.

D200 = number of dorsal fin rays to the 201st vertebra, e.g. in Nemichthyidae.

d bone = coronomeckelian (a small bone on the postero-lateral part of Meckel's cartilage of the lower jaw. Often a point of insertion of the adductor mandibulae muscle. Also called sesamoid angular, supraangular, sesamoid articular, articular sesamoid, splenial or os meckeli).

D-rig = a fishing rig where the bait is tied to a D-shaped loop on the back of the hook shank.

D-zone = that part of a micro-increment of an otolith that is dark in transmitted light or is a depressed region when acid-etched and seen with a scanning electron microscope. It has more organic matrix and less calcium carbonate than the L-zone, q.v. Also called discontinuous zone or matrix-rich zone.

dab = 1) a common name for various species of flatfishes (Order Pleuronectiformes). Origin unknown.

dab = 2) to fish by gently dipping the bait onto the water surface (dabbing).

dab = 3) the drowned corpse of an outcast woman (riverside thieves' slang, England).

dab darter = one who spears dabs or flatfishes.

dabber = dap (2).

dabbling = working a lure or bait up and down in the same spot repeatedly. Usually carried out from behind cover such as a bush or tree.

dacker = the ripple in water caused by the rapid motion of fish under the surface (Scottish dialect).

dacriform = tear-drop shaped.

dactylogyrosis = infestation with trematodes (Dactylogyrus spp.) causing the fish to secrete more mucus, paling of gills, opening of the operculum, difficulty in respiration and gill dropsy.

daeng = gutted and split milkfish (Chanos chanos) or Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger spp.) brined and sundried (Philippines).

dagger = † or crucifix (q.v.).

Dagon = the fish god of the Philistines, the upper half being a man and the lower half a fish. The fish half represented fertility. The name is from the word dag, meaning fish. The Babylonians had a myth of a being who emerged from the Erythraean Sea, being part fish and part man. Also found in Assyrian sculpture.

Dahlgren's neuron = one of a series of nerve cells which are neurosecretory and located in the caudal neurosecretory system. The cells may be neurosecretory giant-cells, two or three times as large as ordinary neurons, and may exceed 100 microns in diameter. They have a nucleus which is polymorphic. Very small fishes may have Dahlgren's cells which are very small and not histologically distinguishable.

dahn = a small, flagged buoy attached to the end of fixed gear to mark its position.

daily growth increment = daily increment.

daily increment = a D- and L-zone on an otolith formed in a day. Also called daily ring, daily growth increment.

daily limit = the number of fish that an angler can retain from a day's fishing.

daily limit 0 = for conservation purposes, fish caught by anglers must be returned alive to the water. Also called catch and release, closed to retention and non-retention.

daily ration = amount of food consumed in a day.

daily retardation of tides = the amount of time by which a tide grows later day by day; about 50 minutes.

daily ring = a growth increment of one day on an otolith or scale in young fish, formed as a result of a circadian rhythm. Not found in adults or under conditions of poor growth. Daily increment is a preferred term.

Dakuwaqa = a Fijian shark-god, protecting fishermen from danger at sea. He can change shape but his real form is the lower half of a muscular Fijian and the upper half of a shark.

daliane = a structure of wood or netting directing fish into a trap. Made to intercept large schools of tuna or mullets in the Black Sea and dependent on a watchman to close the trap entrance or lift the net floor after the school enters.

dam = a barrier controlling the flow of water and backing up water. Forms a lacustrine habitat (the reservoir) for fish where one did not exist before. Initially fish production is very high when stocked but declines as nutrients from flooded terrestrial ecosystems are used up. Release of water from reservoirs may radically affect fish downstream by changes in temperature regimes, flushing of habitats, and changes in silt loads. Storage dams store water and diversion dams divert water.

dambo = a shallow depression, having water seasonally and usually found near a river (South-central Africa).

Dame Juliana Berners = reputed author of "A Treatyse of Fysshynge with an Angle" from "The Boke of St. Albans" in 1496, the first evidence of fishing as a sport and the first literary treatment.

damp = a low grade of dried and salted cod (Newfoundland).

damp fishes = a checklist used by English Heritage Inspectors when making a description of a building to be preserved:- B, building type; D, date; A, architect; M, materials; P, plan; F, facade; I, interiors; S, subsidiary features; H, history; E, extras; S, sources.

damper - dap (2).

dan leno = a part of a trawl, the short pole or spreader to which each wing end was attached (probably from a corruption of the French word guindineau).

dan leno arm = butterfly (an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called arm, banana, boomerang, dan leno bracket, dan leno spreader, devil's elbow, spreader bar).

dan leno board = a small otter board.

dan leno bobbin = a large and hollow steel ball on a trawl between the otter boards and the net; functions to prevent the trawl wings from becoming entangled with small objects.

dan leno bracket = butterfly (an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called arm, banana, boomerang, dan leno arm, dan leno spreader, devil's elbow, spreader bar).

dan leno hoop = a hoop-shaped dan leno made of bent wood with short rigging ropes wired to the outer circumference. Also called dan leno ring, geer, hoop, hoop bridle, round dan leno and yoke hoop.

dan leno ring = dan leno hoop.

dan leno spindle = a steel spindle through a dan leno bobbin. Also called axle or spindle.

dan leno spreader = butterfly (an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called arm, banana, boomerang, dan leno arm, dan leno bracket, devil's elbow, spreader bar).

dan leno stick = a ballasted wood pole with short rigging ropes attached, functioning like the dan leno bobbin.

dan leno triangle = a triangular piece of steel, functioning like a bobbin.

dance = 1) fish dance (a dance of Great Lakes Indians involving flipping motions of the hands and feet).

dance = 2) fish dance (any of a variety of dances world-wide involving fish and fishing, meant to improve catches by propitiating gods or celebrating a way of life).

dance = 3) a general term for reproductive behaviour involving stylised and formalised movements by the male and female pair.

dandy = 1) a paternoster (a fishing rig where the hooklength branches from the mainline. Various styles exist and may have rigid wire branches with several hooklengths. St. Peter is supposed to have used a paternoster ("our father") rig to catch fish, hence the name).

dandy = 2) the wire or rope used to bring the aft end of the trawl beam alongside when hauling.

dandy bridle = dandy (2).

dandy line = a fishing line, specifically for herring with bare white hooks, suspended by whalebone kept in place by a lead (Shetland Isles dialect).

dandy winch = the small winch positioned aft, used when bringing the trawl beam alongside. Also called dandy wink.

dandy wink = dandy winch.

Danish jar = a wide-mouth glass container with a snap-on polyethylene lid. Also called Copenhagen jar.

Danish pond = an aquaculture pond made by excavation or by constructing dykes, usually 10 times longer than wide, with a bottom that may require sealing or lining to prevent water loss. Also called earthern pond.

Danish seine = a seine or cone-shaped otter trawl which is hauled over an area of about 2 square kilometres to a stationary vessel from an anchor buoy, the very long towing ropes disturbing clouds of mud which help herd the fish into the net. Also called anchor seine, Danish seine trawl, Danish trawl.

Danish seine trawl = Danish seine.

Danish trawl = Danish seine.

Danish trawler = a vessel 60-65 feet long, over 10 gross tons, with a crew of two or three. The wheelhouse, engine and accommodations are forward and the fish hold is aft. The hauling ropes of the Danish seine are coiled into the well decks.

danleno = dan leno.

danleno spreader = dan leno.

dap = 1) to fish by letting a fly or baited hook touch the water surface, using a short piece of line on a long rod.

dap = 2) to fish for cod with a hand-line, weighted hook and bait near the surface of the water (Newfoundland).

Daphnia = water fleas are used as food for fish in aquaria.

dapping = touching a fly to the water surface immediately over where a fish lies, using a short piece of line on a long rod.

dark meat = 1) a commercial measure of fish flesh colour, e.g. canned tuna is dark meat or dark tuna when it does not meet the colour requirements of light meat, q.v.

dark meat = 2) muscle from just under the skin on each side of a fish that is darker and richer in fat than other flesh. Also called blood meat, brown muscle, dark muscle, red muscle.

dark muscle = dark meat (2).

darne = a cut of steak of round fish cut on the bone.

dart (noun) = 1) an Inuit harpoon used to kill salmon and char (and seals).

dart (verb) = 2) to kill fish and seals with a spear or harpoon.

darter = 1) a member of the family Percidae, small colourful fishes found only in North America.

darter = 2) a type of plug used in angling. It floats when at rest but on retrieval submerges and wobbles and weaves. Used especially for bass (Centrarchidae).

darting = the spearing of fish.

darting speed = burst speed (the maximum speed a fish can maintain for a short period (5-10 seconds). Used in seizing prey or escaping a predator).

Darwen salmon = dogfish (Squalus acanthias) dried in air with the skin removed to disguise it; sold as salmon in the Highlands of Scotland and known by this name in Lancashire down to the 1950s.

Darwin fish = a car bumper sticker or symbol comprising the outline of a fish with short legs and the word Darwin in the centre of the fish body. Shows that the person believes in evolution. A parody of the Christian fish symbol.

Darwin's Nightmare = a 2005 movie about the exotic Nile perch in Lake Victoria, flash-frozen for export to wealthy countries, and the devastating effect this introduced fish has had on the people of the region and the native cichlid species flock.

dash = an elongate or streak-like melanophore in larval fishes.

dasher = a device used to scare fish into nets, either by making noise or by its reflective surface flashing light (Newfoundland). See also douser, thrasher and trouncer.

data (singular datum) = facts that result from measurements or observations.

data base = a consistent set of data that can used for analysis, e.g. counts and measurements of fish structures used in defining and diagnosing species. Also refers to the computer software in which the data is stored.

data deficient = in the IUCN Criteria for threatened species, a taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. Abbreviated as DD. A taxon in this category may be well studied, and its biology well known, but appropriate data on abundance and/or distribution is lacking. Data Deficient is therefore not a category of threat or Lower Risk. Listing of taxa in this category indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future research will show that threatened classification is appropriate. It is important to make positive use of whatever data are available. In many cases great care should be exercised in choosing between DD and threatened status. If the range of a taxon is suspected to be relatively circumscribed, if a considerable period of time has elapsed since the last record of the taxon, threatened status may well be justified.

data set = data and accompanying documentation which relate to a specific theme, e.g. catches by vessel type for a certain year, counts and measurements used in describing a fish species.

database = data base.

dataless management = management of a fishery based on the available information, without delay due to lack of technical data.

date fish = not a fish but a bivalve, Pholas.

date of collection = the calendar date on which a specimen was collected in the field. Accession dates and catalogue dates may be months or years later.

date of publication = the first day, reckoned according to the Gregorian calendar, on which copies of the publication became available by purchase or free distribution (not necessarily the date printed on the work itself). This applies to a work (and to a contained name and nomenclatural act). If the actual date is not known, the date to be adopted is regulated by the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

datum = 1) the singular of data.

datum = 2) any position or element in relation to which others are measured, e.g. water levels in rivers, tides.

daughterless = a gene that can be inserted into fish eggs producing 80% males. This may be used as a means of controlling invasive fish species as long as the gene cannot move between species.

Davis deep water release = a method of releasing fish in deep water and hopefully avoiding swimbladder expansion problems (see fizzing). A weighted device is hooked into the gill opening and the fish is pulled head down on a free-running reel and line. When the line is stopped, the fish keeps going and is released. Used for lake trout, walleye and bass. See also Hannon deep water release.

day = fish day (a day on which fish is eaten according to religious requirements; a fast day).

day boat = a boat making a one day fishing trip.

day length = the duration of the light period in a given 24 hours. Day length or daylength may be manipulated for aquaculture purposes such as early smoltification and breeding.

day ticket = a fishery where anglers purchase a ticket for the day's fishing on arrival.

day-class = the cohort of fish spawned or hatched on a given day or date. May be date of spawning or date of hatching.

day-degree = a unit taking temperature and time in days into consideration to indicate degree of development. Calculated by adding the average daily temperature for each day, e.g. if the average daily temperatures that a 3-day-old trout egg has been subjected to are 11, 12 and 13 degrees centigrade, the eggs are at the 36 day degree stage. This is abbreviated 36 D. Abbreviation Dº.

De Historia Piscium = "The History of Fishes", a book in Latin written by Francis Willoughby and published by the Royal Society of London in 1686. Surprisingly, it proved to be unpopular, few copies were sold, and the Royal Society was compromised financially. As a result, the Society was unable to publish Sir Isaac Newton's "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" as promised. Edmund Halley of comet fame and clerk of the Society coughed up the cash for the "Principia" personally, but was then informed the Society could not pay him his annual salary of £50. Instead, he was paid with left-over copies of De Historia Piscium. Copies sell for U.S.$12,600 today (2011).

de- (prefix) = down, away, from.

de-listing = removal of a species from a list of threatened and endangered species.

deaccession = 1) a specimen removed permanently from a museum collection.

deaccession = 2) the process of removing a specimen from a museum collection. Material may be deaccessioned if it is found to belong to another institution, is to be donated to another institution, has deteriorated beyond any use, is required for destructive analysis, etc.

dead as a herring = 1) quite dead.

dead as a herring = 2) dead as a shotten herring.

dead as a shotten herring = an expression based on the perception that a spawned-out herring dies quickly (obsolete).

dead cat on a line = an indication that something is amiss or fishy. Derived from trot-fishing for catfish; if there is a dead catfish on the line then the line has not been checked by the fisherman for some time, indicating that something is awry.

dead drift = the way artificial flies drift with the current so as to appear natural; this requires that no part of the line and rig cause unnatural drag, frightening away the fish.

dead fish polo = a game involving canoes and a "fish" (really a sponge). The aim is to fling the "fish" into an opponents canoe using a paddle; if the "fish" lands in your canoe, you are out of the game.

dead lake = an ageing lake, overgrown with aquatic vegetation.

dead man sniff = the wonderful smell of conger eel was reputed to have this effect (mediaeval England).

dead salmon = a proprietary paint colour, the name coming from a painting bill for the Library at Kedleston in 1805. Similar to smoked trout, a pinkish grey.

dead sock = a sock-shaped, lower extension of the net in a fish cage used in aquaculture.

dead spot = an area of a water body where circulation is minimal and anaerobic conditions develop, e.g. in an aquaculture pond.

dead water = 1) unmoving water in a water body.

dead water = 2) the eddy water behind the stern of a boat.

dead zone = a very large dead spot in the ocean, e.g. the seasonally-depleted oxygen levels (< 2mg/l) in the Gulf of Mexico covering 18,000 sq km (increasing each year - expected to be 22,126 sq km in 2007). Fish can swim away from such areas if onset is gradual but many invertebrates die. Caused by algal blooms dying and sinking to the bottom where the decay process depletes oxygen. The algal bloom can be caused by runoff fertilisers.

deadbait = dead fish used as bait in angling.

deadfall = dead trees fallen into the water providing cover for fishes.

deadfish grind = a move in inline skating by which the skater’s leading foot slides sideways while the trailing foot rolls on only the front wheel.

deadhead = a submerged log close to the surface but not lodged in the river bottom. Dangerous to motorised traffic. Sometimes used as a mooring buoy. See also planter (3).

dealer = 1) a middleman between the fishermen of a locality and fish merchants in a central community (Newfoundland).

dealer = 2) a fisherman operating under a credit or truck system (q.v.) (Newfoundland).

death crown = infestation of sea lice on farmed fish about the head region, severe enough to expose bone.

death assemblage = thanatocoenosis (an assemblage of organisms or their parts brought together after their deaths, e.g. fish bones by flowing water).

death of kings, fishy= 1) a surfeit of lampreys, the meal that reputedly killed Henry I of England in 1135. The flesh is said to be fatty and not easily digested.

death of kings, fishy = 2) Edward IV of England died in 1483, from a chest infection, caught while fishing on the River Thames. Pneumonia resulted and, with pleurisy, finished him off although rumour at the time thought poison was the cause.

death rate = ratio of death to population, usually given as a percentage.

deboned fish = the flesh of a fish separated from skin and bones by mechanical means (see bone separator). Also called minced fish, mechanically recovered fish, recovered fish flesh, boneless fish and boneless fish meat.

debris catcher = trash collector (a wire fence across a stream used to retain debris and create a dam and a plunge pool; makes habitat for fish and collects gravel for spawning habitat. Also called trash catcher or grizzly).

debut line = the name of the first line thrown out of a boat to a man on the bank, as the boat is pulled across a river, casting out a net all the way. A Severn River, England salmon-fishing term. See also muntle.

decalcification = the absorption of calcium from bone, making the skeleton fragile, e.g. unbuffered formalin can become acidic and decalcify bone.

dechlorinating compound = a substance used to remove chlorine and neutralize chloramines from tap water for use in an aquarium. Charcoal does not remove chloramine.

deciduous = loosely fixed, easily detached, e.g. scales of Clupea.

decision analysis = a method that evaluates the expected outcomes, e.g. average catch, constancy of catch, probability of rebuilding to a given biomass target, etc., of alternative management controls used when there is uncertainty. A decision analysis can also address management consequences under different plausible assumptions about the status of the stock.

decision rule = control rule (a protocol for specifying harvest rates in relation to stock status and limit and target reference points. A harvest strategy expected to result in a long-term average catch approximating the maximum sustainable yield. Also called harvest control laws).

deck glass = a heavy sheet of glass in the bottom of a boat for viewing or spotting fish.

deck weight = deck-load.

deck-load = a pile of fish on the deck of a vessel.

deckhand = the all-purpose worker aboard a ship, usually paid a share of the profits on a fishing vessel.

Declaration = a minor and provisional amendment to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for immediate incorporation, published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, to remain in force until ratified or rejected by future International Zoological Congresses.

decline = a reduction in the number of individuals, or a decrease of the area of distribution, the causes of which are either not known or not adequately controlled. Does not include natural fluctuations nor a planned fishery.

declivous = sloping downwards, declining.

decommissioning = removing a vessel from service and from the fishing register in the United Kingdom.

decompression sickness = gas bubble disease (supersaturated gases (>125%) in water entering the the body fluids of fish causing bubbles, an embolism). Also called bends or Caisson's disease.

decoy = an imitation of a fish used to attract fish close enough to be speared. Used in ice fishing in North America.

decumbent = bent downwards.

decurved = curved downward, usually in reference to the lateral line, e.g. in such cyprinids as Richardsonius, Notemigonus, Hemiculter, Aspius.

decussating = x-shaped, intersecting.

dee = deese.

Dee's disease = bacterial kidney disease (a bacterial infection with Renibacterium salmoninus or Corynebacterium sp. affecting salmonids, usually when temperatures are falling. The disease may be chronic or acute and has no treatment. Causes swelling of internal organs (oedematous, grey and corrugated kidneys with off-white lesions) and haemorrhages. Lesions may occur also in the liver and spleen and muscle contractions occur. External symptoms may be absent or include exophthalmy, skin darkening, abdominal swelling, and skin ruptures and vesicles. Also called Corynebacterial disease and kidney disease).

deem = used in taxonomy to indicate something that is not strictly true, e.g. a publication is deemed to be published by the author rather than by the actual publisher; the date of a publication is deemed to a particular date whether or not true.

deep = 1) areas of deeper water between the shallower banks where fish are found and fished. Also called deeps.

deep =2) the number of meshes in one direction of a net.

deep cell = a cell in the blastodisc or blastoderm that is completely covered by other cells.

deep cell layer = a layer of deep cells of fairly uniform thickness that forms during early epiboly on conversion of the blastodisc to the blastoderm. This layer gives rise to the epiblast and hypoblast during gastrulation.

deep fore reef = the deepest seaward part of a coral reef; a vertical cliff beginning at a depth of about 60 m.

deep longline = a horizontal line with hooks lying on the sea floor.

deep sand bed = a filtration method in marine aquaria consisting of layers of sand up to 6 inches deep where anaerobic bacteria can grow and convert unwanted nitrates to nitrogen gas. Associated invertebrates burrow in the sand and facilitate a deeper penetration of the water.

deep scattering layer = a layer in mid-depths of the sea detected by echo sounders, which rises at night and sinks during the day. Composed of organisms, many of which have a gas filled chamber, such as certain jellyfish and fishes. Also called false bottom. Abbreviated as DSL.

deep sea (adjective deepsea) = the deeper parts of the ocean.

deep shelf and terrace = an insular horizontal habitat in the sea found at about 40 to 500 m. Interrupts a steeper slope and may occur in a series extending seaward from the shelf of an island or bank.

deep slope = an insular vertical habitat in the sea from about 40 to 500 m.

deep trap net = a pound net held in place under water by anchors and buoys.

deep water (adjective deepwater) = 1) permanent fresh water 2 metres below low water or the edge of emergent macrophytes, whichever is deeper.

deep water (adjective deepwater) = 2) ocean water where waves are not affected by bottom conditions; water deeper than one half a surface wave length.

deep-abyssal = waters of the sea below a depth of about 2,000 metres.

deep-drop = bottom fishing in deep water, sometimes in excess of 300 m, using a very large weight and circle hooks.

deep-sea = portion of the oceans below 200 metres or for deep-sea fish below 1000 m.

deep-sea trawl = the equipment used by a deep-sea trawler.

deep-sea trawler = a large long-distance trawler, not a vessel that fishes the deep-sea.

deep-skinned = fish prepared with the skin and the underlying fat layer removed. This gives a milder flavour and improves shelf life.

deepin worker = a net weaver.

deeping = 1) a section of a drift net twenty meshes deep, to which other sections are attached to the requisite depth.

deeping = 2) a strengthening band along the sole of a trawl, a score of meshes deep.

deeping = 3) the bag of a salmon net.

deeps = 1) the deepest parts of the oceans, where the bottom is below 3000 fathoms (5487 m).

deeps = 2) deep (1).

deepsea = adjective for referring to the deeper parts of the ocean.

deepsea trawl = the equipment used by a deep-sea trawler.

deepsea trawler = deep-sea trawler.

deepsea turkey = salt cod or a codfish dinner.

deepwater = 1) adjective for referring to deep water.

deepwater = 2) often used for any water of considerable, unspecified depth.

deepwater species = in the sea, fish found at depths below 400 metres (bathypelagic, mesopelagic and benthopelagic fishes).

deese = a place where herrings are dried, the fish being hung on sticks (Sussex dialect) (deese may be the plural of dee). Also called herring hang.

deficiency disease = deficiency syndrome.

deficiency syndrome = improper feeding leading to abnormalities in behaviour, internal anatomy and function, growth and development.

definition = 1) a statement of the characters that distinguish a taxon; a diagnosis. See also differentia.

definition = 2) a statement specifying the meaning of a name, i.e. the taxon to which it refers.

definitive host = the fish in which a parasite passes it adult or reproductive phase. Also called final or primary host.

deflector screen = a wire mesh screen installed where water is diverted from a stream or river to keep fish from entering the diversion channel or pipe. Also called diversion screen.

degenerate = said of a character or structure that has evolved to a less developed state from its ancestral state.

deglutition = the act or power of swallowing.

degree = 1) 1/360 of a circle or 60 minutes. The symbol here and below is °.

degree = 2) 60 nautical miles, 69.05 statute miles or 111.12 km.

degree = 3) a temperature unit (Celsius or Fahrenheit). Strictly 10°C is an actual temperature while 10C° is a range (from say 23 to 33°C).

degree = 4) water hardness, see degrees of water hardness.

degree day = see day-degree.

degree of digestion = digestibility.

degrees of water hardness = dGH (water hardness expressed in degrees of hardness. 0-4 is very soft, 5-8 soft, up to 30 which is extremely hard water). Note that different countries use different measures: 1 English (Clark) degree is 14.3 p.p.m. calcium carbonate, 1 American degree is 17.1 p.p.m. calcium carbonate and 1 French degree (fh) is 10.0 p.p.m. calcium carbonate. However 1 German degree (dh) is 17.9 p.p.m. calcium oxide. Confusingly the German dh is used generally for degrees of hardness.

dehydrated fish = fish that have been dried under controlled conditions with or without machinery but not be exposure to the climate.

dehydration = a white or yellow abnormality on the surface of frozen fish which masks the colour of the flesh and penetrates below the surface. It is caused by the sublimation process and the abnormality can only be removed by trimming away the affected parts.

deioniser = a device for filtering aquarium water using ion exchange resins.

delagic trawl = a trawl that can be fished demersally or pelagically without the gear having to be changed.

delay difference model = a type of biomass dynamic model used in fisheries that includes biologically meaningful parameters and accounts for time delays due to growth and recruitment.

delayed release = a change in the migration pattern of farmed salmonids, e.g. by feeding smolts in sea net cages before release to enhance the return rate.

delicatessen fish = fish prepared with salt, vinegar an spices, or smoked or salted and ready to eat but with a limited shelf-life.

délice = a neatly folded fish fillet.

delimitation = a statement of the character states which define the limits of a taxon; diagnosis.

delivery = casting an artificial fly to a fish or to an area of water suspected of holding fish.

delta = a fan-shaped or triangular alluvial deposit at a river mouth formed by the deposition of successive layers of sediment.

deltaic = adjective for delta.

demand curve = relationship of price charged for a unit good such as fish per kg to the number of units a customer is willing to buy at that price.

demand feeder = a device allowing measured amounts of food to be delivered when triggered by fish in aquaculture. Also called pendulum feeder.

deme = an isolated population of a species tending not to interbreed (because of geographical barriers) with other populations; a local interbreeding group. Differs slightly in morphology or life history but not given taxonomic status.

demersal = sinking; bottom (e.g. eggs which sink to the bottom or are deposited on the bottom); dependent on the bottom. Said of fish that live near the bottom of the ocean, of a lake or of a river, but are capable of active swimming. Opposite of pelagic.

demersal fishery = a fishery concentrating on the capture of demersal species.

demersal pair trawling = pair trawling (bottom trawling by two vessels towing the same net. Very large nets can be towed in this manner by relatively small boats and the net is generally hauled alternately aboard the two vessels for processing of the catch. The net mouth is kept open by the outward pull of the two vessels).

demersal trawling = bottom trawling, e.g. otter trawl, beam trawl.

demersed = situated or growing under water, e.g. aquatic plants.

demi-sel = hareng saur or salted herring, partially desalted and cold smoked, whole ungutted or gibbed, also heads and gut removed. The curing time with salt is 2-3 weeks (France) It is called demi-sel when subject to prolonged desalting for more than 46 hours and lightly cold-smoked.

demi-vegetarian = a vegetarian who eats fish. See also pesco-vegetarian and pescatarian.

demography = the study of birth and death rates, age distributions and population sizes.

demophora = growth in demands on the freshwater supply and other finite environmental resources.

denatant = swimming, drifting or migrating with the current. Movement of eggs and larvae away from the spawning area. Opposite of contranatant, q.v.

denatured alcohol = ethanol rendered unfit for human consumption by addition of methanol (methyl alcohol or wood alcohol) or other substances. Used in some fish collections.

dendiculate = tooth bearing or having denticles. Also spelled denticulate.

dendric = a tree-like pattern; used to refer to branching of streams.

dendriform = a structure resembling a tree or shrub, branching extensively. See also dendritic and dendric.

dendritic = tree-like, branching. Used in reference to melanophores or to drainages.

dendritic drainage system = the commonest type of drainage system comprising a main river with tributaries that themselves have tributaries. Such a system usually occurs on a gentle slope. See also annular, deranged, parallel, rectangular and trellis drainage systems.

dendritic organ = a small arborescent organ found between the anus and the anal fin in certain Plotosidae (e.g. Plotosus, Cnidoglanis and Euristhmus). Organ with two main cell types, those with parallel groups of cytoplasmic tubules and many mitochondria, and clear cells with a network of cytoplasmic tubules. May have an osmoregulatory function. Also called arborescent organ.

dendrogram = a branching diagram that depicts the relationships between a group of items sharing a common set of variables. A phylogenetic dendrogram is called a cladogram, q.v.

denied name = nomen negatum (a denied name, an unavailable name which has incorrect original spellings as defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature).

DeNiel fishway = a chute with lateral baffles that reduce the water's energy and leave a clear passage for fish to swim over the low barrier. There are no resting areas although pools may be provided for this purpose or to reduce flow velocity. See also pool-and-weir ladder, rock-ramp fishway and vertical slot fish passage.

denil fishway = DeNiel fishway.

denitrification filter = an aquarium filter that provides nitrate (NO3) removal using anaerobic bacteria that separate nitrogen from oxygen.

denizen of the deep = a synonym for fish.

dennage = dinnage.

dens acrodontis (plural dentes acrodontes) = acrodont (type of tooth ankylosed to the jaw along the midline of the jawbone, rather than to the inner edge, the condition in most fishes. Attachment is by connective collagenous tissue with impregnated calcium salts and, in maxillary and mandibular teeth, by a bony piece between the tooth and the bone).

dens incisoris (plural dentes incisores) = incisiform tooth (compressed and wedge-shaped tooth with a cutting edge resembling incisors of higher vertebrates, e.g. in Serrasalmus, the beak of Scaridae).

dens molariformis (plural dentes molariformes) = molariform teeth, shaped like a molar in mammals being round and flattened, used for crushing molluscs and crustaceans.

density = the number or weight of organisms per unit area or volume.

density dependence = the dependence of a factor influencing population dynamics (such as survival rate or reproductive success) on population density. The effect is usually in the direction that contributes to the regulative capacity of a stock.

dental formula = the number of teeth in a fish jaw, expressed as left and right (separated by a hyphen) and upper and lower (separated by a line). Symphysial teeth of different morphology may be interspersed between these counts. Counts are usually based on and expressed as ranges, seen over a sample of the species concerned, as individual counts differ. See also pharyngeal tooth count.

dentale = dentary.

dentary = the anterior, paired, dermal bone in the lower jaw. Usually the only tooth-bearing bone in the mandible, the two halves have a V-shape and meet at the jaw tip or mandibular symphysis. Posteriorly it has a coronoid process directed dorsally and a ventral process bearing the mandibular sensory canal on its outer face.

dentary elevation = the knob at the tip of the lower jaw at the junction of the dentaries which usually fits into an opposing indentation in the upper jaw.

dentate = having teeth or tooth-like points; serrate.

dentes acrodontes = plural of dens acrodontis.

dentes incisores = plural of dens incisoris.

dentes molariformes = plural of dens molariformis.

denticle = a small tooth-like body; also used for the placoid scale of Elasmobranchii. Also called dermal denticle.

denticular teeth = teeth on the snout and lower jaw of male Lophiiformes used to attach to the female.

denticulate = tooth bearing or having denticles. Also spelt dendiculate.

dentiform process= a tooth-like projection at the symphysis of the upper jaw in Balitoridae. It may fit into a notch in the lower jaw. Also called processus dentiformis.

dentigerous = tooth-bearing dermal bones, sometimes associated with endochondral bones. These bones are found on the mandibles, the tongue, the mouth cavity and the branchial apparatus. The teeth are formed independently of the bones but later in development join them by means of an intermediate tooth plate or by connective fibres.

dentigerous palatine = superficial bone bearing teeth covering the autopalatine.

dentine = a hard mesodermal material in teeth and some scales (cosmoid, ganoid and placoid scales) produced by odontoblasts. Like bone but without cells as the odontoblasts retreat leaving behind dentinal tubules (canaliculi) for protoplasmic processes.

dentition = tooth pattern, including arrangement and shape.

dento-spleniale = dentary.

depauperate = impoverished; said of ichthyofaunas or areas with little diversity in numbers or species.

dependent species = a species dependent on another for survival, e.g. a predator on a prey, commensalism.

depensation = mortality is depensatory when its rate (i.e. the proportion of population affected) increases as the size of the population decreases. Depensation may explain why marine fish populations like the Atlantic cod are slow to recover even when fishing is halted. Per capita mortality may increase because of changes in predator-prey interactions, mate availability may be reduced, fertilisation success may be lowered, operational sex ratios may change, and there may be a reduced intensity of social interactions during spawning. Compare compensatory mortality where the mortality rate decreases as the population size decreases. Depensation is also called the Allee effect.

depensatory = the adjective for depensation.

depleted = a very low abundance level of a stock caused by fishing as compared to historical levels.

depletion = for renewable resources, the part of the catch above the sustainable level of the resource stock.

depletion-based assessment technique = a prediction of how large the total (cumulative) removal would have to be in order to drive the relative abundance to zero. This predicted total removal is then an estimate of the initial stock size before removal begins.

deposit feeding = benthic feeding on plant and animal debris on or just below the bottom surface.

depredate = to capture prey (predate is not a verb unless you are dating before; the noun predation being often transformed into a verb meaning to capture prey).

depressed = flattened from top to bottom, e.g. Rajidae. Opposite to compressed.

depressed length = the length of a fin from its origin to the posteriormost point, measured when it is pressed against the body.

depressed fishery = a fishery with a declining population trend having occurred over a period of time appropriate to that fishery. The condition of a fishery that exhibits declining fish population abundance levels below those consistent with maximum sustainable yield.

depressed stock = a stock of fish whose production is below expected levels based on available habitat and natural variations in survival levels, but above the level where permanent damage to the stock is likely.

depressiform = depressed.

depression = any lower area, such as on the ocean floor.

depth = vertical distance through, height, e.g. body depth, caudal peduncle depth, head depth, etc., q.v.

depth contour = a map line connecting all points having the same water depth.

depth control = in angling, controlling the depth at which a lure or bait is fished.

depth finder = a sonar device used to determine depth and bottom structure and to locate fish.

deranged drainage system = a system without any obvious or coherent pattern as a result of much geological disturbance, as in areas cleared of soil cover by ice ages. The drainage patterns are still being determined and the glaciers left much water that accumulates in low points as lakes. See also annular, dendritic, parallel, rectangular and trellis drainage systems.

derby = a fishing competition with money and prizes for the best catches; used in North America.

derby style fishing = race-to-fish (a pattern of fishing characterized by an increasing number of highly efficient vessels fishing at an increasing pace, with season length becoming shorter and shorter; a management system where individual boats race to take as much of the total allowable catch before the fishery closes. Also called olympic fishing).

Derceto = the Syrian fertility goddess who fell into a lake at Bambyce near the Euphrates River in Syria. She was saved by a large fish and as a result ancient Syrians did not eat fish but worshiped their images as gods. Also known as Atargatis in Greek, whose temples contained fish ponds, the goddess punishing anyone who ate them by making them ill although her priests ate fish fish freely in a daily ritual.

derived = a character or character state not present in the ancestral stock; apomorphic. The term should not be applied to organisms or taxa since they are a mix of plesiomorphic and derived character states.

dermal = relating to the skin - the innermost of the two layers which arises from mesoderm.

dermal basihyal = basihyal (the cartilage supporting the tongue at the anterior end of the hyal series in Elasmobranchii. It is the anteriormost median endochondral bone of the basibranchial series, joining both branches of the hyoid series and forming the tongue skeleton in Teleostei. Dorsally is may have a dermal tooth plate called the glossohyal. The basihyal does not always ossify, e.g. in Salmonidae. Also called basihyobranchial).

dermal bone = any of the the superficial bones in Teleostomi derived from the dermis and overlying the deeper elements of the skull. Primitive fishes have more dermal bones than higher ones, e.g. the armour of Ostracodermi. Dermal bones are a form of membrane bones, i.e. they arose directly from connective tissue membranes without the cartilaginous precursors which precede endochondral bones. They may be divided into laterosensory canal bones that develop in relation to the sensory canals, bones derived from mesenchymous tissue and anamestic bones (q.v.). Also called achondral, membrane, investing and covering bones.

dermal crest = the adipose fin in Cobitidae and Balitoridae.

dermal denticle = a small, tooth-like, dermal scale in the skin of Elasmobranchii (except Torpedinidae) and the claspers of Holocephali. Also called more commonly placoid scale, although dermal denticle is more correct anatomically.

dermal ethmoid = supraethmoid (one of the paired dermal bones above the ethmoid, anterior to the frontals. Also called dermethmoid, mesethmoid and dermal mesethmoid rostral).

dermal flap = a small skin flap, e.g. in some Syngnathidae.

dermal fold = a flap distinct from the pectoral fin on the side of the head in Squatina.

dermal mesethmoid rostral = supraethmoid (one of the paired dermal bones above the ethmoid, anterior to the frontals. Also called dermethmoid, dermal ethmoid and mesethmoid).

dermal plate = a bony plate in the skin of the flank, e.g. in Gasterosteidae.

dermal process = a conical process on the tip of the upper, and sometimes the lower, jaw, e.g. in some Gempylidae and Trichiuridae.

dermal supraoccipital = dermosupraoccipital.

dermarticular = the dermal bone of the lower jaw laterally covering and often fusing with the angular or retroarticular.

dermatocranium = the skeleton of the cranium derived from dermal bone that includes most of the superficial cranium bones. See also chondrocranium and splanchnocranium.

dermatone = a segment of skin innervated by one spinal nerve.

dermatotrich = dermatotrichium (1).

dermatotrichium = 1) dermotrichium.

dermatotrichium = 2) a secondary ray distal to a lepidotrichium also originating as a scale. Usually forked and lying on the edge of the fin, e.g. Doras and Synodontis in Siluriformes.

dermentoglossum = lingual plate (a dermal toothed bone covering and sometimes fusing with the basihyal, e.g. in Osteoglossidae. Also called glossohyal, entoglossum, os entoglossum, supralingual or basihyal dental plate).

dermestid colony = a colony of beetles (usually Dermestes) used for cleaning large fish skeletons of flesh. Also called bug colony.

dermestotype = a joke term in nomenclature for a specimen from the type series that has been eaten by dermestids so its remains cannot be identified.

dermethmoid = 1) supraethmoid (one of the paired dermal bones above the ethmoid, anterior to the frontals. Also called dermal ethmoid, mesethmoid and dermal mesethmoid rostral).

dermethmoid = 2) ethmoid (the deep, embryonic, perichondral, cartilaginous bone ossifying in and around the nasal septum. Later covered by the nasals, prevomer, adnasals (and rostrals) and located anterior to the orbit. It may not ossify in some Teleostei. Also called hypethmoid).

dermintermedial process = a small to large process on the floor or wall of the naris in some Sarcopterygii. May be covered in cosmine.

dermis = the innermost of the two layers of the skin, the outer being the epidermis. Contains the scales, blood vessels, nerves, chromatophores, connective tissue. Also called the corium. Of mesodermal origin.

dermocrania = plural of dermocranium.

dermocranium (plural dermocrania) = the superficial portion of the skull overlying the endocranium and consisting of a series of dermal bones over the outside of the skull.

dermohyal = the bone located between the opercular and preopercular in Palaeoniscidae.

dermopalatine = the paired dermal bone covering the undersurface of the autopalatines (q.v.) which are commonly called palatines, especially when the dermopalatine and autopalatine fuse.

dermopterotic = supratemporal-intertemporal (a dermal bone overlaying the pterotic (or autopterotic). Also called intertemporal and membranopterotic).

dermoskeleton = the bones of dermal origin, including scales, teeth, the dermocranium and the dermal pectoral girdle.

dermosphenotic = a superficial dermal bone behind the eye comprising the sixth infraorbital or suborbital; the dermal representative of the autosphenotic. Bears part of the suborbital and sometimes the conjunction of temporal, and supra- and suborbital sensory canals.

dermosupraoccipital = the superficial, paired dermal bone covering the supraoccipital with which it may fuse. In many Teleostei it is a hinge for the skull articulation with the circumorbital ring. Siluridae have a posterior toothed process that secures the nuchal disc. Also called parietooccipital, postparietal or dermal supraoccipital.

dermotrich = dermotrichium.

dermotrichia = plural of dermotrichium.

dermotrichium (plural dermotrichia) = the fin ray, of 4 types:- ceratotrich (in cartilaginous fishes), actinotrich (in cartilaginous and bony fishes), lepidotrichs (only in bony fishes) and camptotrichs (in Dipnoi and Crossopterygi). Spiny rays in Actinopterygii may be called acanthotrichs. Also called dermatotrich.

derogatotype = a joke term in nomenclature for a type purportedly named in a derogatory way for a person, e.g. a parasite, although some of course are named in honour of co-workers.

Derris = jewel vine, the plant from which the fish poison rotenone, q.v., is extracted. Also used as the word for the poison.

dervonic acid = docosahexaenoic acid.

descaling = 1) a condition in which a fish has lost a certain amount of scales.

descaling = 2) the removal of scales before cooking. Fins are usually removed first and scales are scraped away from tail to head using the back side of a knife; messy.

descargamento = lean meat from the area of the backbone of unspawned tuna, or any portions of flesh of spawned tuna, except belly flesh (Spain).

descending = 1) directed downwards (in reference to anatomical structures).

descending = 2) referring to movement in a river.

descr. = abbreviation of descriptione, meaning description.

description = a more or less complete statement of the observed characters of a taxon, without any special emphasis on those which distinguish it from other closely related taxa. The original description is the first, formal description of a new taxon required for valid publication.

descriptive name = a name based on the distinctive characters of a taxon, often a series of words in old zoological literature.

descriptive phrase = a name, usually of several words, which at the same time constitutes a diagnosis of the taxon. Not a binomen.

descriptione = description, usually appearing as its abbreviation descr.

descriptor = a key word indicating the content of a publication.

descriptotype = in nomenclature, that element or elements on which the original description was based.

deserticolous = living in desert regions; more applicable to terrestrial organisms than aquatic ones.

desiccated = completely dried; some specimens in museum collections may suffer this fate.

desiccated cod = small pickle cured cod, or trimmings obtained in boneless cod preparations, reduced to small fibres in a shredding machine and dried.

desiderata = wanted specimens or items.

designated priority = referring to several simultaneously published names for the same taxon, the priority established by the first reviser.

designated unit = an infraspecific group which can be distinguished from the species and which has a different extinction probability.

designation = the act of an author or the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in fixing, by express statement, the type of a newly or previously established nominal taxon of the genus or the species group. The original designation is the designation of the name-bearing type of a nominal taxon when it is established. Subsequent designation is the designation of the name-bearing type of a nominal taxon published after the nominal taxon was established.

designation = the original designation is the designation of the type of a taxon when first established while the subsequent designation is the designation of the type of a taxon in a work published subsequent to the establishment of the taxon.

destructive sampling = removal or part or all of a museum specimen for some form of analysis (e.g. molecular work, toxicology) which gives results but destroys the sample.

det. = determiner.

det. = 1) abbreviation for determinavit, meaning (s)he identified or determined. Often used for identification notes in museum collections.

det. = 2) abbreviation for determiner.

detached breakwater = a breakwater (q.v.) not attached to the shore.

detention basin = an area that holds water for a limited period as a spillover from a larger basin to prevent flooding. All the water contained in the basin is released a short period of time. Not usually a fish habitat, cf. retention basin.

detention dam = a dam for temporary storage of water for later controlled release.

determination = the identification of a taxon or specimen to species or other taxon.

determination slip = a label with a specimen with the species identification, identifier, date of capture, collector(s), etc. The label may be attached to the specimen or with it in a jar or other container. Also called annotation slip.

determinator = the person who makes a determination, usually an expert but sometimes not, so museum records of identity should not always be accepted without verification by an expert.

determinavit = meaning (s)he identified or determined. Often used for identification notes in museum collections as the abbreviation det.

determine = to make a determination.

eterminer = the person who identifies a specimen. Abbreviated as det.

deterministic = a process that has no stochastic (random) components, e.g. the population model of some stock assessment methods assumes that population growth due to recruitment follows a deterministic formulation.

detrition = worn away by friction.

detritivore = feeder on detritus.

detritophagy = feeding on detritus.

detritus = 1) debris, disintegrated material or particulate material that enters into an aquatic system. If derived from decaying organic matter it is organic detritus.

detritus = 2) fragments formed by detrition, especially in fish gills.

detritus = 3) dead vegetal matter, faecal pellets and uneaten food forming a greyish gunk on the bottom of aquaria and in filter mechanisms. Rich in nutrients, it promotes algal growth and should be removed. Also called mulm.

detritus pool = the total accumulation of non-living organic matter in streams or rivers.

detrivore = detritivore.

deuterogenotype = one of two or more generic names based on the same type species. Also called isogenotype.

deuterotype = a replacement type specimen.

devalid name = a name that is not valid because it was published before the starting date of the group concerned.

devalidated name = devalid name.

developed fishery = a fishery close to its maximum sustainable yield; a fishery operating at or near the level consistent with ecologically sustainable development in accordance with a management plan.

developing fishery = a fishery that is rapidly increasing often through increased fishing capacity.

development of shoreline = the ratio of shoreline length to the length of the circumference of a circle of the same area as the lake. Important in assessing fish habitat.

devil's elbow = butterfly (an L-shaped steel plate shackled between the dan leno spindle and legs. Also called arm, banana, boomerang, dan leno arm, dan leno bracket, dan leno spreader, spreader bar).

devil's thumb print = a dark blotch on the anterior flank above the pectoral fin of the haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus. The fish managed to escape the devil's grasp, which left the mark. Also called Saint Peter's mark.

Devon = two or more hooks embedded in a small artificial lure used in trolling.

Devonian = a geological period within the Palaeozoic Era ca. 413-365 million years ago; called the Age of Fishes. Abbreviated as D.

Devon spinner = Devon.

dextral = right-handed, e.g. referring to flatfishes having the right-hand side uppermost.

DFO = number of vertebrae anterior to the dorsal fin origin, e.g. in larval fishes.

dGH = water hardness expressed in degrees of hardness. 0-4 is very soft, 5-8 soft, up to 30 which is extremely hard water.

dh = DH.

dH = DH.

DH = hardness, expressed in degrees (Germany, from Deutsche harte). 1 DH = 17.86 p.p.m.

dhan = the marker buoy used as an anchor from which ropes and nets are set in, e.g. Scottish seining and fly dragging, q.v.

dhow = a traditional Arab sailing vessel, used for transporting fish in the Indian Ocean.

di- (prefix) = two, twice.

dia- (prefix) = across, through.

diacmic = having two maxima, e.g. during a growing season.

diacritic marks = diacritic marks, apostrophes or diaereses are not to be used in a taxonomic name and are to be deleted from such names originally published with them, e.g. the German umlaut sign is deleted from a vowel and should be replaced by an 'e' inserted after the vowel, but only for taxonomic names based on German words and published before 1985.

diadromous = those fishes which regularly migrate between fresh and salt water during a definite period of the life-cycle. Includes anadromous and catadromous fishes, e.g. Petromyzon, Alosa, Oncorhynchus, some Galaxias, Anguilla, Sicydium (Myers, 1949; McDowall, 1968).

diagnosis = a succinct and formal statement of the characters that distinguish a taxon.

diagnoses = plural of diagnosis.

diagnostic character = any character or character state that clearly differentiates one taxon from another.

diagonal file = fish teeth arranged in an in-between direction. Such teeth are at different developmental stages and derived from different tooth bud positions, cf. row and file.

diagonal scale row = the almost vertical row of scales slanting backwards and downwards across the sides of the body. Divided into scales above the lateral line starting at the front of the dorsal fin (from, but not including, the scale in the middorsal row, to but not including, the lateral line scales) and below the lateral line similarly ending at the front of the anal fin. The number of transverse rows themselves along the body may also be counted.

diamond cut = Aberdeen cut (a cut of fish from a frozen block, rhombus-shaped with the sides often squared off or cut with a tapered edge. Usually breaded and battered. Also called French cut).

diamond sinker = an elongate, diamond-shaped lead weight streamlined for trolling. Sometimes with a hook on one end and used for jigging.

diandric = adjective for diandry.

diandry = possessing two different types of males, a large, brightly-coloured and aggressive terminal phase (TP) and a smaller, drab and relatively non-aggressive initial phase (IP), e.g. in Thalassoma lunare (Labridae). The TP has priority access to food and spawning females. On the death or removal of a TP, the first-ranking IP becomes the next TP (after first checking the reef thoroughly to make sure the TP is gone). The two pathways of diandry are adult sex change as in monandry and also by direct male development from the juvenile phase with no adult sex change.

diapause = arrested development in the eggs of annual Cyprinodontidae. The temporary pool habitat dries up completely leaving the eggs to develop in the mud.

diaphanous = thin and translucent; semi-transparent.

diaphragm = a membrane between two chambers of the gas bladder which can be opened and closed by circular and radial muscles. Found in physoclist q.v. fishes but not Cyprinidae.

diaphragm pump = the most common type of aquarium air pump.

diapositive = a transparent photographic positive, a colour slide, a transparency.

diarthrosis = an articulation that allows free bone movement; cf. amphiarthrosis and synarthrosis.

diastema = a gap, e.g. in a tooth row such as in the upper jaw teeth into which a lower jaw canine fits.

diatom filter = diatomaceous earth used to remove very fine particles from the water in aquaria. They clog quickly and are only used occasionally as water polishers rather than continuously.

dib = dab (2).

dibber = a small float with a bulbous tip, made of balsa or a peacock quill, and fished in canal shallows with casters as bait for roach (Rutilus rutilus).

dibble = skimming a wet fly leader or a bushy dry fly across the water surface to attract a bite.

diced fish = fish flesh cut into small cubes.

dichotomous key = an identification key using a series of alternative choices, each pair forming a couplet, that eventually lead to a species identity; the usual form of keys for fish identification.

dichotomy = bifurcation (a node in a tree connecting three branches. If one branch is directed or rooted, then one branch represents an ancestral lineage and the other two branches are descendent lineages).

dichromatic = having two colour forms.

dicht = to clean fish and prepare them for cooking (Scottish dialect, archaic English).

diddle = a machine for taking salmon (archaic).

die on a fish day = to be hanged, as hangings were held on Wednesdays and Fridays, Catholic fish days.

die-off = large numbers of dead fish through natural or unknown factors, cf. fish kill.

diel = daily, a 24-hour period.

diel vertical migration = a daily vertical migration.

diencephalon = a division of the brain, q.v. Major derivatives are the eye cups, the brain pretectal region, the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus (including the habenula and epiphysis).

diet = 1) the food of a fish.

diet = 2) in aquaculture, a balanced mix of nutrients for normal health and growth usually provided on a schedule.

dietary efficiency = the efficiency at which a ration is converted to fish tissue.

dietary gill disease = a disease of fish caused by a deficiency in pantothenic acid.

dieter = 1) a person receiving winter board and accommodation against the promise of cash or service in the next fishing season (Newfoundland).

dieter = 2) a person helping in the preparatory work of the fishing season in exchange for board (Newfoundland).

different kettle of fish = very different from other things mentioned.

differentia = 1) an obsolete term for the character(s) by which a taxon differs from others.

differentia = 2) an obsolete term for the characters that define a species; a definition.

differentiae = plural of differentia.

differential character = a distinguishing or diagnostic character.

differential diagnosis = diagnosis.

differentiation = becoming different in morphology, behaviour, physiology, etc., either within an organism's development or within a lineage of organisms.

diffuse spring = a spring fed by groundwater from many small cracks in the rocks and soil.

Digby chick = not a young bird but whole herring with guts heavily salted and cold smoked for 2-3 weeks until hard (red herring) prepared at Digby, Nova Scotia.

digestibility = 1) the degree to which a particular food can be digested and absorbed by a fish.

digestibility = 2) the nutrients absorbed by a fish, e.g. nutrient intake - nutrient remaining in faeces/nutrient intake, expressed as a percentage.

digestion coefficient = relationship of protein intake in a food to absorbed protein, expressed as a percent.

digestion efficiency = measured as the proportion of food that does not survive passage through the gut.

digestion rate = the time taken to digest food or the rate of passage through the gut.

digestive tract = alimentary canal (the passage through which food passes and is digested and absorbed; includes the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, intestine and anus. Also called alimentary tract and gut, although the latter might be more restrictive being areas of chemical processing and absorption only and not manipulation as with mouth and oesophagus and associated structures).

dight = dicht.

digit bias = a bias arising from the tendency of people to round off numbers to end in 0 or 5; important in angler surveys where catches are recorded from interviews. Also called rounding bias.

digitiform gland = rectal gland (an evagination of the terminal portion of the intestine of Elasmobranchii. Function formerly thought to be related to digestion or excretion, but now considered to secrete high concentrations of excess sodium chloride. Found also in the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae).

dignathic = heterodont tooth morphology, differing in shape in the upper and lower jaws.

dike = 1) a protective wall around a fish pond.

dike = 2) a wall, levee or embankment to prevent flooding.

dilated = expanded.

dilator operculi = a muscle originating on the sphenotic posterior to the levator hyoideus and inserting on the dorsal medial surface of the operculum.

dim fish = dun fish.

dimethyl sulphide = a harmless chemical contaminant of Scomber scombrus, derived from eating pelagic snails. It gives an odour of petroleum products.

dimethylsulphoniopropionate = a chemical released by phytoplankton and benthic algae, associated with coral reefs, when eaten. Planktivorous reef fishes use this chemical as a foraging clue. Abbreviated as DMSP.

dimictic = a lake having two seasonal periods (fall and spring) of overturn with free circulation so surface and deep waters mix and the thermocline is disrupted.

dimorphic = having two forms.

dimpling = fish breaking the water surface, to feed on insects or attempting to escape predators, e.g. American shad, Alosa sapidissima.

dinghy = a small open boat.

dinglebar troll gear = one or more lines pulled through the water while the vessel is under way. The lines are set and retrieved using a troll gurdy with a weight from which one or more leaders with lures or baited hooks.

dink = 1) bass (Micropterus spp., Centrarchidae) too short to meet tournament standards; usually less than 14 inches (ca. 36 cm). Also called baby, throw back, nubbin, pop corn, and slick.

dink = 2) any very small fish.

dinmont = a an immature cod (Scottish dialect).

dinnage = brushwood, branches, boughs, bark, etc, placed as a mat on which dried fish is laid in a vessel's hold or spread on a flake (q.v.) (Newfoundland). Also spelled dennage, dynnage and dunnage.

dinogunellin = lipostichaerin (a toxic lipoprotein found in the Japanese Stichaeus grigorjewi (Stichaeidae). Probably analogous to "lipovitellin" in hen egg yolk. Called dinogunellin when the species was placed in the genus Dinogunellus.

dioecious = specie sin which the sexes are separate.

dip = 1) a bath treatment in which aquarium fish are immersed in a concentrated treatment solution for a short time to remove parasites or aid in disease cures.

dip = 2) immersion in a chemical solution or additive to improve shelf life and prevent moisture loss of fish prepared as food.

dip = 3) transferring fish from one holding area to another with a net.

dip = 4) the quantity of fish moved in a dip (3).

dip = 5) immersing nets and sails in a tanning liquid as a preservative (Newfoundland).

dip-net = 1) a bag-shaped net held open by a square, triangular or rounded frame on the end of a long pole. Used to scoop fish from the water, either on small scale in streams or ponds or commercially from large catches. May be quite large and pivoted on a scaffold or lifted by ropes or pivoted from the end of boat. Also called scoop or scoop net.

dip-net = 2) a net placed on the water bottom or suspended and lifted up when fish swim over it. More correctly lift net.

dip-net fishery = a traditional native fishery for salmonids where fish are captured using long-handled dip-nets, usually at waterfalls or other obstructions, which congregate the fish and make them more vulnerable to harvest.

diphagous = fish that eat in two different ways, e.g. Chauliodus sloanei.

diphycercal = an internally and externally symmetrical tail fin, e.g. in Dipnoi. May be secondarily acquired from the homocercal condition by loss of the real caudal fin and the gaining of a new one from dorsal and anal elements, e.g. in Gadidae.

diphyllobothriasis = a parasitic, intestinal disease of humans caused by eating raw of lightly processed fish. The parasite is a tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium) and man is the definitive host, fish the intermediate host. Also called Jewish housewife's disease or Scandinavian housewife's disease.

diplo- (prefix) = double, twofold.

diplodont = an early form of shark tooth, found in xenacanths for example, characteristically having two prongs or cusps. See also cladodont, hybodont and symmorid.

diplomatotype = 1) a joke term in nomenclature for a type specimen of a taxon described for political reasons.

diplomatotype = 2) a joke term in nomenclature for a type specimen of a taxon named after a person to improve relations, access funds, etc.

diplospondylous = referring to the double vertebrae formed when the anterior and posterior elements (sclerotomes) have not fused, e.g. caudal vertebrae of Amia. Two types of centra are present, a precentrum lacking neural and haemal arches and a postcentrum having these arches.

diplospondyly = the condition of a diplospondylous vertebra.

diplostomiasis = infestation of the fish eye by metacercaria of the fluke Diplostomum sp., eventually resulting in blindness. Snails are the intermediate host and piscivorous birds the final host. See also eye fluke disease.

diplotype = genoholotype (the primary type of the type species of the genus, designated by the author in the original description of the genus).

dippen net = dip-net (1) (English dialect).

dipping for goldfish = goldfish scooping (a traditional Japanese game involving scooping goldfish with a special paper scooper, from the Japanese Kingyo-sukui, literally goldfish scooping. The game is over when the scooper is broken. In some cases, the scooping is not competitive and a scooped goldfish is taken home as a pet. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) may also be scooped but are faster than goldfish, equivalent to four goldfish in a competition. In recent years a National Championship of Goldfish Scooping has developed although the game dates back to the early nineteenth century. Also called scooping goldfish and snatching goldfish).

dipping tub = a wooden tub used for immersing cod after being headed, gutted and split in Newfoundland.

dipsey sinker = a teardrop lead weight used for bottom fishing. The shape stops it catching on rocks.

dipsy = the float of a fishing line (Pennsylvania). See also dobber.

dipterex = dylox.

direct length = measurements of body parts are taken as the shortest distance between two points, not around the curve of the body or between verticals.

direct methods = fishery independent research surveys used to estimate abundance and collect other biological data. Aims to avoid biases found in commercial catch data.

direct reference = a bibliographic reference with full details such as author date, title, publisher, place of publication, volume, issue, pages, plates, figures, etc.

direct runoff = the runoff entering a channel promptly after precipitation.

directed fishery = a commercial effort aimed at catching a certain species or group of species. May also apply to a sport fishery.

Direction = a statement published by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, completing or correcting an earlier decision given in an Opinion, a term now abandoned and replaced by Official Corrections.

dirty = said of transparent sea water in Newfoundland that has abundant large marine organisms which clog nets forming slub (q.v.), but lacks plankton which attract fish. See also clean.

dirty fishing = bycatch (fishes caught incidental to the target species; also called incidental catch or accidental catch. These fishes are usually of lesser value than the target species, and are often discarded. Some bycatch species are of commercial value and are retained for sale. The bycatch often consists of the juveniles of commercial species, and their loss has a deleterious impact on the overall yield obtained from a certain area. In a commercial fishery there are economic discards (fish thrown away for economic reasons, e.g. too small, damaged, not enough commercially value, etc.) and regulatory discards (fish thrown away because of the regulations as to size or species allowed to the fishery). Fish released alive under catch-and-release management programmes are not considered as bycatch. Also spelled by-catch).

dirty water = green or muddy water with highly reduced visibility; an angling term.

disagreeable name = an obsolete term for an inappropriate name (a name for a taxon that does not reflect a quality or character of that taxon, e.g. a colour or place).

disappearance = the rate of decline in numbers of fish caught as fish become less numerous or less available. Often calculated from catch curves. Abbreviated as Z'.

disarticulated = 1) a fossil where the bones are separated and not together as in life.

disarticulated = 2) said of a fish skeleton prepared in a bug colony (q.v.) where the bones become separated after treatment or where bones are separated before exposure to the bugs to facilitate flesh removal.

disc = disk.

disc lamella = one of the flattened overlapping folds derived from fin rays on the head of remoras (Echeneidae) forming the sucker for attachment to other fishes and to whales.

disc teeth = teeth in the buccal cavity of Petromyzontidae.

discard = the part of a fish catch that is thrown overboard, but which may be of important ecological or commercial value. Also the act of throwing fish overboard. The discard typically consists of "non-target" species, a portion of the catch exceeding the legal quota, damaged specimens or undersized specimens. The fish may be alive or dead, whole or in parts. Estimates of discards are made by observers and logbook records. Also called discarded catch. Discarding lower value fish to increase the value of a catch is called high grading.

discarded catch = the portion of a catch returned to the sea as a result of economic, legal or other considerations.

discard mortality = discard mortality rate multiplied by discarded catch.

discard mortality rate = the proportion of the discarded catch that dies as a result of catching or handling.

discard rate = the proportion of total catch which is discarded. Rates can be for individual species or groups of species.

discharge = flow of water in a river or drainage basin, measured in cubic feet per second (cfs) or cubic metres per second passing a certain point.

discharge area = the part of a catchment where groundwater appears as springs.

disciform = disc-shaped.

disclaimer = a statement in a work, by an author, editor or publisher, that the entire work or all, or specified, names and nomenclatural acts in it are to be excluded for purposes of zoological nomenclature.

disco maggot = a fluorescent-dyed maggot used as bait in angling in Europe.

discoidal = disc-shaped; flat and rounded.

discoidal organ = the modified pelvic fins formed into an adhesive disk.

discolouration = any of suite of abnormal colourings of commercial fish products other than liver stains (q.v.), e.g. blackening, browning, bruising, measured by area.

discontinuous zone = D-zone.

discontinuity = 1) an interruption; an obstacle to a stream continuum.

discontinuity = 2) check (a mark on a scale or other hard structure used for aging, caused by cessation of growth and absorption of deposited material due to spawning (hence a spawning check), injury, disease, parasites, or unseasonal lack of food).

discontinuity layer = thermocline (the zone of rapidly changing temperature between the warm upper layer (epilimnion) and the lower cold layer (hypolimnion). Characterized by a temperature change of 1C° or more per metre).

discrete fishery = a fishing region, or a fishery directed to a stock or species.

disgorger = a device of varying form, usually j-shaped with a slotted head to slide over the hook, used to extract hooks from a fish's mouth.

dish = a dish-shaped utensil used in hatcheries.

dished out = 1) a stream bank with an angle greater than 90 degrees. Also called laid back.

dished out = 2) any structure with a scooped out, dish-like form.

disjunct = distinctly separate; said of ranges that are discontinuous so that discrete, but potentially interbreeding, populations cannot interbreed.

disk (disc) = 1) the area surrounding the mouth in lampreys (Petromyzontiformes).

disk (disc) = 2) the roundish body of skate and rays (Rajiformes) excluding the tail and pelvic fins but including the pectoral fins that merge more seamlessly with the body.

disk (disc) = 3) an adhesive disk modified from the pelvic fins in, for example, clingfishes (Gobiesocidae), gobies (Gobiidae) and snailfishes (Liparidae).

disk drag = a system on fly reels that increases line resistance as a fish pulls it out. The resistance slows down and tires out the fish. The disk system is smoother than a click drag and line breakage is less likely.

disk length = the length from the snout tip to the posteriormost margin of the pectoral fin in Rajiformes.

disk width = the greatest distance between the lateral tips of the pectoral fins in Rajiformes.

dispersal = 1) an accidental migration, the outward spread of organisms from their point of origin.

dispersal = 2) the removal of copies of museum records and databases to a separate building from the originals as a safeguard against loss.

disphotic zone = dysphotic zone.

displacement = the behaviour exhibited in an inappropriate situation occurring usually where there is conflict between incompatible instincts, e.g. aggression and flight, or when the external situation necessary for the completion of an activity does not appear (when a female stickleback does not follow a leading male).

display behaviour = actions of breeding male fish to attract females or warn off other, competitive males.

disruptive colouration = an irregular colour pattern, often patches of light and dark, functioning as camouflage. The colour pattern disguises the fish's shape by breaking it up into visually distinct parts unlike a fish. Examples include eye stripes and ocelli. Even the stripes on a fish, individually distinctive, blend together and create the illusion of one large fish when schooling.

dissectotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a completely dissected type.

dissimilarity = a generic measure of the difference between two objects, measured on a scale of 0 to 1.

dissolved organic matter = minute organic matter.

dissolved oxygen = the amount of oxygen freely available in water and necessary for aquatic life and the oxidation of organic materials. For fish, ideal levels are about 7-9 mg/l and most fish cannot survive levels below 3 mg/l. Cold water contains more dissolved oxygen than warm and water too rich in bacteria and other aquatic organisms may use the oxygen up leaving none for fish. At 5°C brook trout use 50-60 mg of oxygen per hour but at 25°C they require 250-360 mg/hour as their metabolic rate increases. A value of 4-5 p.p.m. of dissolved oxygen is the minimum that will support a diverse fish community and values around 9 p.p.m. are preferred. Abbreviated as DO.

dissolved solids = very small pieces of organic and inorganic material contained in water. Excessive amounts make water less habitable for fish, unfit to drink or limit its use in industrial processes. Abbreviated as DS.

distad = in the direction away from the center of the body; remote from point of attachment, toward the outer edge. Opposite of proximad.

distal = at or near the outer edge or margin. Opposite of proximal.

distance = a measure of the difference between two objects, usually measured on a scale of 0 to infinity.

distance function = a measure of the "distance" between two populations in terms of the differences used in discriminatory analysis.

distant water fishery = a fishery carried out hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the home port of the fishing vessels, e.g. tuna fishery.

distavore = an eater of food from far away, opposite of locavore which is more politically and environmentally correct, e.g. a distavore in North America or Europe would eat Chilean sea bass from South Georgia.

distended scales = erected scales, a symptom of various fish diseases involving swellings such as dropsies.

distensible = capable of being extended or dilated.

distchous = in two opposite rows; divided in two parts.

distilled smoke = smoke with a high moisture content produced by slow burning wood, used to smoke fish.

distinct population segment = a taxon lower than species; a population with distinct traits.

distributary = 1) a diverging stream which does not return to the main stream but into another water body.

distributary = 2) a channel taking water from a canal for irrigation.

distrophic = dystrophic.

disturbance pattern = moving an artificial fly in such a way that it causes a disturbance in the water attractive to fish.

disturbance regime = the characteristics of natural disruptions such as a flood, in terms of timing, duration, intensity, etc.

ditch = a small artificial channel, a permanent or temporary habitat for fishes.

diter = dieter.

ditermous = having two nostril openings, anterior and posterior, the commonest condition in fishes. Monotermous is a single opening.

dither fish = a fish added to an aquarium with shy or nervous fish. A dither fish has a relaxed behaviour which encourages the other fish to come come out of hiding or to commence breeding.

diurnal = pertaining to daylight, active during the day; daily.

diurnal inequality = 1) the difference in height of the two high waters or of the two low waters of each day.

diurnal inequality = 2) the difference in velocity between the two daily flood or ebb currents of each day.

diurnal oscillation = the diurnal movement of plankton up and down in the water column, often mirrored by fish feeding on them.

diurnal tide = a tide with one high water and one low water in a tidal day (24.84 hours).

divaricate = branch at a wide angle.

dive-caught = fish caught by hand, hand-held net or spear gun using a snorkel or scuba equipment. Highly selective and least damaging fishery method if carried out responsibly.

diver = in angling, a fly that dives below the water surface and floats back up on the retrieve. Used for bass and pike.

diver gill net = a gill net that drifts along the bottom, its weights being calculated to allow this, e.g. used in rivers for salmon.

divergence = the evolutionary process of branching lineages.

diverse = taxa or biota with many members, a wide range of morphology or of life histories.

diversion = the transfer of water from a stream, lake, aquifer, or other source of water by a canal, pipe, well, or other conduit to another watercourse or to the land, as in the case of an irrigation system. Often deleterious to fish populations.

diversion pond = a pond supplied by water by diversion of a stream.

diversion screen = a wire mesh screen installed where water is diverted from a stream or river to keep fish from entering the diversion channel or pipe. Also called deflector screen.

diversity = 1) a parameter describing, in combination, the species richness and evenness of a collection of species. Low diversity means few species or unequal abundance, high diversity many species or equal abundance. Diversity is often used as a synonym for species richness.

diversity = 2) the absolute number of species.

diversity = 3) variation in a trait or character, e.g. as in morphology.

diversity gradient = a regular change in diversity correlated with a geographic space or gradient of some environmental factor.

diversity index = a measure of the number of species in community and their relative abundances.

diverter = 1) fish diverter (an electrical device that prevents fish from entering sensitive areas, e.g. power dams).

diverter = 2) a ditch made to direct waste water from a given body of water.

diverticulum = an outpocketing or blind-ending tube from a cavity or blind sac.

diverticulum pharyngealis = epibranchial organ (a paired dorsal diverticulum at the posterior limit of the pharynx in certain microphagous fishes. Also called gill-helix, pharyngeal organ, or pharyngeal pocket. In all forms with these organs, except some characids, prominent gill rakers extend into the organ dividing its cavity into two parts, one confluent with the pharynx, and one with the opercular cavity. Small food particles, generally plankton, are retained by the rakers, consolidated by mucus and squeezed out into the oesophagus. Found in Heterotidae, Characidae, Chanoidei, Gonorhynchoidei, Clupeidae and Engraulidae).

divide = 1) used in nomenclature and taxonomy for the removal of a part of a recognised taxon; splitting a taxon.

divide = 2) an imaginary line indicating the boundary between watersheds along a ridge or high point.

divinotype = 1) a joke term in nomenclature for a new species collected alive and already bearing a holotype label.

divinotype = 2) a joke term in nomenclature for a type seen only in a seance.

division = 1) a rank that if treated as a division of a genus or subgenus is deemed to be of subgeneric rank for the purpose of nomenclature.

division = 2) a sea area designated for fishery management purposes, e.g. in the northwest Atlantic Ocean the sea is divided into seven subareas indicated by numbers and subareas into divisions indicated by letters, such that 0A and 0B are in Davis Strait while 3LNO covers the Grand Banks and nearby waters off Newfoundland.

djirim = heavily salted and dried flesh of sturgeons, an inferior form of balik (q.v.) (former Soviet Union).

DLS = abbreviation for double-layered spiral.

Dn = a photophore in front of and above the eye and the olfactory capsule of Myctophidae.

DO = abbreviation for dissolved oxygen (the amount of oxygen freely available in water and necessary for aquatic life and the oxidation of organic materials. For fish, ideal levels are about 7-9 mg/l and most fish cannot survive levels below 3 mg/l).

do fish swim? = a rhetorical question meaning "obviously" or "don't ask stupid questions".

do-daudi = a simple drag net used on the Ganges River of India to catch small fishes. Operated by one person at each end having a bamboo pole attached to the net.

do-nothing rig = a rig comprised of a light-wire hook, a bead and a small brass sinker fished in clear water and often left alone. Bait is usually small worms.

doach = a salmon weir on the Scottish River Dee, also the name for the rocky stretch here. Also spelled doagh and dough.

doagh = doach.

doalie = a fisherman (Scottish dialect).

dobber = the float of a fishing line (New York). See also dipsy.

Dobriyal index = cube root of average gonad weight in grammes, used as a measure of reproductive capacity, determination of spawning season, sexual maturity and frequency of spawning (Dobriyal et al., 1999). Unlike the gonadosomatic index (q.v.), it does not involve body weight which is dependent on feeding intensity, food availability and environmental and physiological stress.

dobson = large brown aquatic larva of the dobsonfly; used as fishing bait.

dock = the waterway between two piers or a cut into the land for receiving ships.

docosahexaenoic acid = an omega-3-fatty acid found in fish which protects ageing rodent brains from the clumping seen in Alzheimer's disease. This chemical is formed in microalgae of the genus Schizochytrium and concentrated up the food chain to fish and other organisms. Chemical name is all-cis-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoic acid. May account for the reduction in risk of dementia and stroke in humans as a diet of fish replaces DHA lost in ageing. Also called dervonic acid. Abbreviated as DHA.

doctor = a parasitic or other copepod which attaches itself to the wound of a fish (Newfoundland).

doctor fish = 1) any of a series of unrelated fish species that are supposedly helpful to other fishes, e.g. tench (Tinca tinca, Cyprinidae) slime is said to cure wounds and jaundice; Garra rufa and Cyprinion macrostomum (Cyprinidae) in Turkish hot springs in the Kangal area clean dead skin fragments from humans with psoriasis; the circumpolar Gymnelus viridis or fish doctor may be a cleaner fish but the reason for its name is unknown.

doctor fish = 2) Acanthurus chirurgus, a member of the family Acanthuridae which is named for an extensible spine on each side of the caudal peduncle, resembling a scalpel in its sharpness. The spine is used in defence against predators and in dominance fights with members of its own species.

Doctor Fish Cafe = a chain of cafes and spas in South Korea where doctor fish are available for treatment of skin conditions in people. Spa resorts are now set up in various countries (China, Japan, Croatia, Singapore) with various names (not listed here). See also Fisho.

documentation = additional, supporting evidence on the identification, history, condition, scientific value, catch locality, etc. of a museum specimen or collection. May include paper records, photographs, old labels, field notes, other museum's catalogue data, etc.

doe = female salmon (in British Columbia).

dog hold = the hatchway in a jack-boat (q.v.) from which a man fishes (Newfoundland).

dog buoy = a buoy used to float fishing nets made from a dog skin. Dog skin lacked pores and was easily sealed with tar, e.g. used on the Moray Firth in Scotland.

dog ear = triangular pieces of netting fixed into the angle formed by the forward edge of a trawl having all bars along the hanging end points on the wings.

dog fishing = the Ainu of northern Japan taught their dogs to catch migrating salmon. The dogs are called Ainu dogs or Hokkaido inu.

dog-salmon aristocracy = one who thinks himself superior to his peers.

dogfish = 1) common name for various shark species, usually members of the Squaliformes which has about 100 species. Some species have commercial importance. The name may come from the fish being deemed unsuitable for human consumption but suitable for dogs or from the large schools of dogfish which fishermen called "packs".

dogfish = 2) a term of opprobrium applied to people.

dogfish head bones = chewed, these are folk cure for kidney troubles.

Dogfish Head Craft Brewery = a brewery in coastal Delaware famous for its unusual beers. Named after a jutting piece of land in Maine where the owner vacationed. Dogfish Head was supposedly named for the catches of dogfish in lobster pots.

dogger = a two-masted fishing vessel, used by the Dutch.

dogging = noodling (capturing fish by hand, often in murky waters under logs and boulders or in mud holes; may be restricted to use of a hook or snare type device, with or without a short attached line, manipulated by hand when a person is in or under the water. See also grabbling, tickling, catfisting, hand-fishing and hogging; and Hillbilly Handfishin').

doitsu = ornamental carp or koi (q.v.), with two lines of mirror scales.

dol net = a stationary net resembling a trawl using tidal flow to capture fish in India.

dole-fish = the share of fish allotted to each one of a company of fishermen in a catch.

doling = a fishing boat with two masts, each carrying a sprit-sail (Sussex dialect).

Dolly Varden = 1) the salmonid, Salvelinus malma, named for a female character in Charles Dickens' Barnaby Rudge who was colourfully dressed. A pink-spotted calico was called Dolly Varden during Dickens' visit to North America and the charr was likened to the material.

dolly varden = 2) a large earthenware crock used by fisherman in Newfoundland to drink tea.

dolphin = 1) one of a group of species of marine and riverine mammals.

dolphin = 2) confusingly, a fish, Coryphaena hippurus (Coryphaenidae).

dolphin-friendly tuna = tuna caught for food by methods that do not entangle or drown dolphins in the fishing nets.

dolphin-safe = dolphin-friendly tuna.

domed-top float = a stick float used in angling for its greater visibility at distance. Also more buoyant and stable for fishing over depths.

domestic annual harvest = the domestic annual fishing capacity, modified by such factors as economics, which will determine estimates of what the fishing fleets will harvest.

domestic annual processing = the amount of fish that will be processed domestically, based on physical capacity but including such variables as demonstrated intent, markets, other fisheries, the effects of domestic harvesting, etc.

domestic fishery = 1) a fishery within national waters operated by nationals.

domestic fishery = 2) fishing for domestic consumption, subject to regulations.

domestic observer = privately employed individuals placed aboard fishing vessels to insure the legal catch of different commercial fish.

domesticated fish = a fish selected and adapted for aquaculture, for the aquarium or for pond keeping.

domhof knot = a knot used in angling to tie spade-end hooks to line. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

dominant = 1) the most numerous species in a community at a given time.

dominant = 2) used to describe a male fish which is the chief spawner and which endeavours to exclude other males from the spawning act.

dominant year class = a year class that predominates in the fishery, often continuing over several years.

dominion over the fish of the sea = Genesis 1:28, God to Adam and Eve (King James version of the Bible). Also translated as "Rule over the fish in the sea".

domoic acid = an amino acid which is a neurotoxin. Found in algal blooms and can be eaten and concentrated by fish and transmitted to humans eating the fish.

donkey = a wooden barrel or cask for the export of dried and salted cod (Newfoundland).

donor = a person or organisation which has given a specimen or collection to a museum.

doondie = 1) a large lean cod (Orkney and Shetland dialect).

doondie = 2) a diseased cod (Orkney and Shetland dialect).

doondie = 3) a cod after spawning (Orkney and Shetland dialect).

door = 1) the entrance to a fish trap.

door = 2) a large, steel or alloy, door-shaped structure attached to the wire in front of a net (such as a trawl) to spread the net open by hydrodynamic action.

door legs = backstrop (a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl. Also called backboard becket, backstrop, board bridle, board leg, board strop, door strop and sling).

door sling ring = backstrop link (a triangular steel link with rounded corners on the back of a trawl's otter board. The backstrop is attached here. Also called board link, shearboard link and VD link).

door strop = backstrop (a short wire or chain system between the otter board and bridle on an otter trawl. Also called backboard becket, backstrop, board bridle, board leg, board strop, door legs and sling).

doormat = a large flounder.

doorway = door (1).

dopefish = a video-game fish that came to be an in-joke in that industry. It first appeared in the fourth Commander Keane game, Secret of the Oracle (1991). The fish is green with buck teeth and is the second-dumbest creature in the universe after the Ravenous Bugblatter Beast of Traal of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.

doppel zentner = 100 kg. Abbreviated as dz.

dor-line = a mackerel line (archaic).

dorie = a lead sinker on a mackerel line (Scottish dialect). See also dorro-bullet.

dorro (noun) = 1) a trailing cord with hooked lines attached used in catching cod, mackerel, ling, etc., jigged while the boat is rowed slowly along (Scottish dialect).

dorro (verb) = 2) to fish with a dorro (Scottish dialect).

dorro (verb) = 3) to fish in shallow water with a floating hand line (Scottish dialect).

dorro = 4) a wooden frame on which fishing lines and hooks are wound (Scottish dialect). See also grind.

dorro-bullet = a lead sinker at the end of a mackerel line, usually in the shape of a bell (Scottish dialect).

dorsad = above; toward the back; dorsal to.

dorsal = of or pertaining to the back, usually the upward side of a fish (except in flatfishes where the side uppermost in adults is a flank). Often used as an abbreviation for the dorsal fin. Opposite of ventral.

dorsal aorta = the principal, unpaired median artery of the trunk, extending into the tail as the caudal artery. Branches from this artery serve the viscera and the body muscles.

dorsal blade = a keel-like, medial structure anterior to the dorsal fin formed from the dorsal fin radials, e.g. in Sternoptychidae.

dorsal cerathyal = epihyal (the deep, endochondral bone at the upper end of the hyoid arch below the interhyal. It joins the hyomandibula and the symplectic through the interhyal, and articulates with the ceratohyal by a suture in some fishes, e.g. Gadidae. May bear a dentigerous plate. Also called posterohyal. It is called dorsal ceratohyal as it is considered to be the dorsal ossification of the ceratohyal. May or may not be homologous with the epal element of the branchial arches).

dorsal ciliated groove = hyperpharyngeal groove (the longitudinal ciliated groove on the upper wall of the pharynx which sweeps food particles to the oesophagus in Amphioxi and in the ammocoetes stage of Petromyzontiformes).

dorsal field = the uppermost area on a fish scale, between the anterior and posterior fields. Also called lateral field.

dorsal fin(s) = the unpaired fin(s) on the midline of the back. Also called the notopterygium. In Pleuronectiformes it is on the opposite side to the anus. In Centriscidae the hind end of the fish has been rotated under the fish so the dorsal fin is on the under surface. Abbreviated as D, D1, D2, or D3 respectively for the only, first, second or third dorsal fins (or their rays and spines). It functions to prevent rolling.

dorsal fin base length = the distance between the origin and the insertion of the dorsal fin; the length of that portion of the dorsal fin in contact with the body.

dorsal fin depressed length = the distance from the origin to the farthest posterior tip when the fin is flattened back down against the body.

dorsal fin height = the distance from the origin of the fin to the tip of the anterior lobe. Sometimes measured as the greatest vertical distance from the base.

dorsal fin ray count = enumeration of the dorsal fin rays. In fishes where the smaller rays in front gradually grade into larger rays, these smaller anterior rays are included in the count, e.g. Ictaluridae, Esocidae, Gadidae. Where the first small rays abruptly change to larger ones or where the first small rays are very variable or difficult to count these are not included; the first unbranched ray reaching nearly to the tip of the fin and the remainder of the rays are then counted - this is called the principal ray count. Where the last two rays are closely approximated at the base some authors consider them as a branched ray counting them as one (although they are not really a single branched ray). In fishes where the last two rays are not closely placed at the base, the rays are usually both counted. However some authors again count the last two rays as one. In some studies, only the branched rays of the dorsal fin are counted. It may readily be seen that if published counts are to be of use to others the method of counting should be stated. Dorsal fin spines, when present, are usually enumerated separately from soft or branched rays. The dorsal fin may be comprised of two connected parts, spiny and soft, counted separately, or there may be two dorsal fins, the first spiny.

dorsal rib = epipleural bone (rib) (one of a series of bones found in the horizontal septum (separating the upper and lower muscle masses of the body - epaxials and hypaxials). Epipleural ribs may be associated with the anterior pleural ribs, e.g. in Perca or the vertebra, e.g. in Gobiidae. Also called intermuscular bone).

dorsal stripe = the longitudinal arrangement of melanophores found along the dorsal side of the embryo underlying the median fin fold. The melanophores are in the midline of the anterior trunk and tail and are in two rows in the head and posterior trunk.

dorsel = a pannier in which fish were carried on horses (obsolete).

dorsicrania = plural of dorsicranium.

dorsicranium (plural dorsicrania) = a collective term for the endochondral and membrane bones of the dorsal skull region.

dorsohyal = dorsal hypohyal (see hyoid arch).

dorsolateral = between the back and the middle of the side, the upper area of the side.

dorsonasal photophore = light organ above the nasal aperture in front of the eye in Myctophidae. Abbreviated as Dn.

dorsotype = a joke name in nomenclature for a type specimen mounted in such a way that only its dorsal surface is visible for study.

dorsum = the back or upper surface.

dory = a small, flat-bottomed, flared side and open but very stable rowboat often used in trolling and jigging. In Atlantic Canada, these 15 foot boats could be stacked on the deck of schooner and easily lowered over the side when the fishing grounds were reached. Two men fished from a dory, which could hold their gear, the catch and some food and water. A small sail could be raised. Each man operated 10 lines in the cod fishery, the lines being 52-55 fathoms long. The lines were connected together to form the trawl, 20 lines long or about one mile in length. Hooks were attached by gangings (branch lines), about 3.5 feet apart for a total of 1800 hooks on each trawl. The trawl was anchored at each end, marked by buoys. When the lines were hauled in by under-running (q.v.), one man removed the fish from the hooks and the other man re-baited them. Four sets would be made in a day. Dories were replaced by automated trawls in the 1960s but are still used inshore and as tenders.

dory banker = the dory used on the Grand Banks, Newfoundland.

dory banking = fishing with dories on the Grand Banks, Newfoundland.

dory boat = a larger form of dory used on the Grand Banks, Newfoundland, equipped with a 3-5 h.p. engine.

dory buff = yellow, the colour dories were often painted.

dory fishing = see dory.

dory hat = a waterproof hat with the brim the same size all around.

dory hook = part of the tackle used to lower a dory into the water and hoist it back onto the ship.

dory jig = a hook forming part of the hoisting tackle. See dory hook.

dory man = a fisherman who used dories.

dory master = the person in charge of the dory while it was away from the main vessel.

dory mate = fishermen who operated a dory together.

dory piggin = a bailing device, shaped like a dustpan, used to remove water from a dory.

dory pin = pegs on the side of a dory to keep the oars from sliding around.

dory schooner = the large vessel carrying dories for the Newfoundland cod fishery.

dory scoop = dory piggin.

dory skipper = the owner of a dory.

dosing pump = a pump which can supply a very slow drip used to add trace elements or make up water lost from evaporation in aquaria. The most common type is a peristaltic pump.

dosse = a pannier in which fish are carried on horseback (Sussex dialect).

dorsel = dosse.

dotting = in angling, the addition of small lead weights (shot) to the line so that only the tip of the float is visible above the water surface.

double bagging = splitting a catch in two when the catch is too heavy to deal with as a single unit.

double beam trawl = two beam trawls towed by one trawler.

double blood knot = a knot used in angling to tie together two pieces of line of similar or dissimilar diameters. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

double codend = two codends joined at the leading edge. Used on rough grounds to reduce the chance of total loss of a catch.

double cropping = having two populations in an aquaculture pond, cropped simultaneously or alternately, one of the crops not necessarily being fish.

double ebb = a tidal ebb current having two maxima of velocity separated by a smaller ebb velocity.

double emarginate = a caudal fin pointed at the end in the mid-line with the margins above and below that point indented.

double fillet = block fillet (a fillet comprising muscle mass from the side of the fish, usually joined at the back or belly. Also called angel fillet, butterfly fillet, etc.).

double flood = a tidal flood current having two maxima of velocity separated by a smaller flood velocity.

double half-hitch = a knot for tying up a boat. Bend the line around a post or through a ring and then pass its end over or under the standing part and up through the loop formed by the turn; doing this twice makes the double half-hitch. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

double haul = a fly cast where the angler quickly pulls and releases the line on both the back cast and the forward cast creating a greater line speed and casting farther or cutting through wind.

double hook = a hook with two points used in trolling.

double linnet = the overlap of netting formed when a cod trap is drawn to the surface (Newfoundland).

double loop clinch knot = a knot used in angling for tying on swivels when trolling. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

double mark = double zone (two rings on an otolith that are close together relative to the size of the calcified stricture and the distance between two annuli. Considered as one annulus).

double mesh = net mesh made with double twine where special strengthening is necessary.

double nail knot = a knot often used in saltwater fly-fishing to join leader sections of the same or slightly different diameter, being less bulky than a blood knot when using heavy leader material. A nail is used to help form the knot. See also nail knot and offset nail knot. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

double naping = cutting through both sides of the body wall of a fish.

double pump = the process employed by fish to move water over the gills for oxygen and waste exchange. The jaw and mouth are lowered and expanded, inhaling water into the oral pump or mouth cavity. Movement outward of the operculum expands the opercular pump or cavity and valves prevent a backflow of water. The two pumps are coordinated to provide a smooth flow of water over the gills.

double rigging = using outriggers to tow 2-4 trawls at once.

double ring = double zone (two rings on an otolith that are close together relative to the size of the calcified stricture and the distance between two annuli. Considered as one annulus).

double stick net = a form of scoop net with netting strung between two sticks and usually operated by one person. Used like a skimming net, q.v.

double surgeon's knot = a knot used to attach a tippet to a leader in fly fishing. A loop is made, a single overhand knot tied, and doubled. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

double taper = a fly line reduced in diameter on both ends; when one end wears out it can be taken off the reel and the other end used. Available in floating and sinking styles and good for short to moderate length casts and for roll casting.

double tide = a high water consisting of two maxima of nearly the same height separated by a relatively small depression, or a low water consisting of two minima separated by a relatively small elevation.

double truncate = a caudal fin pointed at the end in the mid-line with the margins above and below that point straight.

double turl knot = used on large flies or tippets as a single turl knot using synthetic lines tends to creep out because of their smooth finish. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

double zone = two rings on an otolith that are close together relative to the size of the calcified stricture and the distance between two annuli. Considered as one annulus. Also called double ring and double mark.

double-ender = a type of boat used in fishing, having a sharp stern as well as a pointed bow. Fishermen believed that following seas would not swamp such a boat, although this did not always work out in practice. Such boats were hauled up on the beach, e.g. in the Gaspé region on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, and having a pointed stern made them easier to launch though surf. The Gaspé boat, Tancook whaler and Labrador boat are of this type.

double-frozen = fish frozen at sea then thawed for processing onshore and then re-frozen. Also called twice-frozen or refrozen.

double-layered spiral = a material made by rolling up a polyester pad and plastic wire mesh. It is used in both biological and mechanical filters in aquaria.

doubtful name = nomen dubium.

dough = doach.

dour = reluctance of fish to bite (Scottish dialect).

douse the killick = lowering an anchor with float attached to indicate occupancy of a particular fishing ground (Newfoundland). See also throw away one's grapnel.

douser = a device used to drive fish in a desired direction by thrashing the water (Newfoundland). See also dasher, thrasher and trouncer. A douser was a twelve or fourteen inch bolt of iron with four iron rings fastened through the bolt at three or four inch intervals. Dousers were bounced off the ocean floor to drive cod into the bag of a seine. Often, four or five douser were used at a time.

Dover cut = American cut (fish portions or fillets with tapering or beveled edges, rather than square-cut sides).

Dover sauce = Berwick sauce (the water in which a salmon has been boiled, served as a sauce).

Dover sole goujons = goujonettes de sole (sole filets baked or fried in bread crumbs and a light batter; the origin of fish sticks, q.v.).

dow = fish that are not fresh or that have been drying for a day or two (Scottish dialect).

dowe = dow.

down = 1) in the Newfoundland fishery, a location further out to sea, e.g. down the shore.

down = 2) in the Newfoundland fishery, describes the direction north so any place to the north of a particular location is down from it, e.g. down on the Labrador, down north.

downer = a steelhead salmon returning to the ocean. Also called snake.

downrigger = 1) a metal structure resembling an oversized fishing rod mounted on a boat and capable of being raised and lowered. Used to present lures in deep water on tight lines.

downrigger = 2) an electric or hand-powered winch used to lower a wire line with a cannonball (heavy weight) to a selected depth; a fishing line from a separate rod and reel is attached with a quick release clip. When a fish is hooked, the fishing line is released from the downrigger mainline so the fish can be played on tackle without a weight.

downrigger ball = a cannonball-shaped device with a fin used to keep a trolled bait far beneath the boat.

downriver = kelt (a spawned out or spent Salmo salar or other salmonid up until the time it enters salt water. A name used in British Columbia. Also called dropback).

downrunner = a fish returning to sea after spawning, e.g. American shad, Alosa sapidissima.

downshotting = dropshotting.

downstream = in the direction of water flow.

downstream angler harvest = that portion of a watershed's harvest that is taken downstream of the watershed.

downstream drift = allowing a fly to drift past the angler and rise to the surface downstream.

downwelling = a downward movement of surface water caused by onshore transport, converging currents, or dense water overlying less dense water. May carry fish to lower depths.

drab = a colour description of fish or body parts, meaning dull grey to yellowish brown, light olive brown or khaki, or faded and dull.

draft = 1) an old measure of dried, salt cod for sale, two quintals or 224 lbs or 101.6 kg. Also called draught.

draft = 2) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for eels.

draft barrow = 1) a flat, rectangular wooden frame with handles at each end for two men to carry dried cod (Newfoundland).

draft barrow = 2) a draft barrow frame used in weighing fish (Newfoundland).

draft netting = encircling fish with a net deployed from shore by a boat and then hauled into shore. Use to catch salmon in estuaries, especially in Ireland.

drag = 1) a device in the mechanism of fishing reels that puts pressure on the line as it is pulled off the reel, allowing a hooked fish to pull line without breaking it, and to restrain a running fish. Also called slipping clutch.

drag = 2) movement of an artificial fly at a rate different from the water current causing the line to form a v-shape at the surface and discouraging fish from biting.

drag = 3) to pull fishing gear through the water.

drag net = pull net (any net where fish are caught by horizontal dragging, e.g. seine, trawl, scoop net).

drag seine = beach seine (a net used to encircle fish in shallow water; usually operated by two people wading out from shore, the net has lead weights to keep the bottom on the sea floor and floats to keep the top of the net at or near the surface; there may be a bag extending back from the centre of the nets length to increase capture efficiency. The seine may be set from a boat but hauled in from the land. Also called shore seine, draw net, haul seine, yard seine and sweep net).

dragger = a trawler, a fishing boat that uses a trawl net or drag net to catch fish. Of varying sizes with a small crew of about three to eight people. The trawl is usually worked from the starboard side from winches geared to the main engine of the vessel.

dragger trawl = otter trawl (a towed net that strains demersal fish out of the water. Rectangular otter boards of wood or steel on the tow ropes plane through the water and help keep the mouth open and give the trawl its name; floats on the headrope and weights on the ground line also assist in this).

dragging = the operation of a trawl (a bag-shaped net towed behind a ship either along the sea floor or in midwater, having a buoyed head rope and a weighted foot rope to keep the net mouth open).

dragman = a fisherman who fished by dragging a net along the bottom of the water (archaic).

dragnet = drag net.

drail = 1) a heavy, boomerang-shaped lead weight with a ring at each end used as a keel when fishing in deep water.

drail = 2) a heavily-weighted hook and line used for dragging in deep water.

drailing = 1) trolling for mackerel with hook and line while under sail.

drailing = 2) drunk emailing.

drain = a ditch allowing improved drainage from fields, either artificially constructed or a modified natural watercourse. Often a habitat for fishes. Drains may also be a closed system of tiles buried in the ground.

drain box = monk (a weir structure used to regulate water depth in a pond with a screen to retain fish).

drain channel = a system for draining water; often a habitat for fishes either temp or permanently.

drain water = water drained off, especially by an artificial drainage system.

drain-bulk = a stage in the curing of cod in Newfoundland in which the split and salted fish are laid in piles to drain before being moved to the flake (q.v.) to dry.

drainable pond = a pond from which the water can be taken out. Includes any ponds or lakes.

drainage basin = the total surface land area drained by a stream or river; often used in the sense of the water bodies in the basin. Not a watershed which is strictly an elevated boundary area separating tributaries draining to different river systems.

drainage ditch = drain channel.

drainage lake = a lake fed primarily by streams and with outlets into streams. Such a lake has a shorter residence time than a seepage lake and is more subject to surface runoff problems.

drainage system = several types of drainage system for rivers are recognised, namely annular, dendritic, deranged, parallel, rectangular and trellis (all q.v.).

draining = draining surplus brine from a brined fish by leaving the fish hanging. Also called dripping.

draught = 1) draft.

draught = 2) a catch of fish in one drawing or pulling in of a net.

draught = 3) the act of drawing in fish.

draught = 4) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for fishes.

draught = 5) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for salmon.

draught bar = draught barrow.

draught barrow = a flat wooden barrow with handles for two people, used mainly for carrying dried fish in Newfoundland, slightly larger and stronger than a hand barrow for carrying a draught (two quintals) of dried fish and was used mainly on mercantile premises. Also called draught bar.

draught of fish = a haul of fish.

drave = a shoal of fish (archaic).

draven = decomposed, rotten or decayed fish (Scottish dialect). Also spelled dravin.

dravin = draven.

draw = 1) a tributary valley or gully, shallower than a gorge, and usually having water only after rain. Not usually a fish habitat.

draw = 2) to haul in a fishing net.

draw = 3) the selection by lot of a fishing location in the inshore fishery of Newfoundland.

draw = 4) to take fish out of pickle preparatory to washing and drying (Scottish dialect).

draw = 5) to catch fish with a handline.

draw net = beach seine, q.v., or a trawl, q.v.

drawdown = the release of water from the reservoir of a dam for power generation, flood control, irrigation or other water management activity. Also the vertical distance the water is lowered or the reduction in the pressure head. Often with deleterious consequences for fish both within the reservoir and downstream.

drawdown zone = the shore zone between full and lower levels in a reservoir.

drawing a red herring across the path = trying to divert attention from the main question by some side-issue. Derived from the use of a red herring drawn across a fox’s path, destroying the scent and leading the hounds astray.

drawing twine = the small mesh of the bunt in a cod trap where the fish collect when the trap is hauled to the surface (Newfoundland). See also drying twine, drawing up area and drying up area.

drawing up area = drawing twine.

drawn = eviscerated. Drawn fish may still need to be scaled.

dream fish = a Kyphosus species (Kyphosidae) of Norfolk Island, hallucinogenic if eaten because of dimethyltryptamine content.

dreams of fish = a dream seeing fish in clear-water stream shows favour from the rich and powerful; dead fish signifies loss of wealth and power through some disaster; eating fish denotes warm and lasting attachments; a dream of catching a catfish that evil designs of enemies will embarrass you but you luck and presence of mind will prevail; wading in water catching fish means wealth will be attained by your own ability and enterprise; etc.

dredge barrow = barrow (a flat, rectangular wooden frame with handles at each corner, made for two men to carry cod. Also called fish barrow and drudge).

dredge net = a net with a solid frame opening and a raking lower edge to the mouth, the net trailing behind. Also called shank net.

dredging = 1) the removal of material from the bottom of water bodies using a scooping machine. This disturbs the ecosystem and causes silting that can kill fish.

dredging = 2) retrieving a crankbait such that it digs into the bottom, stimulating strikes by fish.

dress = the process of dressing (1).

dress gang = the group on a fishing vessel responsible for cleaning, dressing and salting fish.

dress-out percentage = the percentage weight of the whole fish remaining after removal of the viscera, and sometimes also the head and tail as well.

dressed = 1) a fish with viscera, head and tail removed (some fish may have the tail on) but with skin and bone retained. Some dressed fish may have scales removed. A kitchen-ready fish. See also dressing.

dressed = 2) a lure or jig with feathers, fur, plastic or other additions meant to attract fish.

dressed green fish = split fish ready for washing and salting (North America).

dressed or dressing weight = the weight of a dressed fish, q.v. Fish are usually dressed at sea. Abbreviated as DWT.

dressing = the process of preparing fish and game for eating. Fifteenth century words no longer in use for fish include:-

bined = sole,

chined = salmon,

gobbetted = trout,

sauced = tench,

sided = haddock,

splated = pike,

splaved = bream,

trouchened = eel, and

tusied = barbel.

drew = 1) in knitting or making a fish net, a certain number of meshes formed in a row.

drew = 2) a quantity of dried and salted cod equal to the length of a storage pound.

dribble = a very small, barely continuous stream (Newfoundland).

driddle = dribble.

dried fish = fish preserved with a water content less than 25% (no bacterial growth) and 15% (no mould growth).

dried salted fish = fish preserved by salting and drying. Works best with non-fatty fish.

dried-up pond = a pond from which water can be totally removed, leaving the bottom available for cultivation, thus making the pond more fertile when refilled.

drier = fish flake (a rack on which fish are dried, often of spruce boughs on a framework of poles in North America).

drift = 1) to be carried along by water currents.

drift = 2) displacement by currents of invertebrates and plant material which is seized on by fish as food drift organisms.

drift = 3) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for fishes.

drift anchor = an anchor in the water column like a kite that slows the movement of an angler's boat through a fishing area.

drift bay = drift anchor.

drift boat = a river fishing boat with a flat bottom, rigid hull and upswept prow about 14-18 feet long. Also called a Mackenzie River dory.

drift castnet = a castnet in which half is lowered into the water from a boat, the other half resting on the gunwhale. The boat drifts with the current which keeps the net open. When the fisherman feels a fish touch the net through the vibration of a rope attached to his foot, he releases his hold on the net so it falls to the river bottom, trapping the fish.

drift current = a broad and shallow, slow-moving current in a lake or the ocean.

drift fish = drift food.

drift fishing = 1) using a series of gill nets which are allowed to drift in the open ocean.

drift fishing = 2) angling from a boat allowed to move with the current, wind or tide.

drift fishing = 3) casting a weighted bait upstream and allowing it to drift downstream. The weight and bait bounce along the bottom.

drift food = fish washed up on shore, e.g. capelin (Mallotus villosus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in Iceland where they drift-fish rights (q.v.) existed.

drift gill net = drift net.

drift line = drifting longline.

drift maker = a person who made drift nets (archaic).

drift net = an unanchored gill net floating free with water currents or attached to a boat. Lost drift nets continue to catch and kill fish and marine mammals (called "walls of death") and large ones (50 km large scale pelagic driftnets) have been curtailed or banned on the high seas since 1991 by the Wellington Driftnet Convention and the 1993 UN General Assembly moratorium on large-scale drift nets. Also called drift gill net.

drift of fish = a concentration of cod (Newfoundland).

drift sinker = a lead weight that is attached to a fishing line and drifted, dragged or retrieved across the bottom. Available in various patterns.

drift sock = a large, sock-shaped, drift anchor.

drift-fish right = the allocation of the right to collect fish washed on shore, e.g. in 12 century Iceland where this fishery was crucial to survival in late winter when food supplies ran low and sea fishing was not possible because of the adverse weather conditions.

driftage = material that has been carried or deposited by a water current.

drifter = a vessel fishing with drift nets.

driftfood = drift food.

drifting fish aggregating device = natural or artificial free-drifting objects that attract pelagic fishes, such as tunas. Natural ones are logs and branches and objects of human origin such as oil drums and buoys. Artificial ones are deliberately constructed, such as bamboo rafts with purse-seine corks to aid in flotation and strength and with netting hanging down to act both as a drift anchor and as a concealment for smaller fishes. Artificial devices can have a radio or satellite-linked transmitting buoy so it can be located by fishers.

drifting longline = a longline kept near the surface or at a certain depth by means of regularly spaced floats. Drifting longlines may be of considerable length, and the snoods are usually longer and more widely spaced than for the bottom longlines. Some drifting longlines are set vertically, each line hanging from a float at the surface. They are usually worked in groups of several lines operated by a single boat. Also called drift line.

driftophagy = feeding on drift, e.g. Salmonidae.

drilled bobbin = a light-weight, hollow bobbin on the footrope of a bottom trawl with holes to allow flooding. Also called alloy bobbin.

drilling = mixing fish and salt by stirring in a trough so as to better incorporate the salt with the blood and juices (Scottish dialect).

drink like a fish = to drink too much alcohol.

drip = shrink (loss of weight in fish due to fluids draining from the food product. Also called purge).

drip bag = a device allowing the slow drip of pogey oil (q.v.) from a boat to attract fish.

drip incubator = an incubator used for water-hardened trout eggs where water drips from one tray to the next.

drip loss = liquid exuding from fish flesh when thawed.

dripping = draining surplus brine from a brined fish by leaving the fish hanging before smoking. Also called draining.

drive-in fishery = a net set usually in rocky or reef areas where active gear cannot be used, and/or where fish numbers entering passive nets is low, or where fish captured by a passive net would soon die as in tropical waters. Fish are driven into the net by various means such as beating the water with poles or using frightening lines (q.v.).

drive-in net = a lift net or pouch net into which fish are scared, often using a scaring line.

droch = droke.

drogue = 1) the British term for the American sea anchor, namely a drag, usually a canvas-covered conical frame, floating behind a vessel to prevent drifting or to maintain a heading into the wind.

drogue = 2) droke.

droke = a steep-sided valley with a small stream (Newfoundland). Also spelled droch, drogue (2) and drook.

dromous = running in a direction, used with prefixes for describing fish migratory habits, e.g. anadromous, catadromous.

droo = drew (1 and 2).

drook = droke.

drop back indicator = a device to detect a hooked fish swimming towards the angler - normally the line goes slack and the movement cannot be detected. The indicator can be electronic with a beeping alarm or a simple clip. The indicator is positioned on the rear bank stick and a free hanging open clip is hooked onto the line between the reel and the first rod guide. A fish swimming away from the angler pulls the clip up while one swimming towards the angler will cause the clip to drop down.

drop line = a handline used without a rod for catching fish.

drop loop = a high strength knot forming a loop off the main fishing line used to attach sinkers. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

drop shot = a hook tied directly to the fishing line from a few centimetres to a metre or more above the sinker. The hook is tied such that it is at a 90° angle to the line with the hook point up.

drop-net = 1) a net that catches fish by dropping, without being cast.

drop-net = 2) a modified fyke net used in winter.

drop-off = a rapid increase in water depth, an underwater precipice.

dropback = kelt (a spawned out or spent Salmo salar or other salmonid up until the time it enters salt water. A name used in British Columbia. Also called downriver).

dropline = a deepwater fishing method involving the use of a weighted vertical line bearing rows of baited hooks, operated by hand or by a mechanical device.

dropout = fish that fall out of a net while it is in the water or while it is being hauled in. The fish are often injured or dead and may be numerous.

dropper line = a short branch line from the main fishing line carrying hook and bait.

dropper loop = the knot forming a dropper line. A loop is formed above the sinker, standing out at right angles to the line. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

dropper shot = in angling, small lead weights spread out along the line between the hook and the float or hook and the bulk shot. They serve in bite detection as the float is very sensitive to any movement of the hook and bait.

dropshotting = a hook is tied on a line with a Palomar knot, the line looped through the eye from the top and, instead of being trimmed off, a section 6-24 inches long is left with a weight at the end. Looping the line through the eye leaves the hook point up. Also called downshotting.

dropsy = a swelling of the fish's body usually caused by bacterial infection, and also by viral infection, osmoregulatory problems, a flagellate protozoan (Hexamita), aggravated by poor environmental conditions. Serous fluid accumulates in any body cavity. Other symptoms are lethargy, gasping, increased respiration, colour loss, skin ulceration and exophthalmia. Also called pinecone disease and vertical scale disease because the scales stick out, and ascites.

drought = 1) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for fishes.

drought = 2) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for a catch of fish.

drouth = to dry as in fish curing (Scottish dialect from English drought).

drown a fish = 1) a French expression (noyer le poisson) occasionally seen in English, meaning to argue over and over about a subject in order to confuse the listener; to hide, dilute or cloud the truth.

drown a fish = 2) in angling, to bring a fish to the surface so its head emerges in order to tire it out for capture.

drowned = losing control of a fishing line so that is it is extended in a long curve, making it difficult to pull in a hooked fish (Scottish dialect).

drowned fish = dead fish; used of food fish discarded as unsuitable for sale.

drowned river = a former river inundated by a rise in sea level, now an estuary or covered by the sea.

drudge = 1) a drag-net used in fishing (Newfoundland).

drudge = 2) to catch herring (Newfoundland).

drudge = 3) to sprinkle salt on herring as a preservative (Newfoundland).

drudge bar = drudge barrow.

drudge barrow = barrow (a flat, rectangular wooden frame with handles at each corner, made for two men to carry cod. Also called fish barrow).

drug residues = in food inspection, residues of therapeutic drugs used during the rearing of farmed fish.

drum = 1) a fixed net, similar to a fyke net (q.v.) except that there is only one funnel leading to the codend and there are usually two wings. The net is usually checked several times a day by pulling up the drum section of the trap and emptying the fish from the codend.

drum = 2) a member of the drum of croaker family (Sciaenidae), named for the use of the swimbladder as a drum or resonating chamber to produce sound by the action of drumming muscles.

drum = 3) a cylindrical wooden container in which dried and salted cod from Newfoundland were packed for export to South America.

drum = 4) to pack dried and salted cod into a drum (Newfoundland).

drum = 5) a quantity of fish packed in a drum (Newfoundland).

drum fish = the quality of fish prepared for the South American market (Newfoundland).

drum gravity trap = gravity trap (a weighted cylinder that falls down and traps any fish pulling on a bait attached to a trigger mechanism).

drum muscle = one of the muscles attached to the gas bladder which makes the contained gas vibrate and emit a drumming sound. In pimelodid catfishes, for example, a muscle originates on the parapophyses of the 4 vertebra and sometimes too from the neurocranium and inserts on the ventro- and ventro-lateral surfaces of the gas bladder. Fish with drumming muscles also have a tensor tripodis, q.v., to reduce sound conduction to the inner ear See also drum, elastic spring mechanism and protractor post-temporalis mechanism.

drumming muscle = drum muscle.

drum seining = purse seining with shallow nets stored on, and paid out from, a powered drum at the stern of the vessel.

drum trap = a small fish trap in the shape of a cylindrical drum with entrance funnels, about 30 cm in diameter, made of local materials such as bamboo.

drum trawling = a trawl is paid out from a powered drum at the vessel stern.

drunk = it is illegal to get a fish drunk in Ohio according to state law.

drunk as a fish = very drunk.

drusel = to sprinkle salt on fish to keep them fresh while they are being gutted (Shetland Isles dialect).

dry = 1) the exposure of a split and gutted cod to sun and wind as part of a curing process. The process reduces natural moisture content.

dry = 2) try (to drain fish livers for oil).

dry bulk = dried and salted cod stacked in layers.

dry bundh = a shallow, seasonal depression bounded on three sides by embankments which captures monsoonal rain water.

dry caviar = caviar prepared in such a way that the eggs can be separated easily.

dry cure = to preserve cod by light applications of salt and through exposure to sun and wind.

dry curing = curing of fish by adding salt crystals.

dry deposition = a form of acid deposition (the addition of acidic material to the ground or water, usually from sulphur and nitrogen compounds emitted by factories and deposited far from this source, resulting from particle fallout or acidic gases. Wet deposition is also called acid rain, q.v., and is the result of rain, snow or fog).

dry fish = cod preserved by exposure to sun and wind after application of salt.

dry fly = a lure imitating an insect that floats on the water surface.

dry fly floatant = a chemical in aerosol, liquid or paste form applied to a dry fly to waterproof it.

dry off = to dry salted fish by exposure to the sun.

dry pile = split and salted cod placed in a stack towards the end of the curing process.

dry rack = any structure for suspending fish fillets for drying and curing.

dry ration = air dried food made into particles suitable for feeding fish.

dry salted fish = fish cured by stacking split fish between layers of salt so that they drain freely. Used particularly with non-fatty fishes.

dry salting = salting (flavouring fish by rubbing in salt or by immersing the fish in brine for a short time before further processing such as smoking or canning. Also called salting or brining).

dry wash = a drainage channel in an arid region usually dry except after a storm or spring runoff.

drying = the removal of moisture from fish by evaporation as a means of preservation; see dried fish. May be natural, taking place in the open air or over wood fires, or technological involving vacuum or freeze drying, for example. Often used in combination with salting and smoking.

drying beach = that part of a beach uncovered by water. Also called subaerial beach.

drying flake = an outdoor platform or rack for drying fish, q.v.

drying stage = a shed near the shore or built out over the water for landing, cleaning, salting and storing fish.

drying twine = drawing twine.

drying up area = drawing twine.

DS = abbreviation for dissolved solids (very small pieces of organic and inorganic material contained in water. Excessive amounts make water less habitable for fish, unfit to drink or limit its use in industrial processes).

DSL = abbreviation for deep scattering layer.

dual fin otter board = an otter board developed in British Columbia for midwater trawling using plywood sections to spread the trawl mouth.

dual purpose trawl = a trawl designed to fish on, and just off, the bottom.

dual purpose vessel = a vessel equipped to fish with two types of gear, e.g. seine and drift nets.

dubbing = fly tying material (strands of fur, plastic fibres, wool) wrapped onto a thread using wax and wrapped around the shank of a hook to imitate the abdomen and/or thorax of a fly.

dubbing rake = a tool used to tease out dubbing to give it an enlarged appearance.

dubiotype = incognitotype (an unofficial term in nomenclature for a type whose labels have been lost).

dubious name = a name having uncertain application because it is impossible to establish the taxon to which it should be referred (nomen dubium).

Dubisch method = the design and construction of a Dubisch pond, named for its inventor.

Dubisch pond = a pond specially designed for spawning carp, which favour vegetation for egg deposition. Grass is grown to a height of about 40 cm on the pond bottom before water is added to the tip of the grass, and the spawning fish are introduced. A deep trench around the pond is where parental fish are kept.

Duchess Ann = a trout, named after the 17th century Ann, Duchess of Hamilton, who imported it from England to the Clyde River in Scotland. It is silvery, with bright scarlet spots and and grows to a large size.

duckbilled = a descriptive term for a snout that is shaped like a duck's bill, flattened and often concave in the upper outline, e.g. in the gobiid Anatirostrum profundorum or the pike Esox lucius.

ducotype = a joke name in nomenclature for a type with head of one species affixed to the body of another. Also called gluotype.

duct = any tube-like structure.

duct of Cuvier = the common cardinal vein. The anterior cardinal vein returns blood from the head and the posterior cardinal vein from the trunk, joining together as the common cardinal vein (also called incorrectly the vitelline vein). The jugular vein from the lower jaw also empties into the common cardinal vein. The two common cardinal veins empty into the sinus venosus, q.v.

ductus communis = the tube into which several gill pouches open and which communicates with the exterior, e.g. in Myxinidae.

ductus Cuvieri = duct of Cuvier.

ductus endolymphaticus = a tube (endolymphatic duct) from the utriculus in the inner ear opening on the dorsal surface of the head in Elasmobranchii and terminating in the endolymphatic sinus in Teleostomi.

ductus pneumaticus = a tube connecting the pharynx to the gas bladder; pneumatic duct.

ductus semicirculares = semicircular ear canal (fluid-filled canals embedded in the cranium and concerned with balance and hearing. Gnathostomata have 3 canals, lampreys have 2 (lacking a horizontal canal) and hagfishes have only one canal).

duffy = a cod with a rounded or blunt head See also bulldog cod.

Duke's fish = a taboo name for salmon, as these were the property of the landowner, the Duke of Argyll (Scotland).

dull as a fish = very dull or uninteresting; not a condition subscribed to by ichthyologists.

dum(b) fish = dun fish (3).

dumb as a fish = dull as a fish (used by Agatha Christie in her novel "The Secret Adversary", 1922).

dumb line = one of the ropes used to raise the cod trap door before the trap is hauled to the surface.

dumb string = end rope (a line connecting the end of the first or last section of a longline backrope or string to the dan line (all q.v.). Also called back of line, longline, dummy, end tow, lud tow and spreadline).

dumber than goldfish = dolphins; much of the large dolphin (and whale) brain is for insulation in cold water (Globe and Mail, 17 August 2006).

dummy = 1) the towpost amidships to which the warp is attached by a stopper when towing the trawl.

dummy = 2) end rope (a line connecting the end of the first or last section of a longline backrope or string to the dan line (all q.v.). Also called back of line, dumb string, longline, end tow, lud tow and spreadline.

dummy rock = a pierced rock attached to a longline to keep it down when fished from a dory (Canada).

dummy run = a partial migration of immature fish to spawning grounds, e.g. in some cod populations.

dumping = deliberate disposal of a catch that normally would be landed for sale. Fish are dumped because of quota closures, market saturation and high-grading, q.v.

dumpling = fish ball (fish don't have balls but are sometimes made into them. A ball of shredded white fish or cod and mashed potatoes, flour or other binding material, usually fried. Also called fish dumpling. See also catfish ball and ball).

dun = 1) an aquatic insect that has just emerged from the water and can fly.

dun = 2) a greyish or grey-blue colour in the wings of mayfly adults. Both terms are used in fly fishing as characters to imitate in making artificial flies.

dun = 3) a measure of the presence of the mould Sporendonema in commercial preparations of fish. Ranges from slight (barely visible) to moderate (less than 25% of the surface area).

dun = 4) a cure by slack salting (q.v.) of cod caught early in the spring, and often in February. Fish are laid in a pile for two or three months, in a dark store, covered, for the greatest part of the time, with salt hay or eel-grass, and pressed with some weight. In April or May they are opened and piled as close as possible in the same dark store, till July or August, when they are fit for use (New England).

dun fish = 1) cod with a brown discolouration caused by fungal growth (usually Sporendonema) on dried fish kept in damp conditions, poorly dried or stored.

dun fish = 2) fish prepared by the dun method (see dun (4)).

dun fly = an artificial fly used in angling.

duncan = a half-grown cod (Scottish dialect).

Duncan loop = in fly fishing, a knot used to attach a fly to the leader, leave the fly swinging freely or, if tightened, snug against the knot. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot. Also called a uni knot.

dundie = doondie.

dune pond = a pond or lake resulting from blockage of drainage by sand dunes.

dung worm = a worm or larva found in cow dung and used as bait for catching fish.

dunnage = dinnage.

dunning = dun (4).

duodenal vein = one of several veins draining capillaries of the duodenum adjacent to the gall bladder to the hepatic portal vein.

duodenum = an s-shaped loop of the intestine from the end of the stomach. The intestine continues as a straight section to the anus.

duplotype = 1) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a second holotype for the same taxon.

duplotype = 2) an unofficial term in nomenclature for a single specimen used as the holotype for two different taxa. The later described one is a redundotype.

duration of ebb = the interval in which a tidal current is ebbing, determined from the middle of slack waters.

duration of fall =the interval from high to low water.

duration of flood = the interval in which a tidal current is flooding, determined from the middle of slack waters.

durken = said of fish that stop biting or are disinclined to bite (Scottish dialect).

durophagus = eating hard food such as molluscs, e.g. Chimaeridae.

Dutch aquarium = an aquarium where the plant species are of equal or greater importance than the fish. The plants may be arranged artistically and are the main aesthetic feature.

Dutch cured herring = herring gibbed (gills and intestine removed) and salted at sea and repacked ashore; not limited to the Dutch.

Dutch mess = salt cod and potatoes with browned onions. Garnished with scrunchions (the crunchy bits remaining after pork fat is rendered). Also called house bankin', fish and scrunchions or hugger-in-buff.

DWT = dressed or dressing weight, the weight of a dressed fish.

dyeing = 1) addition of an artificial or natural dye to fish before marketing, e.g. annatto, a yellow vegetable dye used to colour fish before smoking, and amaranth a red dye used in fish roe.

dyeing = 2) addition of an artificial or natural dye to aquarium fish as a marketing ploy. Fluorescent dyes have been injected into glassfishes (Chandidae) and sold as "painted angels" or "disco fish". The painted areas fade and the fish are susceptible to skin lesions and kidney and liver damage, and have a shorter life span than normal specimens.

dyestuff = an indigestible pigment added to feed in aquaculture in order to monitor consumption of that feed through examination of stomach or faecal content.

dyke = dike.

dylox = 0-0-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxy-ethyl phosphonate, an insecticide used in control of parasitic copepods. Also called dipterex and masoten.

dynamic lift = angling of the pectoral fins to create lift, as seen in sharks, which helps maintain position in the water. Requires that the fish keeps swimming.

dynamic pool model = analytical yield-per-recruit types of fisheries models describing how growth, recruitment and mortality interact, resulting in biomass and yields.

dynamite fishing = the use of explosives to kill and stun fish for capture. Used on coral reefs where nets cannot be operated without becoming tangled or ripped. Obviously illegal almost everywhere. Has been used by ichthyologists as a sampling method. Also called blast fishing.

dynnage = dinnage.

dyphyochiry = formation of the pectoral fins in two stages in Soleidae. The first, larval fins degenerate and post-larval fins are formed anew (from the French).

dys- (prefix) = abnormal, bad, insufficient, malfunction, difficult. Opposite of eu-.

dysphotic zone =the area in a water body without enough light for photosynthesis but enough for behavioural responses by the organisms living there (about 80-200+ metres). Also spelled disphotic.

dyssospondylous = referring to vertebrae in Amia, Lepisosteidae and Acipenseridae where the pleurocentrum, intercentrum, basidorsal, basiventral, interdorsal and interventral all ossify but remain independent in the embryonic and juvenile stages. Some elements fuse later and form vertebrae with two centra in the caudal region and typical vertebrae anteriorly.

dyssospondyly = the condition of a dyssopondylous vertebra.

dystrophic = 1) a type of lake in cold climates with low productivity, limited photosynthesis, scarce phytoplankton, carbon dioxide high and with hypolimnion oxygen depleted. Calcium, phosphorous and nitrogen scanty. Basin deep to shallow, found in boggy areas or mountains, with yellow to brown colour and fairly abundant littoral vegetation. Generally transforms into a peat bog as organic materials accumulate because of only partial decomposition. Also used to refer to species inhabiting such lakes.

dystrophic = 2) pertaining to caves mostly supplied with vegetal matter during floods.

dystrophy = the dystrophic condition.

dz = doppel zentner (100 kg).

E

E = abbreviation for exploitation rate (the proportion of a population at the beginning of a given time period that is caught during that time period (usually on a yearly basis). Also the ratio of fish caught to total mortality (= F/Z when fishing and natural mortality take place concurrently (Ricker, 1975)). Also called rate of exploitation).

e- = prefix meaning not or without.

e-mail fish = <><

e.g. = abbreviation for examplia gratia, meaning for example.

e.p. = abbreviation for ex parte, meaning in part, partly.

e-type = a digital image of a holotype (Gewin, 2002).

EA = abbreviation for enterprise allocation, q.v.

Ea = a Sumerian fish god living in a submarine palace. Usually depicted as a man covered with a fish skin. Ea brought culture to mankind from the sea. See also apkallu fish and Enki.

eagle claw hook = a hook with the point curved inward in line with the eye; some varieties are double offset to the left and right.

eagre = bore (a rapid tidal rise in a river that forms an advancing wall of water).

ear = inner ear (the auditory organ lying in the otic capsule, consisting of the semicircular canals, ampullae, utriculus, sacculus, lagena, sinus endolymphaticus and ductus endolymphaticus. Filled with and surrounded by perilymph (or seawater in forms with an endolymphatic duct), containing otoliths (sagitta, astericus and lapillus in teleostomes). Functions as a gravity receptor, acceleration detector and muscle tone regulator. Innervated by cranial nerve VIII).

ear bone = earbone.

ear flap = a flattened, flexible structure extending back from the rear edge of the gill cover (operculum), e.g. in Centrarchidae. May be composed of skin or be supported by an extension of the operculum.

era orgen = a gill cover structure developing in male Kneria (Kneriidae) during the breeding season to grasp the female.

ear sac = branchial sac or gill pouch (the sac containing the gills and communicating with the mouth cavity and with the exterior in Myxini and Petromyzontiformes). Probably meant to be any pouch or sac surrounding the gills in fishes generally.

ear tab = ear flap.

earbone = used for earstone, incorrectly as it is not a bone.

earlier synonym = older synonym (an earlier synonym that cannot be used as the name for the taxon under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature).

early life history = the stages from egg to juvenile in development.

early mortality syndrome = large scale mortalities of introduced salmons in the Great Lakes just before yolk sac absorption. May be due to a vitamin deficiency.

earstone = otolith (a free body in the inner ear used for perception of acceleration including gravity. Composed of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate, with up to 10% otolin, a protein. The lapillus lies in the utricle, the sagitta in the saccule, and the asteriscus in the lagena. Also called statoliths or ear stones, and incorrectly ear bone. See otoconium, marginaria and jewellery).

earth pond = earthern pond.

eartheater = taking mouthfuls of substrate with included food items and ejecting the debris, e.g. geophagine Cichlidae.

earthern pond = an aquaculture pond made by excavation or by constructing dykes, usually 10 times longer than wide, with a bottom that may require sealing or lining to prevent water loss. Also called Danish pond.

earthy flavour = a tainted flavour or odour of fish flesh caused by the chemicals geosmin and 2-methylisoborneal released by microorganisms in the water and taken up by fish through their gills. These chemicals have very low detection thresholds, about 1 nanog/l. Found in fresh and brackish water fish as the responsible Cyanobacteria (Anabaena (geosmin) and Oscillatoria (2-methylisoborneal)) do not grow in sea water. Also called muddy flavour.

Eastern Garbage patch = Great Pacific Garbage Patch (a gyre in the central North Pacific Ocean between about 35-42ºN and 135-155ºW, having large amounts of plastic and other garbage trapped by the currents of the North Pacific Gyre. The size of the patch has been estimated at 700,000 km2 to 15 million km2 with perhaps over 100 million tons of debris. A major source of pollution and of plastics ingested by marine organisms as it resembles zooplankton. May form a habitat for fishes in the featureless open ocean. Also known as the Pacific Trash Vortex.

eastern shore boat = a smaller version of the Tamcook boat (q.v.) about 28-32 feet long with a crew of two. Used in Nova Scotia.

eat the rocks = said of cod schooling in large numbers near rocky shores in pursuit of capelin (Newfoundland).

eating fish = salt cod kept for home consumption (Newfoundland).

eating tourism = vacations for the purpose of sampling local foods, e.g. Chinese tourists travelling to areas where popular live reef fish are less expensive such as Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, resulting in a decline in these fish populations.

eats no fish = a trustworthy man; an honest man; not a papist (Protestants in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I refused to eat fish on Fridays to show they were not Catholic).

ebb = 1) a falling or receding tide, a tide between a high water and the succeeding low water. Flow exits an estuary during ebb tide.

ebb = 2) a part of the shore between high and low water marks assigned to individual fishermen (Scottish dialect).

ebb current = the movement of a tidal current away from shore or down a tidal stream.

ebb interval = the interval between the transit of the moon over the meridian of a place and the time of the following strength of ebb.

ebb stel = a fishery involving a stel carried out on an ebb tide.

ebb strength = the ebb current at the time of maximum velocity.

ebb tidal delta = the sand bar formed at the seaward mouth of tidal inlets as a result of the meeting of tidal currents and waves.

ebb tide = ebb. Strictly, a non-technical term.

Ebisu = one of the seven Japanese Gods of Happiness, the protector of fishermen, symbolised by an angling rod and a large fish held in his hand.

ec- (prefix) = out, outside.

eccentric = 1) off centre, deviating from the usual.

eccentric = 2) said of dictionary compilers.

ecdemic = not native; opposite of endemic.

echelon trawl = an experimental form of otter trawl with a large upper wing and paravanes instead of doors. Meant for use in bottom fishing and midwater herring fishing.

echinate = bristly, prickly; roughened by blunt and spiny projections.

echinulate = minutely spiny; covered with small prickles.

echo signature = a unique sonar return or reflection that can be used to identify individual species of fish.

echo sounder = a sonar device that sends a signal to the bottom of a body of water and back. Used to detect fish schools and to map the bottom as an image is displayed on a screen. Used in angling, it is also called a fish finder.

eclosion = the process of hatching from an egg.

eco-label = a label placed on commercial products to indicate that environmentally friendly methods have been used in its capture and preparation.

eco-port = a port that allows ships to discharge waste in an ecologically sustainable manner.

ecocline = gradual and continuous change in environmental conditions of an ecosystem or community.

ecodeme = a population occurring in a specified kind of habitat.

ecological drainage unit = a drainage that differs from adjacent ones in fauna and physiography.

ecological extinction = a fish population where numbers are too few to maintain their role ecologically.

ecological niche = the place of an organism in its biotic environment; the position or function of an organism in a community of plants or animals; anthropomorphically speaking, its occupation. A microhabitat.

ecological resilience = the ability of an ecosystem to absorb change. See also resilience.

ecological reserve = an area zoned to protect the living resources through prevention and prohibition of fishing and the disturbance of the living and non-living resources.

ecological vicar = 1) ecological substitution where one species replaces another geographically and in the niche.

ecological vicar = 2) a member of the clergy with an interest in natural history, e.g. Gilbert White (actually a curate) who wrote the "Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne" (1789).

ecology = the science of the role played by the environment in the life of an organism; the interrelationships between organisms and their environment. It deals with the role of the environment in determining what organisms will be present.

ecomorph = a local population or group whose appearance is determined by ecology, e.g. lake ecomorphs are deeper bodied than river ecomorphs. Not of systematic or taxonomic significance.

economic discard = a fish thrown overboard in a commercial fishery for economic reasons, e.g. too small, damaged, not enough commercially value, etc.

economic efficiency = the point at which the added cost of producing a unit of fish is equal to what buyers pay. Producing fewer fish would bring the cost lower than buyers are paying. Producing more fish would raise the cost higher than buyers are paying. Harvesting at the point of economic efficiency produces the maximum economic yield. A measure of the efficiency of input producing output.

economic overfishing = occurs when a fishery is generating no economic rent (higher than economic efficiency), primarily because an excessive level of fishing effort is applied in the fishery. Does not always imply biological overfishing.

economic production = the catching of a great a quantity of fish of as high a commercial value as possible.

economic rent = the total amount of profit that could be earned from a fishery owned by an individual. Individual ownership maximizes profit, but an open entry policy usually results in so many fishermen that profit higher than opportunity cost is zero.

economic zone = exclusive economic zone, q.v.

economically healthy fishery = a fishery that supports the fishers, their gear and the improvement of gear and techniques.

ecophenotype = a phenotype showing adaptations associated with the habitat or environment that are not genetic.

ecospecies = a group of related ecotypes that exchange genes without loss of fertility; roughly the same as a taxonomic species.

ecosystem = the complex of living organisms and environmental conditions that function as a unit. Biocenosis plus biotope.

ecosystem overfishing = occurs when the species composition and dominance is significantly modified by fishing, e.g. with reductions of large, long-lived, demersal predators and increases of small, short-lived species at lower trophic levels.

ecotone = the boundary or transition area between two or more habitats or communities.

ecotope = the abiotic or non-living part of an ecosystem.

ecotype = a population adapted to a restricted habitat as a result of natural selection within a local environment. Nothing to do with taxonomy.

ectad = outwards, towards the exterior.

ectethmoid = parethmoid (a paired deep bone lying in the front of the orbit under the prefrontal).

ecto- (prefix) = outside, outer, external.

ectocommensal = a commensal that lives on the surface of the host.

ectocoracoid = a paired dermal bone in Gasterosteiformes connected with the coracoid and extending posteriorly. Has also been applied to the element below the scapula and applied to the coracoid in Dipnoi.

ectogenic meromixis = the mixing of lake water as a result of some outside agency, e.g. influx of saline water.

-ectomy = surgical removal, e.g. ovariectomy, removal of the ovaries.

ectoparasite = an external parasite, on fishes often lice or leeches. Also includes parasites found in the gill cavity.

ectopterygoid = a paired, deep, dermal bone forming part of the roof of the mouth, articulating anteriorly with the palatine, posteriorly with the quadrate and mesially with the endopterygoid if the latter is present. In Amia it has one or two rows of teeth. Sometimes called pterygoid when there is no endopterygoid.

ectotherm = an organism with a body temperature determined by the environment; poikilotherm; cold-blooded.

eddy = a circular movement of water where currents flow counter to each other or pass obstructions.

edema = a swelling; abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the interfibrillar spaces of connective tissue. Also spelled oedema.

edentate = toothless.

edentulate = toothless.

edentulous = toothless.

edge = a term for a change in the structure, conditions or vegetation in a lake or other water body. Edges can be weed lines, drop-offs, temperature areas, water clarity, current, etc. Fish are often found at such edges, actively feeding.

edge type = a deposition found on the outer edge of a scale, otolith or other ageing structure representing the most recent growth.

edible fish = fish than can be eaten; suitable as food, usually in the commercial sense.

edible weight = the weight of a fish after removal of bones, guts, etc.

edition = all the copies of a publication printed at the same time (but not an unaltered reprint). A later edition is a separate and later printing with or without changes in the text.

eDNA = environmental DNA. Used to record, e.g. a fish species, in a habitat without actual capture of the fish itself but detection of DNA from scales, slime or faeces. Silver carp, a destructive exotic, was detected in Lake Michigan in May 2013 by this method but still needs confirmation of actual fish presence (as of January 2014). Contaminated boats and faeces from birds having eaten the fish elsewhere could also account for the presence of eDNA.

education collection = a group of museum specimens for use in an educational programme. These may have fewer restrictions on handling than most museum specimens, may not be catalogued in the permanent collection of the museum and may be discarded when damaged or no longer required.

eel = 1) a general tem for any fish with an elongate body. Strictly, a member of the Order Anguilliformes with over 790 species world-wide, mostly in shallow marine waters. Most terms mentioning eels in English are referring to Anguilla anguilla, the European eel, and sometimes to Anguilla rostrata, the American eel. Lamprey-eel is a mis-nomer as lampreys are not eels. Lampreys (Petromyzontidae) are sometimes referred to as eel-shaped but eels could more correctly be termed lamprey-shaped on an evolutionary basis.

eel = 2) to fish for eels.

eel = 3) to move sinuously like an eel.

eel = 4) a Japanese flavour of ice cream, made with many others in response to a hot summer in 2004. See also saury and brandy, and shark fin and noodle.

eel = 5) nickname for a New Englander.

Eel (The) = a poem by the Italian Eugenio Montale, beginning:- "The eel, the siren of freezing oceans, who leaves the Baltic to reach our seas, our estuaries, the rivers.....".

eel and onion pie = an Elizabethan recipe involving 2 lbs of de-boned eel, onions, lemon juice, raisins, milk, salt, pepper, ginger, butter and pastry.

eel ark = a device or trap for catching eels (Scottish dialect).

eel ascending ramp = part of an eel ladder, this ramp has structures against which the eels can push to ascend. The ramp may be simply a hollowed out tree filled with old fish nets or a commercial product made of plastic with an undulating surface and studs.

eel basket = a basket trap, q.v., for catching eels.

eel bed = 1) a pond for eels.

eel bed = 2) a swampy bivouac.

eel blobbing = catching eels with eel spears.

eel bob = a special bait, or bob made to catch eels by bobbing, q.v.

eel buck = a large basket used to catch eels. Also called buck.

eel catcher = a fisherman specialising in eels, e.g. in the English fens using baited willow traps.

eel comb = eel rake.

eel drowner = a clever person as they can perform the impossible; used ironically and negatively (Scottish dialect).

eel fare = 1) the passage of young eels upstream.

eel fare = 2) a brood of eels.

eel Florentine = a dish made of skinned and headed eels, cut into pieces, sprinkled with salt, pepper and olive oil, refrigerated for two hours, then coated with bread crumbs, oil is heated in a casserole, garlic is sauteed, sage and eel pieces are added in a single layer, and baked at 350ºF for 40 minutes.

eel fork = an Asian hooked device with one or two sharp prongs thrust into mud to catch eels, the fisherman being on foot or operating from a boat.

eel fraud = eels are a popular delicacy in Japan and every summer newspapers there carry reports of fraudulent products attempting to cash in on the demand.

eel fyke net = a fyke net (q.v.) designed to catch eels (Anguilla spp.).

Eel Girl = a 2008 horror and science fiction film involving a human woman and eel hybrid who takes revenge on one of the scientists studying her.

eel graip = a small fork used for digging up or spearing sandeels (Scottish dialect). in on the demand.

eel grate = 1) a kind of trap placed in a mill race to catch eels (English dialect).

eel grate = 2) catching eels with a spiked pole or stang.

eel hive = a willow basket used in the Fens of eastern England to trap eels. Baited with a dead bird, rodent or rotten meat.

eel hook = eel fork.

eel killing = eel pulling.

eel knife = a knife specialised for splitting an eel lengthwise.

eel ladder = a fish ladder designed to help eels over dams and weirs. A substrate is provided for the eels to push against when slithering upstream. A fish elevator may be part of the process at high dams. See also eel ascending ramp.

eel leap = a wickerwork eel trap.

eel line = a long line with up to a thousand baited hooks used to catch eels.

eel milk = a Yum-e Freeze product "From nature's breasts comes an appetizing and vigorous frozen eel-milk product. It soothes the mouth on a hot day and fills one with strength! Available in male or female" (actually concocted by the U.S. satirical magazine "The Onion" - there are various other products from the Chinese company Yu Wan Mei which specialises in "residual aquatic life" not listed in this Dictionary - broiled shark gum, Super Fish Bladder Treat, E-Z Go Spine Extractor (for fish spines), Multi Flavor Variety Pack of Pickled Fish Cloaca). But see also milk-fed eel.

eel muggie = a fish stomach used as a container for eel fat (Scottish dialect).

eel pick = a form of spear used for catching eels.

eel pie = a pastry pie containing eels. The eels have their head, tail and skin removed, are sliced into segments and placed in the bottom of a pie dish with chopped onion and parsley and seasoned with salt, pepper and nutmeg. A stock may be made by soaking the skinned eels in water with the heads and tails. Eel sauce is then made with melted butter, flour and eel stock, thickened and lemon juice added, before pouring into the pie and serving hot.

Eel Pie and Mash House = eels were a cheap food for Londoners, such as Cockneys, and these houses opened in the eighteenth century with as many as 100 just before the Second World War.

eel pit = a hole or depression where eels hide or congregate.

eel pond = an artificial or natural pond devoted to eels, e.g. the Maori of New Zealand brought eels to ponds where they were fed but were free to leave (eels figure prominently in Maori legends and folklore).

eel pot = a trap to catch eels, usually a basket trap.

eel pulling = a sport in Amsterdam in the nineteenth century. A live eel was suspended from a rope over a canal and people below in boats would try to grab it. The sport was made illegal resulting in the Eel Riot (q.v.).

eel putchon = a baited eel basket, used in spring and summer.

eel rake = a comb or rake-like implement used in eel fishing. Also called eel comb.

eel rhabdovirus = viruses isolated from European and American eels, relationship to each other or to other rhabdoviruses unknown.

Eel Riot = occurred on 25 July 1886 in Amsterdam when the sport of eel pulling (q.v.) was made illegal. About two dozen people died with gunshot wounds from the police and about 80 were wounded.

eel schuit = an eel boat.

eel set = nets set across a stream to capture eels.

eel shot = the first fish caught and gutted on New Year's Day (Scottish dialect).

eel skin = 1) the skin of an eel. See also eelskin, eelskins.

eel skin = 2) a tight-fitting dress or other garment. See also eelskin, eelskins.

eel soda = Unagi Nobori (literally "Surging Eel"), a Japanese product is a fizzy yellow drink containing eel extract and vitamins and is meant "mainly for men who are exhausted by the summer's heat". It tastes similar to broiled eels, a popular summer delicacy. Apparently not another joke from the U.S. satirical magazine "The Onion".

eel spear = a pronged device for spearing eels.

eel tow = a line laid inshore for catching eels for bait (Scottish dialect).

eel tongs = ridged metal tongs with long wooden handles used to pick up slimy, slippery and muscular eels.

eel trap = a trap for eels having a flap at the entrance allowing entry but not exit.

eel treading = detecting eels lying dormant in mud by treading on them, or stirring up mud in a swamp to suffocate and thereby capture eels.

eel trunk = a box with holes in the side wherein eels are kept alive until readied for eating.

eel tuft = a small bundle of brushwood, several of which my be tied along a line. They are about 1 metre in length and resemble brooms; fish hide in these structures and can be caught when they are rapidly pulled from the water or scooped with a net. Used to catch eels, burbot and possibly lampreys in Europe.

eel virus = an orthomyxovirus-like organism isolated from European eels with stomatopapilloma although relation to latter unknown.

eel weel = eel buck.

eel wheel = eel buck.

eel-backed = horses having black stripes along their backs.

eel-leap = a wickerwork eel trap.

eel-like = similar to an eel, usually meaning eel-shaped.

eel-putchon = a baited eel basket, used in spring and summer.

eel-set = nets set across a stream to capture eels.

eel-shaped = elongate body form as in eels, e.g. Anguillidae. Lampreys (Petromyzontidae) are often referred to in this fashion although eels should be called lamprey-shaped.

eel-trunk = a box with holes in the side wherein eels are kept alive until readied for eating.

eeleator = a young eel (archaic).

eeler = a fisher for eels.

eelery = an area devoted to the raising of eels.

eelfare = the movement of eels, especially when migrating (obsolete).

eeliad = the name given to a satellite tagging programme for European silver eels. Tags record temperature, water depth sunrise and sunset and are released at a preset time, rising to the water surface where their accumulated data is transmitted. The programme aims to find out which migrants from Europe contribute to the next generation of eels.

eelgrass = a submerged aquatic plant (Zostera marina) of the North American Atlantic coast with very long and narrow leaves.

eelgrass meadow = an extensive bed of eelgrass, an important marine habitat for fish, but ca. 90% has been destroyed along the North American coast.

eelhood = the rank or condition of being a full-grown eel.

eeling = catching or fishing for eels.

Eels = 1) a nickname for New Englanders in the 1830s, a tribute to their fondness for eels.

Eels = 2) an American indie rock band formed by singer and songwriter Mark Oliver Everett.

eelskin = 1) a fine leather made from the skin of hagfishes (Myxinidae). See also eel skin.

eelskin = 2) the skin of an eel used to cover a squid or artificial bait for catching bluefish, bonitos, etc.

eelskin = 3) the skin of an eel used as folk medicine wrapped around fingers to ward off cramps (Scotland) or wrapped around the thigh to combat rheumatism and cramps (Suffolk).

eelskin wallet = wallets made of electric eel skins were said to demagnetise credit cards, a popular myth. The wallets were made from hagfish skin. Magnetic metal clasps may have played a part.

eelskins = tight trousers (slang). See also eel skin.

eely = eel-like, wriggly.

EEZ = exclusive economic zone, q.v.

effective concentration = the concentration of a substance in water needed to produce a specific effect to a portion of test animals, e.g. EC50 is the concentration producing an effect in 50% of the test fish.

effective fishing effort = fishing effort, e.g. hooks per day, adjusted or standardised, when necessary, so that each increase in the adjusted unit causes a proportional increase in instantaneous rate of fishing. Controls purported to limit effective effort imply that the fishing mortality rate is to be limited. Abbreviated as F/q, F/q, f or f.

effective publication = publication in accordance with the requirements of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

effective rainfall = the portion of total rainfall that reaches rivers and lakes.

effectiveness of fishing = the percentage removal of fish from a stock, but not specifically defined as either rate of exploitation or instantaneous rate of fishing.

efferent = leading away from.

efferent branchial arteries = those arteries paralleling the afferent branchial arches (q.v.) and joining to form a left and right root or radices of the dorsal aorta.

effluent = 1) that which flows out or forth, especially a stream flowing out of a body of water.

effluent = 2) wastewater such as that from a fish farm, municipal sewage plants, pollutants, and coolant waters from a nuclear power plant.

effluent stream = gaining stream (a stream or a part of a stream where flow increases because of groundwater discharge).

efflux = flowing out, that which flows out.

effort = 1) the total fishing gear in use for a specified period of time; when two or more kinds of gear are used, they must be adjusted to some standard type before being added.

effort = 2) effective fishing effort, abbreviated as f or f (Ricker, 1975).

effort = 3) the amount of time and fishing power used to harvest fish. Fishing power includes gear size, boat size, and horsepower. May be expressed as days away from port, hours trawling, length of drift net, etc.

effort = 4) a measure of resource use by anglers, e.g. number of angler hours, party hours, boat hours, trips on the water. Also called fishing pressure.

effort control = 1) a measure applied to effort used by managers to regulate fishing.

effort control = 2) limitations on gear and time used rather than on catch limits as a means of managing a stock.

effort restriction = a type of input control used as a management tool whereby the amount of fishing effort expended by fishers in a particular fishery is restricted by law or voluntary agreement among fishers who jointly exploited fishery resource. In practice, as fishing effort is a composite index of various elements, e.g. fishing craft, gear and ancillary equipment, fishing time, etc., it has proven to be difficult to effectively contain its growth in the medium and long term.

EFL = eye-fork length, q.v.

EFZ = exclusive fishing zone, q.v.

egesta = food or waste products eliminated from an organism, including bacteria and mucus.

egestion = the production of egesta.

egg = 1) a fish egg, varying in size from under 1.0 mm to 6.0 mm or more, and of various colours.

egg = 2) a simple type of fly tied in imitation of a fish egg from yarn, usually orange or pink, and fished along the bottom.

egg case = the keratinous egg shell of Myxini, Elasmobranchii and Holocephali containing the developing embryo. See also mermaid's purse.

egg crate = a plastic grid that allows free flow of water in aquaria. Used for dividing an aquarium into separate areas or to allow eggs to fall through and be protected against predation.

egg dummy = an egg-like spot, e.g. on the anal fin of mouthbrooding Cichlidae. The male cichlid displays these spots to a female who sucks at the spots assuming them to be real eggs; the male releases sperm that fertilise the eggs in the mouth of the female. Also called egg spots or false eggs.

egg layer = the usual mode of reproduction in fishes where eggs are laid outside the body and fertilised there by the male.

egg lobe = egg ribbon.

egg loop = a special knot used to attach a leader to a hook, specifically designed to hold roe bait.

egg mass = eggs that have been laid in a large amount or clump.

egg pincette = small tweezers or tongs with cup-shaped tips, used to pick out defective eggs in hatcheries trays.

egg pit = the pit in a redd where the female deposits one batch of eggs.

egg pouch = egg sac.

egg production method = a means to estimate spawning biomass of fish by a probe attached to a plankton net. The probe measures temperature and depth at which the eggs were collected and thus allows extrapolation to the total spawning biomass in the area under study.

egg raft = a supporting structure of various shapes and dimensions which carries eggs, e.g. in Histrio and Antennarius.

egg ribbon = long, ribbon-like (2 m by 8 cm) egg masses, some with a central cavity, found in certain fish species, e.g. Perca flavescens.

egg sac = the envelope enclosing the ova of a fish.

egg scooper = a small scoop or tray with a vertical handle, allowing transfer of eggs in hatcheries, e.g. to incubator trays.

egg shell = chorion (an embryonic membrane, elaborated by the follicle cells, which encloses the egg. The eggs of truly viviparous fishes are non-chorionated. Usually hardens on contact with the water; after fertilization the egg secretes fluid and shrinks inward leaving a perivitelline space. May lie external to the zona radiata. Called egg shell in fish).

egg sinker = a type of weight used in angling and shaped like an egg with a hole through the middle. Used in still water and for rolling in current.

egg size = the greatest diameter of a spherical egg, both the length and width of elongate or elliptical eggs.

egg sorter = a worker in a processing plant packing Pacific salmon eggs for export.

egg spot = egg dummy.

egg stealer = a fish that feeds on the eggs of other fishes by stealing them from a nest site, e.g. the Lake Malawi cichlid Otopharynx ovatus.

egg string = egg-strand.

egg survey = the abundance of eggs and larvae in an area, determined by sampling with appropriate gear, e.g. small meshed midwater trawls, plankton nets, bamboo traps. Used to estimate the size of the spawning stock and/or the importance of spawning.

egg take = the number of eggs taken at hatcheries when adult fish are spawned.

egg viability = the ability of an egg to develop normally.

egg weight = egg-shaped lead weights with a hole through their middle used in angling. The line runs freely through the hole and when a fish takes up the bait and runs, it feels little resistance.

egg yolk = the yellow part of an egg containing proteins to nourish the embryo and larva.

egg-bearing season = that period of a year when a female fish is carrying eggs.

egg-capsule = egg-case.

egg-carrying = attachment of eggs to a fish for incubation, e.g. in Kurtus gulliveri (Kurtidae) where egg masses are attached to the male supraoccipital hook.

egg-case = the keratinous egg shell of Myxini, Elasmobranchii and Holocephali containing the developing embryo.

egg-laying = the process of depositing eggs.

egg-laying area = that part of the bottom or other structures where eggs are deposited.

egg-strand = the elongate, hollow, cylindrical structure produced by Perca fluviatilis and P. flavescens containing eggs which is twisted around plants and logs.

egg-to-smolt survival = the numerical difference between the number of fertilized eggs produced by a groups of fish and the number of smolts resulting from those eggs.

eggs-per-recruit = an index of abundance, the average number of eggs produced by a fish that has been recruited (moved into a spawning or fishing-size class).

Egtved disease = an acute or chronic disease of salmonids, such as rainbow trout in farm ponds, causing loss of appetite and of schooling behaviour, darkened colour, bleeding, hyaline gills and exophthalmia. It is associated with temperature changes and with the late winter and spring seasons when temperatures are below 8°C. Abbreviated as VHS. Also called viral haemorrhagic septicaemia and trout pest.

eicosapantaenoic acid = an omega-3-fatty acid, q.v., found in fish oil; its chemical name is all-cis-5,8,11,14,17-icosapentaenoic acid. Said to reduce the risk of heart attacks in humans when ingested at 1800 mg per day. Also called icosapentaenoic acid and timnodonic acid. Abbreviated as EPA.

eight-angle net = two boat lift net (a large coastal Japanese lift net, with or without wings, operated from two boats and set against the current. May be operated in the day but at night, additional boats with lights are used to attract fish).

eight boat lift net = a coastal Japanese lift net about 200 m in circumference laid on the sea floor by eight boats in an area where fish are expected to pass over it. When a spotter determines fish are over the net it is lifted so that fish are driven to one corner. Used to catch mackerel and sardines. See also two boat, three boat and four boat lift nets.

einstein = a gene name for a zebrafish mutation affecting the ear (one otolith at all stages). See also half stoned, what's up, rolling stones, van gogh, among many others.

EIS = abbreviation for Environmental Impact Statement.

Ekman circulation = movement of surface water at an angle from the wind as a result of the Coriolis effect.

Ekman layer = the thin horizontal layer of water riding on top of the ocean that is affected by wind.

El Niño = abnormally warm ocean climate conditions, which in some years affect the Eastern coast of Latin America (centred on Peru) often around Christmas time. The anomaly is accompanied by dramatic changes in species abundance and distribution, higher local rainfall and flooding, massive deaths of fish and their predators including birds.

elaborate = highly developed, unusual, specialised, said of structures or colours of fishes.

élangueur = a piece of wood used to keep the mouth of fish open while the hook is removed in longlining for cod (Canada).

elasmobranch poisoning = poisoning resulting from eating the flesh or viscera of sharks and rays. Poisoning from shark flesh is generally mild while that from shark liver may result in severe effects such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, headache and prostration, leading to coma and even death. Treatment is symptomatic, no antidote is known.

elasmoid scales = cycloid and ctenoid scales, q.v.

elastic = a mechanism used inside fishing rods in Europe. An elastic is threaded into the top three sections of a rod, anchored inside, fed out through a protective bush at the rod tip, and the line tied to the end. Elastic is pulled out by a hooked fish but cushions any run by the fish, helping in fighting and landing the fish. The elastic retracts into the rod when the fish stops running or is unhooked. Elastics come in various strengths from 1 (smallest) to 20 (largest), the diameter increasing with size. PTFE bushes are used internally or at the point the elastic emerges from the rod tip. These polytetrafluoroethylene bushes have a very low friction level and protect the elastic from wear.

elastic cartilage = cartilage containing elastin fibres as well as collagen and having a yellowish appearance.

elastic spring mechanism = a structure consisting of thin spring-like modified portions of the parapophysis of the 4th vertebrae (Müllerian process) which are attached to the skull by muscles and to the gas bladder. When the muscles contract and relax, the resultant vibrations in the gas bladder produce a growling sound, e.g. certain Clariidae and other catfish families. See also Müllerian process and Müllerian protractor. See also drumming muscle and protractor post-temporalis mechanism.

elasticity = very fresh fish have elastic flesh; when depressed by a finger, the depression quickly disappears.

elastoidine = a scleroprotein of which the ceratotrichium, q.v., is composed.

elastotrichia = a kind of elastic fin ray.

electivity index = an index (E) showing the degree of choice a predator shows in its feeding behaviour, e.g. of a predator on plankton; E is derived from ri - pi / ri + pi where ri is percent composition of plankter i in the gut contents and pi is percent composition of plankter i in the plankton sample. Values for E range from -1 to +1 with -1 meaning complete avoidance, 0 meaning no active selection, and +1 meaning complete selection.

electotype = an unofficial term in nomenclature for a specimen from a locality other than that of a poorly-preserved holotype, said specimen agreeing closely with the original description. See also epitype and neotype.

electric fish trap = a large wire mesh cage with an open top having electrodes at the mouth. Fish are attracted by electrotaxis to the electrodes and stunned, falling into the trap.

electric fishes = fishes which give out electric currents, e.g. Electrophorus, Torpedo, Mormyrus, based on electric organs. These may be weakly discharging used for orientation and prey detection in murky conditions or strongly discharging and capable of stunning prey and predators.

electric organ = the structure capable of emitting electrical discharges through the surrounding water and which may be used to stun prey, to repel predators or as a radar-like device to detect objects under conditions of poor visibility, e.g. Torpedo, Malapterurus, Electrophorus, Gymnarchus, Mormyrus, Astroscopus.

electric screen = a series of electrodes strung across a waterway to prevent passage of fish, to direct fish into a trap or into a fish pass.

electric smoking = fish smoked by hanging on a two-line wire used as an electrode.

electric tuna hook = an electrified hook which stuns the tuna.

electrical fence = electric screen.

electro-fishing = an electric current will result in fish orienting themselves to the anode and swimming towards it involuntarily thus facilitating capture.

electro-narcosis = immobility as the muscles slacken when electro-fishing.

electro-sensing = the ability of certain fishes to sense electric currents, e.g. sharks.

electro-shocker = a device generating an electrical current used to paralyse or kill fish and facilitate their capture. See electro-fishing.

electro-trawl = a trawl with electrodes in front of the trawl mouth to attract and stun fish.

electrocution = a method of killing fish with electricity to ensure a high quality and appearance.

electrocutor = electro-shocker.

electrocyte = electroplax.

electrogenic = capable of generating electric currents and a painful electric shock, e.g. Electrophorus, Mormyrus, Torpedo.

electrogenesis = the production of electric currents and a painful electric shock.

electrolocation = the ability to use electrical fields to locate objects.

electronic bite alarm = a battery powered device which detects line movement in angling, emitting a buzz or beep and a small light. Often used in ledgering.

electronic nose = a device that analyses vapours close to a product as a measure of quality, rather as a nose can detect different odours. The device has to be trained, e.g. for detection of freshness in a particular species of fish. Not yet in use commercially. Also called artificial nose.

electronic publication = in nomenclature and taxonomy, said of a work issued and distributed by means of electronic signals. To be considered published, such a work must be archived with an organisation other than the publisher. This permits valid publications in taxonomy which are online as long as several hard copies or electronic media are distributed to several institutions.

electrophoresis = the movement and separation of chemicals in a fluid medium under electrical stimulation. Used to determine the chemical content of fishes and other organisms and thereby to distinguish and relate them.

electroplaque = electroplax.

electroplate = electroplax, q.v.

electroplax = a disk-like multinucleate cell, numbers of which form electric organs. The electric eel has a stack of several thousand of these cells, each producing 0.15 volts. Also called electrocytes, electroplaques or electroplates.

electroreception = the ability to make and receive electrical impulses and use these to distinguish objects by the different resistance and capacitance values. Fish can communicate by modulating the electrical waveform they generate. Fish may use active electroreception, generating small, usually less than one volt, electrical pulses using an organ in the tail consisting of two to five rows of modified muscle cells called electrocytes. This has a range of about one body length. Fish can also use passive electroreception where the fish senses the weak bioelectric fields of other organisms. This is found in sharks, for example, using the ampullae of Lorenzini, q.v.

electroreceptor = an organ which detects the presence of an electric current. They are particularly receptive to their own electrical fields and can detect perturbations caused by other fishes and objects. Found, for example, on such weakly electric fishes as mormyrids and gymnotiforms. Also called tuberous organ or receptor.

electroshocker = electro-shocker.

electrostatic smoking = electrically charged smoke particles rapidly deposited on a fish.

electrotaxis = orientation to electric currents. When exposed to a direct electric current from a fish shocker, fish tend to assume a position parallel to the current with the head towards the positive pole or anode. Also called galvanotaxis.

elementary population = a population of fish in the same biological condition, usually of the same age and with the same biological processes.

element = 1) a unit of some larger structure, e.g. a ray or spine of a fin.

element = 2) elements.

elements = the constituent parts that fall within the limits of a taxon, e.g. species within a genus.

eleutheroembryo = an embryonic phase starting with hatching and ending when most or all of the yolk is absorbed and the fish starts feeding, or until feeding on ovarian secretions ends at birth.

elevate = elevation in rank or taxonomic status, e.g. from subspecies to species.

elevated scale = a scale higher than wide, usually said of anterior flank scales and of the exposed portion of the scale.

elevation = fish elevation (the elevation of a fish above the stream bed measured at the tip of the fish's snout).

elevation in rank = change the standing of a name in nomenclature; the change in position of a name in a taxonomic hierarchy, e.g. from subspecies to species.

elger = an eel spear (archaic).

elide (verb) = to deliberately omit one or more letters within a word, e.g. when making up a scientific name. See elision.

elimination, fixation by = fixation by elimination (the supposed fixation of a type species by the subsequent transfer of all but one of the originally included nominal species from a genus. Not in itself an available method of type fixation).

elision (noun) = the deliberate omission of one or more letters within a word, e.g. when making up a scientific name. See elide.

elittoral = the sea bed zone below the sublittoral down to the limit of light penetration; the sea bed below 40 metres.

ellis = fish brine. Also spelled alex or alix. See also alec.

elongate = of lengthened slender form; longer than deep, e.g. Anguillidae, Stichaeidae.

elongation = a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for anglers.

elusive as eels = presumably hard to find and/or grasp, occasionally seen in literature.

elver = young transparent, cylindrical transformed Anguilla about 5-8 cm long, at the stage in their migration where they have reached the coasts and begin ascending rivers and have lost the leaf-like leptocephalus form. Also called glass eel.

emaciation = excessive leanness or wasting of body tissue.

emarginate = having an edge slightly concave; shallowly forked (particularly of caudal fin); indented.

embankment = 1) a raised bank confining a river.

embankment = 2) the act of making an embankment.

embayment = 1) an indentation of the shoreline forming a bay.

embayment = 2) formation of a bay.

embedded = enveloped in skin, lacking free edges, e.g. scales of Zoarcidae, Anguillidae

embeddedness = the degree to which dirt or finer material is mixed in with spawning gravel.

embolism = gas bubble disease (supersaturated gases (>115-125%) in water entering the the body fluids of fish causing bubbles, an embolism. Often seen in gills, eyes, skin and yolk sacs where membranes are the most gas permeable. Fish often swim upside down or vertically, sometimes looking as if they are gasping for air at the surface and may have exophthalmia. Found below power plants in winter when cold water is rapidly heated by passing through condensers, in hatcheries using borehole water and in aquaria when fresh cold water is rapidly heated. Also called air embolism).

embouchure = the mouth of a river or stream.

embryo = developmental stages to the moment of hatching or of birth. Fish have endogenous nutrition from yolk, or via a specialised absorptive organ depending on ovarian secretions, or via a combination of both these methods.

embryon = embryo.

embryonal stage = pertaining to different stages of fish development in the egg.

embryonate = an egg containing an embryo.

embryonic axis = an elongate thickening of blastoderm tissue; the primitive differentiation of the embryo.

embryonic cannibal live bearer = a reproductive guild (q.v.) where only one or a few eggs from the ovary develop into a juvenile. Other yolked ova are fed on by the juveniles as ovulated (oophagy) or less developed embryos are eaten by the more developed ones (adelphophagy). There is specialisation for intrauterine respiration. The largest gain in weight is during intrauterine development, e.g. Carcharias taurus.

embryonic coprophagy = excretion of yolk glycoproteins from the gastrointestinal tract of the embryo to the perivitelline space where they are swallowed by the embryo, e.g. in Neogobius melanostomus.

embryonic period = the time from union of gametes (or in gynogenetic fishes the triggering of cell division) until exogenous nutrition. This period is characterised by endogenous nutrition from the yolk of the ovum (or in viviparous fishes from an ovarian secretion or combination of yolk and secretion). This period is divided into three phases:- cleavage (beginning of development to beginning of organogenesis), embryonic (organogensis) and eleutheroembryonic (hatching to external feeding after all or most of the yolk is absorbed).

embryonic shield = a thickened arm of the germ ring representing the future longitudinal axis of the embryo.

emend. = abbreviation for emendatus. The abbreviation precedes the name of the author effecting the change in a scientific name.

emendation = in nomenclature, any demonstrably intentional change in the original spelling of an available zoological name, other than a mandatory change; a name of which the spelling has been altered. Does not include emendation of the scope of application of a name, which equals an emended diagnosis (q.v.). Emendations may be correct or incorrect, depending upon whether the changes are in accordance or not with the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. A justified emendation is the correction of an incorrect original spelling (and takes authorship and date of the original spelling). An unjustified emendation is any emendation other than a justified emendation (the emended name is treated as a new name with its own authority and date).

emendatus = emended or altered (by); used where the author has changed the original spelling of a taxon without excluding the type of the name. Abbreviated as emend.

emended diagnosis = change in the scope of application of a name, involving a change in the diagnosis (q.v.) of the taxon. Not the same as emendation (q.v.).

emerge = 1) hatch from an egg.

emerge = 2) come up out of the water (as in hatching insects).

emergence = departure of fry from the gravel into the water column.

emergence trap = a device for trapping fish (and insects) as they emerge from the gravel into the water column.

emergent vegetation = plants growing in water but emerging from it, usually at the water's edge.

emerger = 1) a stage in the life cycle of an aquatic insect when it swims to or near the surface to hatch, changing from a nymph or pupa to a winged adult. Fish may concentrate to feed on emergers.

emerger = 2) an artificial fly tied to imitate an emerger by anglers.

emersed vegetation = emergent vegetation.

emigration = the movement of individuals out of a population or from one are to another.

Emperor's pike = an Esox lucius reputedly caught in a lake in Württemburg in 1497 with a copper ring around the gill region. The ring bore an inscription intimating that the pike had been placed in the lake by Emperor Frederick II in 1230, making the pike 267 years old. A nineteenth century study of the skeleton of this fish preserved in Mannheim Cathedral showed it to have more vertebrae than a single pike should have and the story is considered a fake.

empty-gutted = fish without food in the intestine.

emulsion = a fertilizer emulsion produced from the liquid remains of processed fish in fish meal and oil industries.

EN = endangered, q.v.

en tresse = a platted fillet where the backbone and bones are removed leaving the fillets attached to the head.

enamel = a shiny hard material covering the dentine of teeth and the surface of some scales (cosmoid and placoid scales). This is the hardest substance produced by vertebrates. Of ectodermal origin, produced by ameloblasts. Consisting of crystals of a calcium phosphate-carbonate salt (apatite) cemented in an organic matrix.

enameloid = a mesodermal derivative laid down at the outer surface of mesodermal papillae as a form of bone with greater density and mineralisation than dentine. Found in the scales of Palaeozoic fishes as a superficial layer over a dentine structure.

encapsulated egg = an egg contained in either a thick horny, or thin membranous case, e.g. Elasmobranchii.

encircling gillnet = used in shallow water with the floatline remaining at the surface; after the fish have been encircled by the net, noise or other means are used to force them to gill or entangle themselves in the netting surrounding them.

enclosed sea = a gulf, basin, or sea surrounded by two or more States and connected to another sea or the ocean by a narrow outlet or consisting entirely or primarily of the territorial seas and exclusive economic zones of two or more coastal States.

enclosure = a fence or barrier which encompasses or shuts in fish.

encounter rate = encounters per unit of gear per unit time.

encounters = the numbers of a species that are caught by fishing gear but are released voluntarily or by regulation.

end fly = trailer (1) the hook at the end of the line in fly-fishing (Scottish dialect)).

end rope = a line connecting the end of the first or last section of a longline backrope or string to the dan line (all q.v.). Also called back of line, dumb string, longline, dummy, end tow, lud tow and spreadline.

end tow = end rope.

endangered = said of a taxon facing imminent extirpation (nationally) or extinction (world-wide). In the IUCN Criteria for threatened species, a taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically Endangered but is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future. Abbreviated EN.

endangered collection = a collection of museum specimens that may be lost to the scientific community as it is no longer or soon may be of no interest to its current owner. See also orphan collection.

endemic = restricted to a certain region; peculiar to; native to.

endemic centre = an area having a unique fauna, often classified as an area with five of more endemic species.

ending = the termination of a scientific name. The letters at the end of genus-group name must be, or be treated as, a singular name in the nominative case which indicate the gender of the word. The letters at the end of an adjectival species-group name which must agree in gender form with the gender of the generic name with which the species-group name is combined. The letters at the end of a species-group name which, if the name is the genitive case of the name of one or more persons, or a place, or other entity associated with the taxon, form the genitive case and reflect the gender and number, e.g. -i if of a man, -ae if of a woman, -orum if of women, (or men and women together), -arum if of women. The letters at the end of the genitive case of a generic name which are deleted to form a stem, before adding a suffix to form a family-group name.

endless trolling line = a slowly moving looped trolling line. The line is carried down to a specific depth, returned to the surface, passes over the vessel so that the catch can be removed and hooks re-baited, and then on down again.

endo- (prefix) = within, inside, inwards, inner.

endobenthic = living within the sediment of a lake or sea floor; infauna. Also called endobiontic.

endobiontic = endobenthic.

endocast = a cast of the interior of a structure, e.g. part of a fossil showing the lumen of the gut.

endochondral = refers to skeletal elements which are formed in cartilage and which later ossify. Also called replacement bone because it gradually replaces the pre-existing cartilage.

endocranium = that portion of the neurocranium consisting of the elements surrounding the olfactory, optic and otic capsules and the anterior end of the notochord.

endogamy = inbreeding; selection of a mate from a small kinship group.

endogenous feeding = a type of nutrient acquisition during fish ontogeny, usually from yolk but also from a maternal-embryonic exchange. See exogenous and absorptive feeding.

endolateral circumorals = large teeth immediately on each side of the mouth opening in lampreys (Petromyzontidae). Also called endolaterals.

endolaterals = endolateral circumorals.

endolymph = the watery fluid in the membranous labyrinth of the ear.

endolymphatic duct = a tube from the utriculus opening on the dorsal surface of the head in Elasmobranchii and terminating in the endolymphatic sinus in Teleostomi. Also called ductus endolymphaticus.

endolymphatic pore = the external opening of the endolymphatic duct.

endolymphatic sinus = a chamber at the outer end of the endolymphatic duct in Teleostomi.

endoparasite = an internal parasite, e.g. the fish Carapus apus living in the body cavity of holothurians and feeding on the gonads and water lungs. But see also inquiline.

endopsammic = living on the surface of sand.

endopterygoid = metapterygoid (the deep, paired, endochondral bone forming the posterior end of the palatoquadrate and connected with the hyomandibula. Absent in many modern Teleostei, it bears teeth in the Albulidae. Also called mesopterygoid and entopterygoid).

endoreic = endorheic.

endorheic = said of an area where rivers arise but do reach the sea, drying up or terminating in a closed basin.

endoskeleton = the skeleton proper; the inner bony support for the body.

endostyle = a longitudinal ciliated groove on the ventral wall of the pharynx which produces mucus to gather food particles in Amphioxi and the ammocoete stage of Petromyzontiformes. In the latter it changes during development into the thyroid gland. Also called hypopharyngeal groove.

endozooic = living inside an animal, e.g. carapids in echinoderms.

English knot = fisherman's knot (a knot for tying the ends of two lines together. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot).

English shore = that area of the coast of Newfoundland where the English had fishing and curing rights; originally from Cape Bonivista to Trepassey. The extent varied with the vagaries of fortune (cf. French shore).

engrailed = 1) indented along an edge with small curves. Opposite of invected.

engrailed = 2) having a margin or edge of small raised dots.

engulfer = a piscivore that swallows prey whole.

engybenthic = pertaining to organisms near the benthos.

engyodontic stage = an early stage in an anguilliform larva characterised by few, needle-like teeth, upper and lower jaws of equal length, an undifferentiated finfold, no nasal capsule, no hypurals, straight notochord tip, and the head and preanal region of the body relatively large. Precedes the euryodontic stage.

enhaline = salinity approximating sea water. See also ensaline.

Enhanced Inspection List = in food inspection, a list maintained by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency which identifies imported fish products about which the Agency has information indicating the product may be unsafe or unwholesome, and for which the Mandatory Inspection List is not effective in managing the product safety risk. Abbreviated as EIL. Import of products on the EIL requires mandatory proof of product compliance.

enhancement = release of fish from an aquaculture facility to increase the size or growth of a wild fishery or other stock. The releases may be fry or older fish.

enhancement programme = a stock enhancement program to enhance or increase the size or growth of the fishery resource stock.

enkan-hin = shioboshi (whole or split fish dried after soaking in salt water or dry salt (Japan). Usually the name of the fish used is appended).

Enki = the Sumerian god of water, his symbols being a goat and a fish, later combined as a single beast, the Capricorn, which became one of the signs of the zodiac. See also Ea.

enmesh = to catch, entrap or entangle fish in the mesh of a net.

enrichment = addition of nitrogen, phosphorous and carbon compounds or other nutrients into a water body. This increases the growth of algae and other aquatic plants. Enrichment often results from the inflow of sewage effluents or from agricultural run-off, or may be deliberate to increase productivity in aquaculture.

enrobing = coating (fish products may be marketed with a coating, e.g. of batter and breadcrumbs).

ensaline = salinity approximating sea water. See also enhaline.

ensiform = sword-shaped, xiphoid.

ensiling = preservation of dead fish, offal and wastes from an aquaculture facility in an acidic medium.

entad = inwards, towards the centre or interior; internally.

entamoebiasis = an infection with protozoans of the genus Entamoeba.

entangling net = a vertical gill or trammel net that is hung loosely such that fish become entangled rather than gilled.

enteric redmouth disease = a systemic bacterial disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri found mostly in salmonids. Symptoms are severe congestion, septicaemia and haemorrhage in head tissues such as the palate and operculum with the lower jaw being eroded. Internal organs can also be infected. Abbreviated as ERM. Also called Hagerman redmouth disease.

enteric septicaemia = a disease caused by the bacterium Ewardsiella ictaluri affecting fingerling and yearling catfish. Characterised by a raised or open ulcer on the frontal bone, hence the alternate name of hole-in-the-head disease.

enteritis = a bacterial disease, possibly Aeromonas punctata, causing an expanded abdomen with red blotches, fins are congested, the anus is red and swollen, pressure on the belly causes a yellow mucus discharge from the anus, the intestinal wall is inflamed and peels off. The fish shows loss of appetite, swims slowly and alone, and death results.

entero- (prefix) = the intestine.

enterprise allocation = a quota from a particular fishery stock allocated to one company operating more than one vessel. Must be fished during the year allocated although timing is up to the company and the allocation can be transferred to another company. Abbreviated as EA.

entire = smooth edged; lacking serrations or spines.

entity = a taxonomic unit. See taxon.

ento- (prefix) = within, inner.

entoglossum = lingual plate (a dermal toothed bone covering and sometimes fusing with the basihyal, e.g. in Osteoglossidae. Also called glossohyal, dermentoglossum, os entoglossum, supralingual or basihyal dental plate).

entopterygoid = 1) metapterygoid (the deep, paired, endochondral bone forming the posterior end of the palatoquadrate and connected with the hyomandibula. Absent in many modern Teleostei, it bears teeth in the Albulidae. Also called mesopterygoid and endopterygpoid).

entopterygoid = 2) tooth-bearing plates flanking the parasphenoid in certain Sarcopterygii.

entrained = pulled along by a current.

entrainment = 1) the incidental trapping of fish in intake water used for cooling electrical power plants, in waters being diverted for irrigation, or in any artificial construction.

entrainment = 2) the synchronisation of one biological rhythm to another.

entrapment gear = any fishing gear that traps fish; may be fixed or movable but all have some means of preventing the fish escaping once they enter the trap.

enumeration = the act of counting fish returning to spawn.

enveloping layer = the outermost layer of cells surrounding the embryo that become very flattened in the blastula and give rise to the periderm.

envenomation = to sting or to impregnate an organism with a toxin by means of a venom apparatus (a tooth or spine with poison gland or poisonous tissue).

environmental disease = a disease in fish caused by an unfavourable environment, e.g. lack of oxygen, temperature variations.

environmental gill disease = swollen gills caused by an irritating pollutant.

Environmental Impact Statement = a document prepared to describe the effects of proposed activities (such as implementation of a fisheries management plan) on the environment. Impacts can be positive or negative or both and the document may also describe ways to mitigate impacts.

environmental resistance = the difference between the potential ability of a population to increase and the actual observed performance.

environmentally sustainable fishery = a fishery that sustains all parts of the ecosystem and does not cause any long-term or permanent change.

enzootic = a disease present in organisms all the time but in small numbers of individuals at any one time (equivalent to endemic in humans). See also epizootic.

Eocene = a geological epoch within the Tertiary Period ca. 54-38 million years ago.

eolic lake = a lake formed in a depression created by wind action.

epal = relating to the upper gill arch, e.g. epibranchials, hyomandibula, palatoquadrate. Compare ceratal.

epaxial = any structure morphologically dorsal to the horizontal plane of the notochord or vertebral column; body muscles above the horizontal septum.

ephemeral = 1) short-lived, transitory.

ephemeral = 2) used to refer to streams which flow only in direct response to precipitation and whose channel is at all times above the water table.

ephemeral = 3) said of publications that become obsolete shortly after issue, e.g. newsletters, newspapers, advertisements, etc. These may present problems if new species were described or other significant biological information was published in them.

ephemery = a descriptive term for the life cycle of tadpole gobies (Benthophilus spp.) which live about a year, attain maturity at 6-7 months, and die after spawning.

epi- (prefix) = upon, on the surface of, above.

epibaseost = the distal pterygiophore articulating with the dorsal and anal fin rays.

epibatic = said of a caudal fin with the upper lobe longer.

epibenthic = located on the bottom or floor of a water body, rather than in the bottom.

epibiont = an organism that lives on the outside of another organism.

epibiontic = living attached to another organism without benefit or detriment for the host.

epiblast = the outer of two layers of the blastoderm that form during gastrulation. Corresponds to the primitive ectoderm during gastrulation and to the definitive ectoderm after gastrulation.

epiboly = the thinning and spreading movement of the embryonic cell mass over the surface of the yolk, eventually encompassing the yolk completely.

epibranchial = a deep cartilage bone on the upper part of the gill arch below the uppermost element, the pharyngobranchial. May occur on arches 1, 2, 3, 4 and be covered with toothed pads.

epibranchial organ = a paired dorsal diverticulum at the posterior limit of the pharynx in certain microphagous fishes. Also called gill-helix, pharyngeal organ, or pharyngeal pocket. In all forms with these organs, except some characids, prominent gill rakers extend into the organ dividing its cavity into two parts, one confluent with the pharynx, and one with the opercular cavity. Small food particles, generally plankton, are retained by the rakers, consolidated by mucus and squeezed out into the oesophagus. Found in Heterotidae, Characidae, Chanoidei, Gonorhynchoidei, Clupeidae and Engraulidae.

epicaudal lobe = a median terminal lobe of the caudal fin characteristic of coelacanths.

epicentral = a short, rod-like bone attached to the centrum of the anteriormost vertebrae, e.g. Merluccius has 3-4 pairs.

epicercal = a caudal fin with the upper lobe the longer, upwardly tapering, with the skeletal elements forming the upper margin of the fin. Also called heterocercal but this perhaps applies to both epicercal and hypocercal (lower lobe longer).

epicontinental = found in or on a continent or continental shelf. Epicontinental seas abound in fishes.

epidemic spawning = simultaneous shedding of gametes by a large number of individuals, such as the whole population, so chances of fertilisation are high.

epidermis = the outermost of the two layers of the skin. Of ectodermal origin and comprising 4-6 cell layers in Elasmobranchii and 10-30 in Teleostei. In Cyclostomata the epidermis secretes a thin acellular cuticle also seen in some Teleost pearl organs. Overlies the dermis.

epifauna = animals living on the surface of the bottom or floor of a water body. Does not include organisms burrowing into the floor but does include those organisms living on others.

epigean = surface dwelling, as opposed to hypogean, ipogean or "cave" fishes.

epigenetic = all processes relating to the expression and interaction of genes.

epigonal organ = an elongate paired tissue ventral to the kidneys and partially enveloping the anterior gonads in Elasmobranchii. Apparently important to the immune system.

epihyal = the deep, endochondral bone at the upper end of the hyoid arch below the interhyal. It joins the hyomandibula and the symplectic through the interhyal, and articulates with the ceratohyal by a suture in some fishes, e.g. Gadidae. May bear a dentigerous plate. Also called dorsal ceratohyal or posterohyal as it is considered to be the dorsal ossification of the ceratohyal. May or may not be homologous with the epal element of the branchial arches.

epilimnion = the warm uppermost layer of water in a stratified lake, above the thermocline.

epimandibular cartilage = palatoquadrate (the cartilaginous, functional upper jaw of Elasmobranchii and Holocephali and the embryonic upper jaw of other gnathostome vertebrates. In adult Dipnoi, Crossopterygii and Actinopterygii, produces the autopalatine, metapterygoid and quadrate bones. Also called palatoquadrate or palatoquadratal bar, palatoquadrate cartilage, pterygoquadrate bar, epimandibular cartilage and maxillar cartilage).

epimeralium = epineural.

epineural = a slender bone which lies in the myocomma and projects backwards and upwards from the neural arch and spine. Epineurals may be forked.

epioccipital = epiotic, q.v.

epiotic = the deep bone and the superficial bone overlying it which form the upper element of the otic capsule, and lie posterior to the parietal, ventral to the supraoccipital, and dorsal to the pterotic. It covers the posterior semicircular canal. It is considered to be an ossification of the occipital arch that has invaded the otic region and so is often called epioccipital.

epipelagic = pertaining to the relatively well-lit, warm and blue water of the ocean from the surface down to a depth of about 200 metres.

epiphysial apparatus = consists of two median dorsal projections from the diencephalon - an anterior parietal body and a posterior pineal body or epiphysis. These bodies are light sensitive and influence the melanophores and the behaviour of the animal.

epiphyte = organisms growing on or associated with the substrate.

epipleural bone (rib) = one of a series of bones found in the horizontal septum (separating the upper and lower muscle masses of the body - epaxials and hypaxials). Epipleural ribs may be associated with the anterior pleural ribs, e.g. in Perca or with the vertebra, e.g. in Gobiidae. Also called dorsal rib and intermuscular bone.

epipterygial = dorsal to the pectoral fin.

episom = epaxial.

episternal = urohyal (a flat, median, deep, endochondral bone below the ceratohyal; a tendon bone arising in the septum between the longitudinal muscles of the isthmus. Absent in such primitive fishes as Lepisosteus. Also called clidost, interclavicle and parahyoid).

"epistylis" = red sore disease (a disease caused by a ciliated protozoan (Epistylis and Heteropolaria spp.) exhibiting as ulcers or cotton-like growths on the skin, scales and fin spines causing a red lesion, and also found on eggs).

epitegum = a shield element of jawless fishes, e.g. the ventral shield is considered as a single epitegum.

epithelial fringe = oral fimbria (one of a series of small tag-like appendages around the perimeter of the oral disc of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes), presumed to help create an effective seal when the lamprey is attached to its host and also probably sensory. Also called fringed processes, leaf-like processes, fringed lappets, leathery appendices and leathery appendages).

epitheliocystis = a chlamydial infection of fishes that may show no symptoms or exhibit as respiratory distress. Numerous white cysts develop on the gills and skin.

epithelioma papulosum = carp pox (one of the oldest known fish diseases found in cultured carp, other cyprinids, pike-perch and aquarium fishes. It is caused by Herpesvirus cyprini. Also known as carp papillomatosis, epithelioma papulosum, fish pox, cyprinid herpesvirus I (CHV). Skin lesions appear as the water temperature drops in winter as small milky-white spots that merge and cover large skin areas).

epithet = 1) the second word of a binomial name of a species (or the second and third of a subspecies); specific name; trivial name.

epithet = 2) a word or phrase involving abuse; seems to be a common usage among anglers and scientists endeavouring to capture fish.

epitheta hybrida = epithets made up of parts of words from two or more different languages.

epitheta specifica rejicienda = rejected specific epithets.

epitype = a term in nomenclature for a type designated to fix the application of a name, the type of which is demonstrably ambiguous or cannot be critically identified for the purposes of the precise application of the name of a taxon.

epizootic = a disease attacking many animals in a population in a short time. Equivalent to epidemic in humans. See also enzootic.

epizootic ulcerative syndrome = an epizootic in freshwater and estuarine fish of warm waters. It is characterised by an invasive Aphanomyces infection and ulcerative lesions.

epontic = referring to organisms closely associated with sea ice, attached, in interstices between ice crystals, or within channels in sea ice where some fish may be found.

eponym = named for a person, e.g. Glyptothorax silviae (Sisoridae) named for Sylvie Coad but note that the Latin origin of the name forms the root for the eponym.

eptatretin = a potent cardio-stimulant obtained from the branchial heart of Eptatretus stouti (Myxinidae). The substance is reported to be a highly unstable aromatic amine.

epural = an elongate detached bone above the urostyle and behind the last neural spine supporting caudal fin rays. Apparently derived from neural spines or the urostylic centra; dorsal homologues of the hypurals. Vary in number between one in advanced fishes to three in primitive actinopterygians.

equal = the same, said of jaws of the same length.

equals sign = "=". Often used to indicate subjective synonyms in nomenclature.

equatorial current = 1) ocean currents flowing westerly near the equator. There are two in each of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, one north of the equator (the North Equatorial Current) and one south (the South Equatorial Current) separated by the easterly flowing Equatorial Countercurrent.

equatorial current = 2) tidal currents occurring semi-monthly as a result of the moon being over the equator.

equatorial tide = a tide occurring semi-monthly as a result of the moon being over the equator.

equilibrium = when fishing and natural mortality, exploitation pattern, growth and recruitment do not change from year to year; when such factors have been in effect long enough to affect all ages for the whole exploited life. Also called steady state.

equilibrium catch = the catch (in numbers) taken from a fish stock when it is in equilibrium with fishing of a given intensity, and (apart from the effects of environmental variation) its abundance does not change from one year to the next. Also called sustainable yield, equilibrium yield. Abbreviated as CE or CE.

equilibrium yield = the yield in weight taken from a fish stock when it is in equilibrium with fishing of a given intensity, and (apart from effects of environmental variation) its biomass is not changing from one year to the next. Also called sustainable yield, equivalent sustainable yield. Abbreviated as YE or YE. No stock is really in balance with fishing effort because effort cannot be maintained at the same level and the stock is always changing in response to environmental variables.

equivalent sustainable yield = equilibrium yield.

erect = establish or coin, as for a scientific name.

erectile = capable of being lifted upright.

erisma = the fused first two proximal pterygiophores; long and well-developed in Solea.

ER = abbreviation for enteric redmouth disease, q.v.

Eric the fish = the pet halibut of Eric Praline (played by John Cleese) in the Monty Python sketch, the Fish Licence (q.v.).

err. typ. = abbreviation for errore typographico, meaning typographical error, q.v.

err. typogr. = abbreviation for errore typographico, meaning typographical error, q.v.

errata = plural of erratum.

erratic parasite = a normal parasite in an unusual location.

erratum = 1) an error.

erratum = 2) a printed correction to a published work appearing on a separate slip inserted into the publication, or appearing in a later issue of a journal.

error = an incorrect spelling in a name, or other word. A copyist's error is an incorrect spelling made in copying, an inadvertent error is an incorrect spelling, such as a lapsus calami, or a copyist's or a printer's error, not intended by the original author, and a printer's error is an incorrect spelling made in type-setting (often called typographical error). Such errors may have significance in nomenclature.

errore typographico = a typographical error. Abbreviated as err. typ. or err. typogr.

eructation = burping, belching or ructus is the release of gas from the digestive tract. In fishes this may be from the vent, or from the gas bladder connected to the gut via the pneumatic duct, and thence the mouth. Some eructations may be just emptying the gas bladder but others appear to be a deliberate sound production as it does not vary over time, e.g. in certain eels and catfishes.

erythrism = a red or orange pigmentation seen in aquarium fishes, e.g. orange swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri) and the in nature, e.g. the cichlid red devil (Amphilophus labiatus).

erythro-melaniridosomes = association of erythrophores, melanophores and guanophores.

erythrocyte = red blood cell.

erythrodema = a bacterial infection (Pseudomonas fluorescens) usually through lesions found in major carps. Symptoms include inflammation bleeding from the skin, loss of scales, bloodshot fin bases, fraying of fins, red blotches around the mouth and occasionally congestion and inflammation of the intestines.

erythroiridosomes = association of erythrocytes and guanophores.

erythrophore = a chromatophore exhibiting red (or orange) colour. Contains a carotenoid pigment.

esca = the specialized lure or bait (from the Latin for bait) on the outer end of an illicium. Sometimes luminous, worm-like or fish-like in form, e.g. in Ceratioidei.

escabèche = a cold marinade made of olive oil, vinegar (or citrus juice) and spicy herbs. Used to preserve cooked foods such as small fish which are headless, fried or lightly browned and marinated for a day. Served as an hors d'oeuvre. The word is Spanish in origin or possible from the Farsi sikbag meaning acid food.

escape gap = a gap in a net or trap allowing smaller individuals, or unwanted or conserved species, to escape.

escapee = specimen of a cultured species that escapes from an aquaculture facility. It may carry diseases or parasites or interbreed with wild stock.

escapement = number of migratory fish that reach a favourable spawning area annually. Refers to the fish that pass through a fishing area unscathed and reach the spawning grounds; usually said of anadromous fish.

escapement curve = the relationship between size (or age) and the probability of a fish escaping from the gear after having encountered it, e.g. swimming through the mesh of a net, the sorting grid of a trawl, or the escape gate of a trap. Sometimes called selectivity curve.

escapement goal = a predetermined, biologically-derived number of salmonids that are not harvested and will be the parent spawners for a wild or hatchery stock of fish.

escapotype = a joke name in nomenclature for a type specimen that escaped from capture; an alivotype that got away.

esociform = pike-shaped.

esophagus = that tubular portion of the gut between the pharynx and the stomach. Also spelled oesophagus.

Esox epidermal proliferation-associated virus = virus-like particles found in epidermal lesions in northern pike (Esox lucius).

Esox lymphosarcoma-associated virus = a leukovirus-like agent isolated from pike with lymphosarcoma but relationship to latter unknown.

essence d'Orient = silvery crystals of guanine in scales which are extracted and used to make a pearl essence for artificial pearls.

essential fish habitat = any habitat that is of basic importance to the survival and well-being of a fish population or community, either a habitat used throughout life or for a specific activity such as spawning or feeding.

establish = to publish a zoological name so that it is available in the meaning of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, or make available (a name that was previously unavailable) for whatever reason.

established = successful growth and reproduction in a given area, usually in terms of an introduced population.

established species = valid species (a species that has an existence in the real world and is recognised as such. In opposition to a species thought to be distinct but which does not actually exist, is no longer recognised, or is treated as a synonym). May be confused with the usage of established for an introduced species, and a valid species could be ignored and therefore established is inappropriate.

establishment = 1) the business, and all its parts, of a fish merchant (Newfoundland). Usually refers to the branch of a firm with headquarters in St John's, Newfoundland or Britain.

establishment = 2) the process requiring certain criteria detailed in the Code of Zoological Nomenclature to be fulfilled on publication before a name can be taken into consideration for nomenclatural purposes.

estero = a lagoon with greater salinity at its head than its mouth, since evaporation exceeds precipitation there. Found on desert margins of the American southwest and in Mexico. Also called a negative estuary.

estimated discard mortality = the numbers of fish thrown overboard that die, calculated by observers and from logbook records.

estivation = dormancy during the dry season. e.g. in Dipnoi. Also spelled aestivation.

estuarine (adjective) = condition in that portion of a river, the estuary, where it meets the sea and fresh and salt waters mingle or alternate.

estuarine dependent = fish and other organisms that live in estuarine conditions for all or part of their lives.

estuary (noun) = see estuarine.

esu = an evolutionary significant unit; a segment of a species defined as important in survival and conservation of the species such as a specific spawning run of a salmonid.

et(t) = said of fish ready to take the bait, either individually or in a school (Scottish dialect).

et = and; used to connect names of authors after the scientific name. Often "and" or & is used.

et al. = abbreviation for et alii.

et alii = and others; used in author citations where the initial author's name is followed by et al. to indicate there are more authors.

et aliorum = et alii.

et cetera = and so on. Abbreviated as etc.

et sequens = and the following. Used, for example, after a page number to indicate that following pages should also be referred to. Abbreviated as et seq.

etang = a coastal lagoon (France).

etc. = abbreviation for et cetera.

ethanol = C2H5OH; used as a 70-80% solution in water for the permanent preservation and storage of fish specimens in museum collections. Also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol or spirit of wine.

ethyl alcohol = ethanol.

ethmoid = the deep, embryonic, perichondral, cartilaginous bone ossifying in and around the nasal septum. Later covered by the nasals, prevomer, adnasals (and rostrals) and located anterior to the orbit. It may not ossify in some Teleostei. Also called hypethmoid and dermethmoid.

ethmoid gland = a gland in the ethmoid bone associated with the ethmoid tooth in Monognathidae. Possibly secretes poison.

ethmoidea = plural of ethmoideum.

ethmoideum (plural ethmoidea) = ethmoid.

ethmosphenoid = part of the cranium in front of the intracranial joint in Crossopterygii; behind it is the otico-occipital portion.

ethology = the study of innate behaviour; of behaviour in the normal environment of the fish (although often carried out in a simulated environment, the aquarium).

ethyl alcohol = ethanol, q.v.

etymology = used in taxonomy for the derivation and meaning of a scientific name.

eu- (prefix) = good, well or stable. Opposite of dys-.

euabyssal = waters of the sea below about 4000 metres.

euautostylic = a jaw suspension in which the jaw is attached directly to the braincase, e.g. in Placodermi.

euhaline = 1) living only in saline inland water bodies.

euhaline = 2) waters containing between 30 and 40 parts per thousand of dissolved salts, i.e. in most cases, normal sea water. Some definitions give 30 to 35 as euhaline and 36-40 as metahaline. See also Venice system.

euhyostylic = condition of the palatoquadrate when it is supported only by a stout hyomandibula and is unattached to the neurocranium. The ceratohyal in euhyostyly is widely separated from Meckel's cartilage.

eulachon oil = oil extracted from Thaleichthys pacificus (Osmeridae) in British Columbia and used to flavour foods by native peoples.

eulittoral = the marine intertidal zone subject to wave action; the shore of a lake between high and low water marks.

eupelagic = organisms in open ocean water away from the sea bed.

euphotic zone = the surface waters of the sea or of a lake where enough light penetrates for photosynthesis to occur, down to about 80 metres.

euphysoclistous = having the gas bladder closed, with no connection to the gut.

eupotamic = pertaining to organisms equally capable of living in still or flowing fresh water.

European gill rot = branchiomycosis (a disease caused by the fungi Branchiomyces sanguinis and B. demigrans found particularly in carp and eels. Respiratory distress is caused by gill necrosis as blood vessels thrombose. Gills become discoloured in patches and rot. Occurs in ponds with high temperatures, excess organic matter and high ammonia levels. Also called gill rot).

eury- (suffix) = wide or broad. Opposite of steno-.

eurybaric = tolerant of pressure, hence depth changes. Opposite of stenobaric.

eurybasal = having a wide fin base, e.g. in Dipnoi. Opposite of stenobasal.

eurybathic = tolerant of a wide range in depth.

eurybenthic = living on the lake or sea floor over a wide range of depths.

eurycoenose = having a wide distribution; common.

euryhaline = 1) organisms capable of withstanding a wide range of salinity.

euryhaline = 2) water with a salinity of 30.1-40.0 p.p.t. derived from ocean salts.

euryodontic stage = an advanced stage in anguilliform development characterised by three series of relatively short, broad teeth, a relatively shortened lower jaw, the formation of nasal capsules, fins and hypurals, flexion of the notochord and a relatively smaller head and preanal region. Follows the engyodontic stage.

euryokous = adapted to numerous ecological niches. Opposite of stenokous.

euryphagous = feeding on a wide variety of foods.

eurysaline = 1) organisms capable of withstanding a wide range of salinity.

eurysaline = 2) water with a salinity of 30.1-40.0 p.p.t. derived from land-derived salts.

eurythermal = organisms capable of withstanding a wide range of temperature.

eurythermic = eurythermal or pertaining to or living in water of wide temperature range.

eurythermos = able to tolerate wide variations of the temperature in the environment.

eurytopic = having a wide range of geographical distribution.

eurytropical = occurring throughout the tropics.

eustasy = worldwide simultaneous change in sea level.

eustatic = rise in sea level relative to the exposed land still depressed after melting of the glaciers.

eutrophic = adjective for eutrophy.

eutrophication = the deterioration of the life-supporting features of a lake or estuary caused by excessive pollutants or fertilisation from effluents high in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic growth substances. More decomposing organic matter is produced by the excessive growth of algae and plants than self-purification processes can overcome. It is also the natural aging process of a lake, leading to its disappearance as plants and sediments fill it in.

eutrophy = the condition of a lake which is highly productive and hence the hypolimnion becomes depleted of oxygen (through decay of organic products). Usually having a shallow wide basin with coloured water and abundant littoral vegetation.

euxinic = an environment lacking oxygen and with very little water circulation. From Pontus Euxinus, the Black Sea in reference to the anoxic conditions at depth.

evacuation zone = the anterior-ventral region of the mid- and late gastrula that becomes poorer in cells as they leave by epiboly and convergence.

evanescent = temporary, disappearing.

even-year run = a population of fish that returns to its natural spawning grounds in even numbered years.

evening hatch = the emergence of aquatic insects in the evening; emergence is the transformation of an insect from a swimming to a flying stage at the water surface; a term used by anglers. Hatches attract fish.

evenness = the distribution of abundance such as biomass or individuals among the species within an assemblage.

everglade(s) = marshland covered with grass in places and usually having water.

eversible = adjective for evert.

evert = turn inside out, disgorge; used of guts protruding from the mouth of a fish brought up quickly from depth when the swimbladder expands and pushes internal organs out, and of the lips in kissing gouramies (Helostoma temminckii, Helostomatidae).

eviscerated = said of fish having at least the gut and sometimes all the internal organs removed.

evo-devo = an abbreviated form for evolutionary developmental biology.

evolution = descent with modification.

evolutionarily significant unit = a population or group of populations inhabiting a defined geographical area that comprises a unique segment of the species; a distinct population, reproductively isolated from other conspecific populations and is an important evolutionary legacy of the species. Abbreviated as ESU. An ESU is often treated as a "species" in conservation assessments.

evolutionary significant unit = evolutionarily significant unit.

evolutionary developmental biology = an integrated approach to explaining biodiversity, taking into account molecular genetics through embryology, molecular and population genetics, comparative morphology, palaeontology, molecular evolution, ecology and functional morphology. It analyses interactions between development and evolution.

evolutionary tree = a diagram depicting the hypothetical phylogeny of the taxa under consideration. The points where lineages split represent ancestor taxa to the descendent taxa at the terminal points.

EW = extinct in the wild (in the IUCN Criteria for threatened species, a taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalised population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed extinct in the wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form).

EX = extinct (in the IUCN Criteria for threatened species, a taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died).

ex = from, according to. Sometimes used within an author citation, q.v.

ex aff. = abbreviation for ex affinis.

ex affinis = of affinity. Used, for example, to indicate a specimen is similar to a named taxon but not identical.

ex gr. = abbreviation for ex grupo.

ex grupo = of the group of.

ex nomine = by or under that name.

ex parte = in part, partly. Abbreviated as e.p.

ex situ conservation = conservation of species or populations outside their natural area of distribution or habitats, cf. in situ conservation.

ex- (prefix) = out, beyond.

ex-collection = collection to which a museum specimen formerly belonged.

ex-holotype = part of a holotype separated from the original, e.g. a slide preparation of a structure like scales.

x-isotype = part of an isotype separated from the original.

ex-type = from the type; used for part of the type separated for study, e.g. scales on a slide.

ex-vessel = refers to activities that occur when a commercial fishing boat lands or unloads a catch. For example, the price received by a captain (at the point of landing) for the catch is an ex-vessel price.

ex-vessel price = the value of fish at first sale by fishermen at the dock, distinguished from wholesale or retail value.

exaggeration = a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for fishermen.

exampli gratia = meaning for example. Usually seen as its abbreviation, e.g.

exapt = adaptation by selection to a different purpose, e.g. the buoyancy function of the swimbladder was exapted as a respiratory organ in some fishes.

excavate = 1) to make a whole or hollow as in nest building.

excavate = 2) abruptly hollowed out as in an anatomical structure.

excess capacity = in the short-term, fishing capacity or number of boats that exceeds the capacity required to capture and handle the allowable catch. In the long-term, fishing capacity that exceeds the level required to ensuring the sustainability of the stock and the fishery at the desired level. Excess capacity is the difference between current fishing capacity and target fishing capacity (Yc – YT)/YT, in which Yc is current yield or catch and YT is target yield or catch (to be evaluated and compared relative to the same stock size). Also called over-capacity, excess harvesting capacity.

excess fish = the number of hatchery-reared fish that return to their hatchery without being caught.

excess harvesting capacity = harvesting capacity in excess of the minimum or least cost amount needed to harvest the desired quantity of fish.

exchange = specimens sent to another museum for a similar number of different specimens to enhance both institutions' collection diversity or to further research interests of the scientists involved.

excised = margin cut out, concave.

excisura major = the notch in the margin of the fish otolith separating the rostrum and antirostrum.

excisura minor = the notch in the margin of the fish otolith separating the postrostrum and pararostrum.

excl. = abbreviation for exclusus.

excl. gen. = abbreviation for excluso genere.

excl. spec. = abbreviation for exclusa speciei.

excl. specim. = abbreviation for exclusis speciminibus.

exclamation mark = !. Used on labels, after a museum abbreviation and after a collection number to indicate that the material has been examined by the author of the work.

excluded = 1) said of a work, name or act which is to be ignored for purposes of zoological nomenclature either under the provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature or because of a disclaimer.

excluded = 2) denoting a specimen or component which has been explicitly omitted or removed from a type series or a name-bearing type.

exclusa speciei = with the species excluded. Abbreviated as excl. spec.

exclusion zone = an area where fishing or even passage is not allowed, e.g. around historic wreck sites, oil and gas installations.

exclusis speciminibus = with the specimens excluded. Abbreviated as excl. specim.

Exclusive Economic Zone = waters out to 200 nautical miles (370.40 km) from shore where international waters begin. Reserved to that country for exploitation and management of resources. Also called the 200-mile limit. Abbreviated as EEZ.

Exclusive Fishing Zone = the exclusive fishing zone out to 200 nautical miles, replaced by the EEZ. Abbreviated as EFZ.

exclusive rights = the right to catch fish exclusive to the holder(s) of the right, i.e. the holders can exclude others without the right from catching fish in the fishery.

excluso genere = with the genus excluded. Abbreviated as excl. gen.

exclusus = excluded, used to indicate elements included in a taxon by a previous author or authors, but considered not to belong to it by the writer and excluded from it by him. Abbreviated excl.

excreta = faeces, urine.

exemplar = 1) a random sample of a taxon.

exemplar = 2) a taxon selected to represent a taxon of higher rank, e.g. a species to represent a genus.

exerge = an obsolete term for a rank equivalent to a subspecies.

exethmoid = parethmoid (a paired deep bone of perichondral origin lying in the front of the orbit under the prefrontal. Also called pleurethmoid, prefrontal, exethmoid and, incorrectly ectethmoid, as this latter is only in birds).

exhalent chamber = branchial chamber (the cavities in which lie the gills).

exhibit collection = museum specimens on display in a public exhibit. The specimens may be designated specifically for the exhibit and thus may be discarded when the exhibit is closed, or stored separately from the main collection. Specimens from the main or permanent collections may be used in exhibits but do not from part of an exhibit collection.

existence value = the economic value of knowing that a resource exits, whether or not there is the ability to use that resource now or in the future.

exit fishery = a fishery directed at a transient phase in the life cycle, e.g. only the juveniles of a species.

exoccipital = a deep, paired, endochondral bone at the posterior end of the cranium on each side of the foramen magnum, often bearing articular facets for the first vertebra.

exocrine pancreas = a well-defined organ which secretes enzymes into the digestive tract by means of a duct.

exogenous feeding = nutrient acquisition during fish ontogeny by food taken in through the mouth and digested in the intestine. See endogenous and absorptive feeding.

exolaterals = small teeth between the endolaterals (near the mouth opening) and the marginals (which line the margin of the disc) in lampreys (Petromyzontidae).

exophialiasis = infection with the fungi Exophiala salmonis and E. pisciphila, of particular importance to cage-cultured salmonids. The fish become lethargic, darken, and occasionally dermal nodules develop. Yellow to white granulomas are found in the viscera.

exophthalmia = protrusion of the eyeballs (plural of exophthalmos).

exophthalmos = protrusion of an eyeball. Usually results from liquid or gas accumulation at the rear of the eye socket or by diseases. Also called popeye.

exophthalmus = exophthalmos.

exorheic = an area where rivers rise and flow to the sea.

exoskeleton = hard parts on the body surface developed in the dermis, called membrane or dermal bones (scales, scutes, spines, plates, elements of the head and pectoral girdle, etc.). In bony fishes, many of these bones migrated to deeper layers below the dermis, forming a secondary exoskeleton.

exotic = not native; introduced from a foreign place or country. Exotics are usually from a completely different fauna and may carry diseases and parasites which native fish have no resistance to, be major predators on native species, or compete for habitat and food. Alien, non-native, invasive and non-indigenous are roughly equivalent. See also alien.

expanded feed = in aquaculture, a type of food composed of low-density pellets that sink slowly. May be used to produce diets high in oil. See also extruded feed.

expatriate = an individual of a species which has been transported to an area in which it cannot reproduce and from which it cannot return except by chance, e.g. the myctophid, Lobianchia dofleini, in the western Atlantic.

expatriation = the process of expatriating or removal by an agency, such as a current to an environment in which it cannot reproduce and from which it returns only by chance.

expatriation area = an area in which a species cannot reproduce or return from and is present in only through reinforcements from another area.

expedition = 1) an extended fishing trip.

expedition = 2) an investigation made with the hope of discovering information but without any clear evidence at hand when begun.

expendable bathy-thermograph = an instrument that records water temperature with depth. Abbreviated as XBT.

experimental fishing = fishing with new gear to test its effectiveness and its effect on fish stocks.

expiscation = an elucidation or investigation, literally a "fishing out".

expiscator = an investigator, from expiscation.

explicit exclusion = 1) in the Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a statement as to an exception to the application of the Code, or a particular provision.

explicit exclusion = 2) of a specimen, scientific name or type, one stated as excluded from the circumscription of a taxon by the author.

explicit typification = an act of typification in which an author designates the type.

exploitable age = any age of fish in a fishable stock.

exploitable biomass = refers to that portion of a stock's biomass that is available to the fishing gear.

exploitation pattern = the distribution of fishing mortality over the age or length composition of the fish population, determined by the type of fishing gear, area and seasonal distribution of fishing, and the growth and migration of the fish. The pattern can be changed by modifications to fishing gear, e.g. increasing mesh or hook size, by changing the ratio of harvest by gears exploiting the fish (gill net, trawl, hook and line, etc.), a modification of the mix of gears in a multi-gear fishery, or by a change in fishing practice such as shift in area or time period fished (possibly as a result of a regulation such as a closed area or season). The pattern is expressed as a series of values ranging from 0.0 to 1.0.

exploitation rate = the proportion of a population at the beginning of a given time period that is caught during that time period (usually on a yearly basis). A catch in a year of 10 fish out of a stock of 100 is a 10% exploitation rate. Also the ratio of fish caught to total mortality (= F/Z when fishing and natural mortality take place concurrently (Ricker, 1975)). Also called rate of exploitation. Abbreviated as E.

exploitation ratio = the ratio of fish caught to total mortality (F/Z).

exploited = fished; harvested and put to use.

exploratory fishing = attempts to discover new resources with proven gear, to assess stocks and environmental conditions.

exposed field or portion = that part of a scale not covered by another scale. Characterized by the ridges low or missing and the possible presence of chromatophores (never in other fields) and ctenii.

exserted = projecting; extending beyond the general level, e.g. the lower pectoral rays of Triglidae which extend beyond the fin membrane.

extant = currently alive as applied to a taxon or of a specimen meaning still in existence. Opposite of extinct in the former case.

extended family = the family condition in Cichlidae where the parents as well as the offspring of previous spawning care for the young. Found in cavity brooders such as Julidochromis and Neolamprologus.

extended loan = a specimen or specimens loaned to a museum or scientist for a long period of time, sometimes indefinitely.

extended river = the lower reach of a coastal river that has been lengthened seaward by lowering sea level.

extender = a chemical solution used to dilute fish sperm for use in artificial fertilisation or cryo-preservation.

extensile = capable of being extended.

extensible = extensile.

extensive culture = aquaculture in ponds by subsistence workers where low densities of fish are kept with minimum control, supplementary feeding, cost and profit.

extension = lengthening of the embryonic axis during the gastrula and early segmentation periods.

extension blood knot = a knot use for tying a dropper line, q.v., to a leader when two or more flies are used at one time. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

extension piece = tapered sections of netting between the belly and the batings and the cod end of a trawl. Also called pipe, swallow piece, tail, tail piece, taper, Y-piece.

extensive pond culture = extensive culture.

extent of occurrence = the area contained within the shortest continuous imaginary boundary which can be drawn to encompass all the known, inferred or projected sites of present occurrence of a taxon, excluding cases of vagrancy. This measure may exclude discontinuities or disjunctions within the overall distributions of taxa, e.g. large areas of obviously unsuitable habitat.

exterilium = a detached and trailing gut with many cirri and the anal opening on the dorsal edge found in larvae of some species, possibly of Brotulidae (Fraser and Smith, 1974).

exterior = outer.

external brooder = an ecological group comprising a series of reproductive guilds (q.v.) where the eggs are transferred to some structure on the fish for incubation. Structures vary from the mouth and gill cavity to specialised marsupia.

external gill = a gill extending beyond the gill slit or operculum, often found in larvae. e.g. embryos of some viviparous Elasmobranchii, the larvae of Gymnarchus, Polypterus and Protopterus.

external yolk syncytial layer = portion of the yolk syncytial layer outside the blastoderm margin during epiboly.

extinct = 1) no longer living as applied to a taxon. Opposite of extant.

extinct = 2) in the IUCN Criteria for threatened species, a taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. Abbreviated as EX.

extinct in the wild = in the IUCN Criteria for threatened species, a taxon is Extinct in the Wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalised population (or populations) well outside the past range. A taxon is presumed extinct in the wild when exhaustive surveys in known and/or expected habitat, at appropriate times (diurnal, seasonal, annual), throughout its historic range have failed to record an individual. Surveys should be over a time frame appropriate to the taxon's life cycle and life form. Abbreviated as EW.

extinction = death of all members of a clade or taxon.

extinction coefficient = a coefficient measuring the rate of extinction, or diminution, with distance of transmitted light in sea water.

extirpated = no longer living in an area under consideration, e.g. nationally; locally extinct.

Extra E = the highest grade of freshness in the European community.

extra- (prefix) = outside, beyond.

extra large = a grade of dried and salted cod (Newfoundland).

extra small = a grade of dried and salted cod (Newfoundland).

extrabranchial chamber = space between the operculum and the gills.

extractive use = removal from a resource, such as fish by fishing.

extralimital = beyond the limits (of a regional study or an identification key).

extramedullary haematopoiesis = in fishes, formation of blood outside the haematopoietic tissue in the kidney.

extrascapula (plural extrascapulae) = small bones bordering the posterior margin of the skull roof in primitive Teleostomi. They apparently originate from enlarged scales. One of a series of from 2-8 bones known variously as cervicals, extrascapulars, nuchalia, postparietals, scale bones, supratemporals or tabulars.

extrascapulae = plural of extrascapula.

extreme fluctuations = extreme fluctuations occur in a number of taxa where population size or distribution area varies widely, rapidly and frequently, typically with a variation greater than one order of magnitude, i.e. a tenfold increase or decrease.

extreme high water = the highest elevation reached by the sea as recorded by a water level gauge during a given period.

extreme low water = the lowest elevation reached by the sea as recorded by a water level gauge during a given period.

extrinsic muscle = a muscle that originates separately or away from the structure (such as a bone) it inserts on. The opposite is intrinsic.

extrinsic gas bladder muscles = muscles with one end inserting on the gas bladder and the other end inserting elsewhere.

extrinsic eye muscles = muscles attached to the eyeball and orbital wall for eye movement. The same in jawed and jawless fishes except the superior obliques which attach posteriorly in the orbit in the jawless fishes instead of anteriorly.

extrinsic sonic muscles = usually a pair, two pairs or more rarely three pairs of muscles inserted on the gas bladder and a neighbouring structure such as a bone (ribs, parapophyses), perhaps via ligaments. Insertions vary with the species and family. The muscles produce sounds by contracting the gas bladder. See also intrinsic sonic muscles.

extruded feed = food that has been extruded from a machine having been heated to 120°C under high pressure. The resulting pellets float, have better digestibility of starch but may be poor in vitamins. See also expanded feed.

extrusion = the process of pushing out eggs by a spawning female.

eye = 1) the point of attachment for the line on a hook or anchor.

eye = 2) opening at the inner end of the funnel in fish traps and pots.

eye = 3) a reference to markings on a fish body, often incorporated in the fish name.

eye = 4) as fish eye, variously an eye like that of a fish, a wide-angle lens on a camera covering about 180°, a weld defect having a hole or piece of matter surrounded by a circular area of brightness, a diamond or other gem cut too thin for proper brilliance, a small blemish in finished paper caused by a crushed and glazed particle, a cold or suspicious stare, blank, expressionless, ocular lymphomatosis in fowl, in oil drilling fluids, slang for a globule of partly hydrated polymer formed by poor dispersion during mixing. About 0.2-0.5 inches in size, they consist of a granule of unhydrated polymer covered by hydrated polymer and so are impervious to water and do not disperse.

eye = backstrop norman (a special u-shaped bolt to which the backstrop is attached).

eye diameter = the greatest distance in a straight line across the cornea between the borders of the cartilaginous eye-ball. Often misapplied to orbit diameter, q.v.

eye fluke disease = a disease caused by the metacercaria of strigeid trematodes (Diplostomum). The life cycle involves a snail, fish and the final host, a bird. Larval flukes invade the fish through the gills and reach the eye capillaries through the blood stream. Blindness can result. Symptoms include cloudy eyes and popeyes but these also have other causes. Small white cataracts may develop. Wild snails should be avoided in the aquarium. Also called diplostomiasis.

eye muscles = the muscles that move the eye up, down, backward and medially. These are the the inferior, medial, lateral, and superior recti, plus the superior and inferior oblique muscles.

eye notch = in sharks, a sharp anterior or posterior indentation in the eyelid, dividing the upper and lower eyelids.

eye protrusion = exophthalmia, popeye.

eye spot = see eye-spot.

eye stalk = a movable peduncle bearing the eye of varying length.

eye stripe = a stripe of pigment passing through the eye region on the head of a fish, a form of disruptive colouration, q.v.

eye worm disease = eye fluke disease.

eye-fork length = straight or curved-body length between the posterior orbit and the fork of the tail; used in measuring billfish species. Abbreviated as EFL.

eye-spot = 1) a photosensitive structure in the anterior ventral surface of the brain in Amphioxi; contains primitive homologues of rods and cones and is probably able to detect differences in quantity of light but incapable of forming an image.

eye-spot = 2) any spot resembling an eye, often functioning to distract or confuse predators. Also called an ocellus.

eyed = eggs at a development stage of 38 days, e.g. in chinook salmon at 45°F (stages are green at 0 days, eyed at 38 days, sack fry at 69 days, swim up at 92 days and button up at 115 days).

eyed egg = a fish egg containing an embryo that has developed enough so that the black spot of the eyes are visible through the egg membrane. Indicates that the egg is less sensitive to movement and can be handled safely, e.g. for transportation.

eyed embryo = eyed egg.

eyed hook = the usual form of hook with a round hole at the end opposite the point for tying on the line.

eyed side = the side in flatfishes bearing both eyes, the uppermost side when resting on the bottom, opposite to the blind side. Also called upper surface but not dorsal surface as it is a flank.

eyelet = the rings or guides on a fishing rod through which the line passes.

eyemouth cure = brined and lightly smoked haddock headed and split so the bone is on the right hand side.

eyestalk = a moveable, elongate peduncle bearing an eye at the tip, e.g. in the larvae of Idiacanthidae. Placodermi and Chondrichthyes have an eyestalk, a small cartilage linking the eyeball to the braincase.

eyot = a small island in a river formed by deposition of sediment. Usually long and narrow and may become permanent but also eroded and re-formed downstream. Numerous eyots form a braided channel. Also called ait.

F

F = 1) the fishing mortality rate in a particular stock. It is roughly the proportion of the fishable stock that is caught in a year and is derived mathematically from relations between the number of fish alive in a stock and the number of fish caught. When F is 0, no fish are being caught from a given stock. When F is 0.2 then 18% of the fish are being caught and this is almost the same as the exploitation rate and the rate best for most groundfish fisheries. At an F of 0.5, 39% of the fish are being caught and at 1.0 63%. F can exceed 1.0 though this would not be good fishery policy. See also Fmax and FMSY below.

F= 2) Fahrenheit.

f = abbreviation for effective fishing effort (fishing effort, e.g. hooks per day, adjusted or standardised, when necessary, so that each increase in the adjusted unit causes a proportional increase in instantaneous rate of fishing. Controls purported to limit effective effort imply that the fishing mortality rate is to be limited. Abbreviated as F/q, F/q or f).

f = abbreviation for effective fishing effort (fishing effort, e.g. hooks per day, adjusted or standardised, when necessary, so that each increase in the adjusted unit causes a proportional increase in instantaneous rate of fishing. Controls purported to limit effective effort imply that the fishing mortality rate is to be limited. Abbreviated as F/q, F/q or f).

f. = 1) abbreviation for forma or form (i.e. a neutral term for a single individual, phenon, or taxon; a group; or an infrasubspecific group, or in the past, a subspecies (not recommended usage)). According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature the use of the term "form" before 1961 is not to be interpreted as an express statement of either subspecific or infrasubspecific rank and after 1960 it is to be regarded as of infrasubspecific rank).

f. = an abbreviation for figura, meaning figure or illustration.

(f) = female.

F0 = a wild-caught fish kept in captivity; the parental generation in a breeding programme.

F0 = in food inspection, an F-value (q.v.) where the reference temperature is 121.1°C and the z-value is 10C° and the target organism is Clostridium botulinum. F0 = F (Tref = 121°C, z = 10C°) = 3.0 minutes where the process results in a 12 log reduction of Clostridium botulinum. Also called sterilizing value.

F/O = fish only.

F1 = 1) first filial; a fish one generation away from the parental generation.

F1 = 2) one generation removed from wild-caught fish in a breeding programme.

F2 = second filial; and so on as above.

F0.1 or F 0.1(F zero point one) = the fishing mortality rate at which the marginal yield-per-recruit, i.e. the increase in yield-per-recruit in weight for an increase in one unit of fishing mortality, is only 10 percent of the marginal yield-per-recruit on the unexploited stock. The fishing mortality rate at which the slope of the yield-per-recruit curve is only one-tenth the slope of the curve at its origin. It is an approximation to the level of fishing mortality that will generate the maximum sustainable yield when a more accurate estimate is not possible. Most TACs are based on this target fishing mortality which aims at catching 18 fish out of every 100. Fishing at greater than F 0.1 yields few more fish for a much greater effort. It also gives a greater safety margin against overfishing than using FMAX. as is is always lower. It lets more fish survive to grow and spawn, reducing the risk of recruitment failure, increasing the stock's biomass and giving higher catch rates and so costing less to catch the same weight of fish. Fish in the catch are bigger and more economically viable on a per pound basis. F 0.1 management is usually a more stable fishery from year to year than FMAX management.

F1 = the offspring resulting from a parent cross, the first generation (F2 is the second generation).

F10% or F10% = the level of fishing mortality, F, at which an average female in the population will produce 10% of the eggs that would be produced by a female that was left to live out her natural life span, i.e. unfished.

F30%SPR = F corresponding to a spawning stock biomass per recruit (SSB/R) which is 30% of the SSB/R obtained when F=O.

F/q = abbreviation for effective fishing effort (fishing effort, e.g. hooks per day, adjusted or standardised, when necessary, so that each increase in the adjusted unit causes a proportional increase in instantaneous rate of fishing. Controls purported to limit effective effort imply that the fishing mortality rate is to be limited. Abbreviated as F/q or f).

F/q = abbreviation for effective fishing effort (fishing effort, e.g. hooks per day, adjusted or standardised, when necessary, so that each increase in the adjusted unit causes a proportional increase in instantaneous rate of fishing. Controls purported to limit effective effort imply that the fishing mortality rate is to be limited. Abbreviated as F/q or f).

F-ratio = the ratio of fishing mortality on the oldest age group to the fishing mortality of the preceding age group. Annual F-ratios are estimable parameters in many tuned virtual population analysis assessments.

F-value = in food inspection, the total lethal effect of heat applied; the time/temperature process at the cold spot of the product. The value is expressed as equivalent minutes at a specific reference temperature (Tref) and a specific z-value, e.g. F (Tref = 65°C, z = 6.7 C°) = 5.9 minutes. Also called the accumulated lethality.

faarlin = farlin.

fabrication = some fish species have been named but are based on fabricated specimens, comprising parts of more than one fish species. See also hoax where the Code comes into play; whether it does in the case of fabricated specimens is unclear (Eschmeyer, 1998).

face = 1) a bone surface.

face = 2) the fleshy part of a cod's head, eaten as a delicacy in Newfoundland.

face = 3) the inner or split side of a dried and salted cod.

face appearance = a commercial measure of fish flesh surface ranging from smooth faced to very rough faced. Flakiness, flesh separation, roughness and evenness are assessed.

face view = side view along the odd-numbered cleavage planes during the cleavage or blastula periods.

facet = an articulating bone surface, either flat or slightly curved.

facial = pertaining to the face.

facial lobe = tuberculum impar (the lateral middle walls of the fourth ventricle of the brain, each expanded as two lobes and meeting in the midline to separate the ventricle into posterior and anterior halves). Associated with cranial nerve VII.

facial nerve = cranial nerve VII. In fishes, motor to muscles of hyoid arch (hyomandibula); sensory to geniculate ganglion, sensory to taste bud system; sensory to lateral line organs of snout. See cranial nerves.

facies (plural facies) = face, a bone surface.

facsimile = an exact copy of a work, usually in taxonomy, by photography or scanning. The date of publication is the same as the original for nomenclatural purposes.

factory = a building or plant with facilities for the processing of fish.

factory fish = Tilapia spp., cichlids used extensively for fish farming. They tolerate crowding and their feed is corn and soy pellets rather than meat-based food. See also aquatic chicken.

factory ship = a large stern trawler equipped with a plant for gutting, filleting, freezing and storing fish, for processing fish oil and fish meal, and sometimes canning. Catches its own fish and takes fish from other ships to process.

facultative = not limited to; not dependent on. Opposite of obligatory, e.g. Oncorhynchus mykiss is a facultative marine fish, being capable of entering freshwater.

facultative lecithotrophic live bearer = a reproductive guild (q.v.) where eggs are sometimes fertilised internally by accident when gonopores of otherwise oviparous fish are close together. Eggs may be retained in the female and some early development occurs there (rarely beyond cleavage). Weight decreases during embryonic development, e.g. Rivulus marmoratus, Galeus polli. See also obligate lecithotrophic live bearer.

facultative parasite = a parasite which can exist independently as well as being parasitic. Compare obligate parasite.

facultative pond = a pond about 1.0-1.5 m deep which is aerobic during the day but at night for a few hours is anaerobic.

FAD = 1) fish aggregating device.

FAD = 2) fish attracting device; variant on FAD (1).

faecal cast = a string of faeces, mucoid and gelatinous, trailing from the anus of a fish.

faeces = undigested food and processed food remains expelled from the digestive system. Also spelled feces.

fag = female fish monger.

faginism = the regular preying of adults on young of their own species. This cannibalism enables the adults to exploit a lower trophic level than it could itself, e.g. young may feed on zooplankton that is too small for adults to catch effectively and too small to sustain adults.

fagot = faggot.

faggot = a triangular stack of split and salted cod for drying in Newfoundland.

Fahrenheit = a measure of temperature used in the U.S.A. and in older literature. Abbreviated as F. The conversion is ºF = (ºC x 9/5) + 32 and ºC = (ºF - 32) x 5/9. Usually presented as ºF (or ºC) but strictly 3ºF is an actual temperature while 3Fº is a range of three degrees. Water freezes at 32°F and boils at 212°F.

fail = 1) fell.

fail = 2) a cry used by a watcher of fish runs meaning to be quick and lower the net into the water (Scottish dialect).

fair maid = dried pilchard (southwest England).

fair trade fish = a system whereby a fair price is paid for fish that are caught according to the best social and environmental standards.

fairway = the navigable part of a river.

fairy sparks = phosphorescence on decaying fish, wood and other materials.

fairy tales = for fairy tales involving fish see folk tales.

faithful friend = fiel amigo.

fake fish = 1) physical or virtual representations of fish used in aquaria, ponds or on computer screens as a low maintenance version for the real thing. Also rubber products as gag gifts for unsuccessful fishermen.

fake fish = 2) a closed apple pie, shaped like a fish, used in inland Europe where real fish were often not readily available for days designated as no meat days according to the Catholic religion.

falaj = a term for a qanat in the Arabian Penisnula (an underground water channel constructed in alluvial fan material to tap the water table and provide a constant flow of water. Mostly found in the Middle East and a habitat there for fishes. Called karez in central Asia and Afghanistan and foggara in North Africa). Plural is aflaj.

falcate = sickle shaped; long, narrow and deeply concave or curved.

falciform = curved like a scythe, long and narrow.

falciform ligament = a remnant of the ventral mesentery in the peritoneal cavity attaching the liver to the ventral body wall.

falciform process = a ridge on the choroid coat on the floor of the eyeball. A muscle attaches to the process and the lens, its contraction drawing the lens backwards. The process probably has a nutritive function. Found in most teleosts.

falculate = a shape that is curved and sharp-pointed, like a claw.

fall = the season of the year characterised by falling water temperatures and shorter photoperiods, September to November in the northern hemisphere.

fall(s) = 1) free-falling water over a cliff; falls are often a barrier to fish movement, sometimes a complete barrier or only passable to fish able to leap such as salmonids. Falls may refer to one waterfall or a series.

fall(s) = 2) a very fast whitewater cascade.

fall cure = cod lightly salted and pickled containing 45-48% moisture and prepared late in the year in Newfoundland and Gaspé. Has more moisture than the Gaspé cure and is prepared later in the year.

fall fishery = the cod fishery of Newfoundland carried out between the end of the spring and summer fishery and Christmas.

fall line = a line on a map joining waterfalls on approximately parallel rivers leaving the mountains for the plains. Often a limit to fish migration and distribution.

fall overturn = mixing of waters in a lake caused by cooling of surface waters, convection currents and wind action. Presumably an American phenomenon (see also autumn overturn). Also called fall turnover.

fall run = anadromous fish returning to spawn in the fall.

fall turnover = fall overturn.

fall-run fish = anadromous fish that return to spawn in the fall or early winter.

falldown = a tree that has fallen into the water. Also called laydown.

falling gear = cover pots and lantern nets, i.e. nets that fall on the fish from above, generally hand-operated in very shallow waters.

falling net = a cone-shaped net thrown onto the surface of the water, trapping fish as it sinks.

fallowing = 1) leaving areas used for fish production to recover for part or all of a season.

fallowing = 2) in aquaculture, cages or ponds left without fish for a period of time.

falls = see fall(s).

false annulus = 1) an area of slow growth that is not counted as an annulus on scales, usually due to an unseasonal lack of food, high temperatures or reduced oxygen levels. The circuli become closely packed rapidly rather than gradually.

false annulus = 2) a check ring on scales or otoliths which occurs before the first annulus and fairly close to the focus (scales) or nucleus (otoliths).

false belly = chafing gear (any materials attached to wear points on nets). Attached below the belly of a trawl. Also called rubber.

false bottom = deep scattering layer (a layer in mid-depths of the sea detected by echo sounders, which rises at night and sinks during the day. Composed of organisms, many of which have a gas filled chamber, such as certain jellyfish and fishes).

false cast = casting the fly line forward and back in the air as a means to lengthen the amount of line that extends from the rod. The purpose is dry the fly or change the path of the line.

false egg = an egg-like spot, e.g. on the anal fin of mouthbrooding Cichlidae. The male cichlid displays these spots to a female who sucks at the spots assuming them to be real eggs; the male releases sperm that fertilise the eggs in the mouth of the female. Also called egg spots or egg dummies.

false gill = pseudobranch (a small gill (a hemibranch) found on the inside of the gill cover near the base. Despite the prefix pseudo it appears to be serially homologous with the other gills).

fam. = abbreviation for family.

family = 1) a category next above subfamily and next below superfamily.

family = 2) an individual taxon of the category "family", e.g. Carangidae. The family-group is the assemblage of co-ordinate categories superfamily, family, subfamily, and tribe (and which have the endings -oidea (recommended), -idae, -inae, and –ini (recommended) which is above the genus-group in the taxonomic hierarchy. A nominal family is a named family objectively defined by its type-genus; thus the nominal family Salmonidae is always the one to which its type-genus, Salmo, belongs. The family-group is the highest ranking group of taxa whose names are fully regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.

family = 3) a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for sardines.

family cultivation = aquaculture designed to feed to farmer's family from a family pond, not for commercial sale.

family group = the ranks of superfamily, family, subfamily, tribe and any other rank below superfamily and above genus group.

family name = the scientific name of a taxon of family rank, ending with -idae.

family selection = an artificial selection program in which superior families (related individuals) rather than superior individuals are chosen for breeding.

famine food = food used in times of poverty or starvation and not usually eaten, or in good times considered socially unacceptable because of its association with poverty, e.g. fish and shellfish on the Atlantic coast of Canada; lobster especially being associated with poverty so people would bury lobster shells in their backyards so that neighbours would not know they were reduced to eating lobster (lobster now being an expensive luxury item); apprentices in mediaeval London protested that their diet was over-reliant on salmon.

fan cast = casting sequentially in an arc around the angler in order to cover the fishable area.

fancy = aquarium developed strains or varieties of fishes.

fanning = movement of the fins over an egg mass or fry to aerate them and remove sediment and to clear nest sites of debris.

far-away gear = a trawl line with lines and hooks spaced well apart.

farctate = a filled or solid structure, as opposed to one that is tubular or hollow.

faring = seeking or fishing mackerel (Norfolk dialect) or other fishes (English dialect).

farlan = farlin.

farlane = farlin.

farland = farlin.

farlen = farlin.

farlin = a herring box or trough where the fish are placed for gutting (Scottish dialect). Also spelled faarlin, farlan, farlane, farlen and farland.

farm = fish farm (an aquaculture facility).

farm dam = an Australian reservoir providing water for cattle but also sometimes stocked with fish.

farm gate price = in aquaculture, the price for a product at the production site, not taking account of any transportation or subsequent handling costs.

farm pond = a pond dug for agricultural purposes but a term also used for aquaculture and recreational fishing ponds.

farmerfish = fish which cultivate and defend territories of filamentous algae turfs, e.g. damselfishes of the genus Stegastes among staghorn coral thickets.

farming fish = farmerfish.

faro = a rhomboid-shaped, steep-sided, continental shelf atoll.

farsakh = a Persian (Iranian) measure of distance still in use in the late twentieth century to the confusion of itinerant ichthyologists. Roughly 5.6 km or the distance traveled on foot in one hour. Will be less distance on rough terrain and depending on the vagaries of camel temperaments. Also called فرسنگ farsang.

farsang = farsakh.

fascicle = a bound part of a volume or series issued separately; a part. Often called a number in journals or serial publications.

fascis mirabilis = a set of parallel arterial and venous capillaries in the gas gland of some gas bladders that, using the countercurrent principle, increases gas tensions in the blood, and enables the gland to secrete gas into the gas bladder. Also called rete mirabile, red gland, or red body.

fast repetitive tick = a high-pitched sound caused by a stream of air bubbles expelled from the anus of herring (Clupea pallasii). Apparently used in communication. Abbreviated as FRT and presumably pronounced with an added "a" (http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99994343, downloaded 29 November 2003). See also Ig Nobel.

fast, to come = expression used when the trawl snags an obstruction on the sea floor.

fastener = an obstruction on the sea floor that can foul and damage fishing gear.

fat = a large, box-like trough in which cod livers were placed to render oil (Newfoundland). See also vat and vate.

fath = fathom.

Father of Angling = Izaak Walton (1593-1683), author of "The Compleat Angler", first published in 1653 and the classical work on angling.

Father of Ichthyology = Peter Arctaedius (Peter Artedi, 1705-1735), whose work on ichthyology was edited by Linnaeus and incorporated into his classificatory works after Artedi drowned in an Amsterdam canal one dark night.

fathom = a measure of water depth or other nautical lengths such as cables, 1.8288 metres, 6 feet or 2 yards. Abbreviated as fath.

fattening pond = a pond where fish are grown to marketable size. Also called finishing pond.

fatty eyelid = adipose eyelid.

fatty fish = fish with fat in the body tissues, e.g. Clupeidae, Scombridae; usually more than 2% in the tissues.

fauna = the animals inhabiting a particular region, taken collectively; a faunal work (a list of the animal species in a given area, habitat or time).

Fauna = a published work describing the animals in an area; a faunal work.

faunistics = the study of all or part of the fauna of a particular region or locality.

fazeeq = light salted fish product prepared by brine curing. Also spelled fessikh (Egypt, Sudan).

Fcoll = the rate of fishing which, if continued, would cause the stock to collapse.

Fcomfie = F corresponding to the minimum of Fmed (q.v.), FMSY (q.v.) and Fcrash (q.v.).

Fcrash or Fcrash or FCRASH = the fishing mortality rate corresponding to an equilibrium spawner-per-recruit (SPR) equal to the inverse of the survival ratio at the origin of the stock-recruitment relationship. Used as a biological reference point. A stock exploited indefinitely at Fcrash is expected to collapse sooner or later due to recruitment failure, hence the term Fcrash. Also called Ft.

FCZ = abbreviation for Fishery Conservation Zone.

feague = an old practice of placing some stimulant like ginger in a horse's anus to make the animal carry its tail up and appear lively. Reputedly live eels were also used.

feasibility fishing = fishing undertaken to test the economic viability of a new fishery.

Feast of the Seven Fishes = or Festa dei sette pesci, an Italian tradition on Christmas Eve (also La Vigilia or the vigil in Italian, commemorating the midnight birth of Jesus). The meal consists of seven seafoods including fish and other marine organisms, e.g. anchovies, sardines, dried salt cod, smelts, eels, squid, octopus, shrimp, mussels, oysters, and clams. Seafood is eaten as this relates to the Catholic tradition of abstinence, in this case from meat. The number seven may relate to the sacraments in the Catholic church.

feather = natural or artificial feathers attached to hand line gear for attracting fishes.

fecal cast = faecal cast.

feces = faeces.

fecund = prolific, capable of, or producing, many offspring.

fecundation = impregnation or fertilisation of the egg.

fecundity = egg production, fertility, the potential reproductive capacity of an organism or a population, the number of eggs produced on average by a female of a given size or age. Usually increases with age and size.

fecundity-per-recruit = the total fecundity, e.g. number of eggs, produced of a cohort (or age class) during its entire lifespan, or by a total stock in one year, divided by the number of recruits to that stock or at the origin of the cohort. Obtained from an analytical yield-per-recruit model assuming a steady state system.

fee fishery = put-and-take fishery (the placing of hatchery-raised fish in waters to be caught by fishermen for a payment).

feed (noun) = manufactured food for fish in aquaculture.

feed additive = a non-nutritive component in a feed formulation. Includes binders, stimulants, antioxidants, antimicrobials, enzymes, pigments, hormones, medicines, etc.

feed conversion efficiency = a measure of the effectiveness of a formulated fish diet expressed as the weight in kilogrammes of feed needed to produce 1 kilogramme of fish flesh in aquaculture.

feed deprivation = withholding of food in aquaculture before harvesting. Ensures feed residues are absent from the gut.

feed efficiency = wet weight gain per unit feed consumed. May be calculated as gain divided by amount of feed provided thus including an error relating to unconsumed feed waste.

feed gain ratio = in aquaculture, the quantity of feed required to produce a given weight gain; the reciprocal of feed efficiency.

feed pond = a separate pond used to produce food for fish in an aquaculture facility.

feed selection = the choice made by a fish when several feeds are offered simultaneously. Choice may be assessed visually, by examination of gut contents, triggering of self-feeders or uneaten food on the bottom of a tank.

feed the fish = clean the fish (to skin or lead on a victim as in a carnival game).

feed the fishes = 1) to be seasick.

feed the fishes = 2) murdered, whether weighted and sunk or not.

feed the fishes = 3) death by drowning.

feed utilisation = the weight increase per unit of utilised feed in aquaculture.

feeder = 1) a tributary that runs into a larger water body.

feeder = 2) in European angling a container that carries groundbait along with the rig. It is usually a small cylinder 4 cm x 2 cm with a lead strip at the base to give it some weight and it is attached by a loop of line to the rig. The feeder can be designed to drop all its contained bait at once or allow small amounts to trickle out. Those designed for maggots have holes through which the maggots exit. Also called swimfeeder.

feeder channel = a channel supplying water to any basin.

feeding chart = a table of values used as a guide for levels of feeding for fish. Parameters include fish size, temperature, vitamin levels, quantities, etc.

feeding fishery = a fishery based on fish that congregate on their food source.

feeding frenzy = 1) a group of sharks, or other predatory fish, attacking a whale body, a large fish or a school of fish.

feeding frenzy = 2) by analogy with the above, excessive media attention.

feeding fry = a young fish whose yolk sac has been absorbed and is now feeding.

feeding ground = 1) where fish feed or where food is abundant and available.

feeding ground = 2) a place where fish are fed.

feeding guild = a group of unrelated fish that feed on similar food items, e.g. benthivore, detritivore, herbivore, insectivore, omnivore, planktivore, piscivore, etc (all q.v.). Also called trophic guild.

feeding habit = typical behaviour of fish looking for food or feeding.

feeding intensity = the amount of food taken by an individual in respect to its weight.

feeding level = the level at which feed is offered to fish over unit time, usually the percentage of fish body weight per time. Also called feeding rate.

feeding mixture = food mixture.

feeding place = the part of the feeding ground where fish actually feed.

feeding rate = the amount of food provided over a given time interval in aquaculture.

feeding ratio = weight of food consumed divided by increase in weight over a given time.

feeding standard = the amount of nutrients required by fishes.

feeding times = the time of day when a fish is most active; usually related to daylight, tides and temperature.

feeding value = the nutritive value of food used in aquaculture.

feedy fish = fish that have been feeding heavily before capture and therefore liable to belly burst, q.v. Used particularly for pelagic fish feeding on plankton blooms. Feedy fish are liable to spoil quickly and are not preferred for preservation of the whole fish for human consumption.

Feejee Mermaid = reputedly a mermaid caught near the Fiji Islands and exhibited in New York by a "Dr. J. Griffin", an English gentleman, and then by the showman P. T. Barnum. Griffin was a fraud perpetrated by Barnum for heightening public interest. The mermaid was a traditional art form of Asia, formed by stitching an upper ape body to a fish body. Feejee Mermaid is now used as a generic term for any fake mermaid seen in sideshows and bars, and even in an episode of the X-Files ("Humbug" in season 2, episode 20).

feet per minute = 0.5080 cm/s, 0.0167 ft/s. Abbreviated as ft/min.

feet per second = 30.48 cm/s. Abbreviated as ft/s.

feeth = a salmon net fixed on stakes and stretched into the bed of a river (Scottish dialect). Also spelled feith and fieth.

feeth net = the net of a feeth.

feeth set = the part of a river and its bank where a feeth is set.

feeth shot = the part of a river and its bank where a feeth is set.

feith net = the net of a feeth.

feith set = the part of a river and its bank where a feith is set.

feith shot = the part of a river and its bank where a feith is set.

fell = casting a net from a boat in salmon fishing (Scottish dialect). Also spelled fail.

feminisation = method of direct sex reversal by the treatment of animals with doses of female hormones, e.g. oestradiol-17b, in the feed during the early stages of development. Drugs or genetic manipulation may also be used. Female fish are beneficial to salmonid and flatfish farmers where the females are more desirable due to the later onset of maturity.

fen = type of wetland that accumulates peat deposits. Fens are less acidic than bogs, deriving most of their water from groundwater rich in calcium and magnesium.

fence month = a closed season for fishing (archaic, more used for deer but by analogy applied to fishing too).

fence net = a net held in place by stakes, anchors, etc., or a free-floating one used to enclose an area in order to capture fishes alive and unharmed, e.g. coral reef fishes for aquaria.

fence time = spawning time for fish (or breeding time for such animals as deer) when they cannot be caught legally.

fender = a stone weight used to sink a fishing line (Scottish dialect).

fenestra = a small aperture, especially in a bone, often used for paired openings.

feral = fish escaped from domestication and reverted to wild state but remaining distinct from other species. May infect farmed fish with diseases, interbreed with wild stocks, or dominate ecosystems.

fermented ensilage = fermentation generating organic acids that conserve the fish product.

fermented fish paste = salted, macerated fish allowed to ferment in the Far East. Spices and colourings may be added.

fermented fish sauce = fermented whole fish, processed by their own gastric enzymes and by microorganisms with salt in the Far East.

fermented flatfish with yam = a North Korean recipe, similar to traditional kimchee (q.v.), but more famous on a Twitter feed by an Austrian comedian who posts Korean Central News Agency reports as unintentionally funny.

ferruginous = reddish-brown, the colour of rusty iron.

ferrying = taking fish from a trawler to the fish carrier. Also known as trunking and boarding.

fertilisation = 1) fusion of the male and female reproductive cells.

fertilisation = 2) in aquaculture, the improvement of water productivity by addition of natural or artificial compounds.

fertiliser = abundant catches of fish were once spread on fields and used as fertiliser for crops.

fessikh = fazeeq.

fever = a collective noun (a noun that denotes a collection of persons or things regarded as a unit) for stingrays.

Fextinction or Fextinction or FEXTINCTION = Fcrash.

ff. = abbreviation for folios following, after a page number reference indicating the following pages are relevant.

fh = a French measure of water hardness, 10.0 p.p.m. calcium carbonate.

Fhigh or FHIGH = F corresponding to a spawning stock biomass per recruit (equal to the inverse of the 90% percentile of the observed R/SSB). A level of F where recruitment has not been sufficient to balance the mortality in about 9 years of 10. Exploitation at this level is therefore likely to result in a decrease in the stock.

fibre FISH = a laboratory technique in which fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) is done on chromosomes that have been mechanically stretched.

fibred cod = shredded cod (small pickle cured cod reduced to small dried fibres in a machine. Drying is at 65.5°C. Also called flaked cod).

fibres of Sharpey = fibres in scales of Brachiopterygii and Lepisosteidae.

fibrillary plate = the fibrous lamella or disk forming the base of a teleost scale.

fibrocartilage = cartilage containing collagen fibres, e.g. the ventral intermandibular tendon of the cownose ray (Rhinoptera bonasus) makes a sharp turn as it passes dorsally around the corner of the jaws and there is a fibrocartilaginous pad associated with the tendon along the inner edge of this sharp bend.

fictional fish = see named fish and the category "fictional fish" in Wikipedia.

fiddle = a plastic or wooden braiding needle used in mending fish nets.

fide = on the authority of, according to, with reference to a publication or to a cited published statement. From the Latin, by faith.

fiel amigo = the Portuguese nickname for salt cod, meaning faithful friend, as it was a mainstay of the diet.

field = 1) one of the four sectors of a scale, namely anterior (basal or imbedded), posterior (apical or exposed) and the two lateral fields (the upper and lower sectors).

field = 2) the smallest unit of data in a database.

field = 3) a general term for the place where fish are captured, as in "field work", "field research", despite the fact that few fishes are caught in fields.

field = 4) in taxonomy, a taxon or a set of taxa.

field catalogue = list of specimens prepared by the person capturing the fish and including location, date of capture, method of capture, etc. May be supplemented by a field journal.

field character = a character easily observed under natural conditions, e.g. an identification character detectable on fish in the hand or in the water.

field guide = a pocket-size book or a CD containing keys for identification, illustrations and/or photographs of the fish, distribution maps and some life history notes. Used to identify fish captured during field work either in the field or later in the laboratory.

field identification = the determination of the taxonomic identity of an individual specimen, under field conditions, often with the aid of keys.

field journal = a book with blank pages to contain field notes. May be stored directly in a handheld or laptop computer without going through a paper stage. However working with fish often involves wet or slimy hands and pencil and paper are still useful.

field notes = observations in a journal format on collections made, their habitat and locality, field conditions, colour in life, etc. recorded when the collections were made.

field number = one of a series of sequential numbers given to a specimen or collection in the field that links it with documentation. Catalogue numbers can only be assigned in the museum as other collections may be being made simultaneously. The field number is written on a field tag with the specimen or placed in the jar if there are many specimens and is also recorded in field notes and field catalogues.

field research = study of fishes in their natural habitat.

field tag = a label attached to specimens or in a collection jar or bag, marked with a field number or even full collection data (as opposed to a museum label with subsequent identification of specimens and formally worked out locality data).

field work = study and/or capture of fishes in their natural habitat.

fig. = abbreviation of figura, meaning figure or illustration.

figura = figure or illustration. Abbreviated as f.

fighting belt = a belt strapped to the waist to aid in long fights with a fish. It has a padded oval shape surface to be rested on the abdomen and with a cylindrical holder in the middle for the rod butt to rest it. Most come with a metal shaft at the end of the cylindrical holder for the rod that has a gimbal butt. This avoids the rod from turning around and will only allow a vertical movement.

fighting chair = a chair bolted to the deck of a boat, having a foot rest, a gimballed socket for the rod but and a harness attached to the rod. It allows a fisherman to use back and leg muscles to fight a large marine fish, dropping the rod from vertical to horizontal with a swift reel of slack gained. Also called fishing chair.

fighting colour =a colour pattern that develops when fish, usually male, defend a territory.

fighting fish = a member of the labyrinth fish genus Betta (Osphronemidae), the males of which that engages in ritualistic reproductive fights.

Fighting Hagfish = the fictional mascot of fictional Central Maine State University, in a 2010 episode of the TV show "Bones".

figura = figure or illustration. Abbreviated as f.

figure = in printed works a graph, diagram or illustration.

figure eight knot = a knot used in angling for attaching leaders, traces and other terminal tackle to a line. Easy to tie and to interchange tackle. Various websites have animated steps showing how to tie this knot.

figure-type = in taxonomy, an original figure or illustration of a specimen; an iconotype, q.v.

figured specimen = figure-type.

Fiji Mermaid = Feejee Mermaid.

fila = a thread-like structure, a filament. Eleotrioides helsdingeni is provided with two caudal fila - caudal rays prolonged beyond the rest of the fin while Sturisoma aureum has one.

filament = 1) fishing line comprised of single or multiple strands.

filament = 2) fila.

filamentous = with a thread-like projection.

filch = 1) a rod, line and hook used to steal goods from a vendor's stall.

filch = 2) from the above, to steal furtively, snatch.

file = fish teeth arranged in the labio-lingual direction, e.g. in sharks. Such teeth are at different developmental stages and are derived from the same tooth bud position, cf. row, diagonal file and tooth row.

filet = fillet in French.

Filet-O-Fish = a MacDonald's fish sandwich introduced in 1963 to combat declining sales on Fridays, a non-meat eating day for certain Christians. Also popular with Muslims who cannot eat haram meat. Also called FishMac or McFish.

filial = the generation or sequence of generations following the parental generation. See F0, F1, etc. above.

filial cannibalism = cannibalism of kin.

filiform = round and very slender; cord-like; in the form of a thread or filament, e.g. first dorsal ray in Chauliodus (Chauliodontidae), a branchiostegal ray.

fill = to wind twine on the implement used to knit a fish net (Newfoundland).

fillet = a slice of fish flesh cut out parallel to the vertebral axis for human consumption, with or without skin attached. Usually 2-12 oz in weight for restaurant and home use.

filter feeder = a fish that obtains small particles of food (plankton) by filtering them out of the water, usually with numerous, elongate and fine gill rakers, e.g. megamouth shark.

filter net = a fixed bag net, often conical, with a non-return valve trapping fish in flowing water by straining.

filtering mat = a grating screen of fish screen (2) (q.v.) built on a slant into a river bed. Fences or netting direct fish onto the screen and the fish run aground on it while the water falls through the screen grating.

filum terminale = terminal threads of the spinal cord which extend to the end of the vertebral canal.

fimbria (plural fimbriae) = 1) a fringe or fringe-like structure.

fimbria = 2) plural of fimbrium.

fimbriae = plural of fimbria (1).

fimbriate = fringed; with thread-like filaments, e.g. margin of sucking disk of lampreys (Petromyzontiformes).

fimbrillate = having a small or fine fringe.

fimbrium (plural fimbria) = a short pilus or hair-like structure on the surface of a cell; used to attach to surfaces and in conjugation with another cell of the same species. Since its plural is identical with the singular for fimbria, meaning fringe, some confusion may arise.

fin = 1) flap-like external organ concerned with locomotion in fishes. See dorsal, adipose, caudal, anal, pelvic (ventral), and pectoral fins.

fin = 2) an arm or hand (slang). See also tip the fin.

fin = 3) in America a $5 bill, from the Yiddish finnif, a ₤5 note in England in the nineteenth century. From the German funf or five.

fin = 4) the verb for the process known as finning.

fin = 5) presence of a fish or fish school revealed by fins sticking out of water. See also push water.

fin clip = the part removed and the removal of specific parts of specific fins in a coded sequence to mark individual fish for mark-recapture and other similar studies. Also called fin clipping.

fin clipping = fin clip.

fin element = a fin ray, spine or pterygiophore.

fin erosion = fin rot.

fin formula = in old works the dorsal, ventral, and anal fin counts were each presented as a formula with the spine count the numerator above the ray count, e.g. D. 20 /14-15 means 20 spines and 14 to 15 rays in the fin.

fin height = length of the longest ray in the fin.

fin membrane = the thin membrane between and connecting fin rays and spines.

fin nipping = biting of fins among cultured fish through overcrowding or insufficient funds.

fin ray chamber = one of the compartments in the median fin fold (dorsal and ventral fin folds) into which project so-called fin rays in Amphioxi.

fin ray counts = see the fin concerned; see also fin formula.

fin rot = disintegration of fish fins through bacterial infections in nature, aquaria or aquaculture, aggravated by crowding and nutritional problems in aquaculture tanks. Common in aquarium fish like mollies, especially those with dark pigment such as black mollies. The bacteria involved are Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Flexibacter. Death may occur if it progresses too far but bathing in a salt solution, various proprietary medications and application of topical medications will prevent further development. Also called fin erosion.

fin web = 1) the fin membrane.

fin web = 2) the compressed part of the shark fin, distal to the base and supported only by ceratotrichia (q.v.) , the aplesodic fin (q.v.), or by ceratotrichia surrounding expanded fin radials or by radials only, the plesodic fin (q.v.).

fin-clipping = the parasitic or predatory action of one species on another where sections of fin are removed as food, e.g. by Serrasalmus.

Finagle's 2nd Law = states, if something can go wrong it will. There are no 1st or 3rd laws. Also known as Murphy's Law.

final host = definitive host (the fish in which a parasite passes it adult or reproductive phase. Also called primary host).

find fish on one's fingers = to devise or allege an excuse (late 16th to early 17 centuries).

finder = 1) a sonar device or echo sounder used to locate fishes and determine water depth.

finder = 2) a surf-fishing rig comprising a pyramid-shaped sinker running freely along the line; this allows the bait to be carried by the tide or run by a fish.

Findon haddock = finnan haddie.

fine kettle of fish = a bad state of affairs; a very difficult and annoying situation; something to be considered or reckoned with. Derived from kiddle or keddle, q.v., a basket set in the sluice of a dam or weir to catch fish. Kiddles were used by royal officials but were often destroyed by poachers, hence a bad state of affairs.

fine-meshed = pertaining to a fish net having small meshes.

finesse fishing = an angling technique using light tackle, effective in clear, unvegetated water.

finfish = true fishes, those poikilothermic vertebrates breathing by gills throughout life and having limbs, if any, in the form of fins. Used to indicate true fishes in the context where the word fish is applied in its broad sense to cover aquatic animals such as whales, crustaceans and molluscs.

finfish excluder device = a structure used on fishing equipment to reduce the amount of by-catch taken. Commonly used with shrimp trawls.

finfold = the median and metapleural folds in the integument of Amphioxi. Also the median integumentary fold of embryos of other fishes. Also a hypothetical fold from which paired fins were supposedly evolved from folds of the body wall.

finger = fish stick (fish marketed in the form of rectangular sticks cut from a block of frozen fish fillets, breaded, fried in fat or sold frozen for cooking. Usually 1-3 oz in weight).

finger pier = a narrow floating pier leading off from a pier or wharf.

finger pond = an artificial pond up to about 12 m long extending into a wetland or floodplain, filling during floods to trap fish for food during the dry season.

fingerling = an immature fish, less than one year old, or any fish too small to be of marketable size (and so up to 25 cm long).

fingerling pond = a rearing pond stocked with fry for their first year of growth. Also called second fry rearing pond.

fining compound = a type of isinglass (glutinous fluid prepared from the gas bladders of fish) used to clarify beer.

finishing pond = fattening pond.

finlet = one of a series of small fins consisting of a few rays each, separate from each other and found posterior to the dorsal and anal fins, e.g. in Scombridae.

Finn men = sea fairies in the Orkneys who drive away fish from the part of the sea they inhabit.

finnack = finnock.

finnage = the whole set of fins found on a fish.

finnan haddie = split, lightly salted and cold smoked (for a few hours) haddock, without head and guts, from Scotland. Cooked in butter or cream traditionally. Also called finnan haddock. Reputedly named for the village of Findon in Scotland.

finnan haddock = finnan haddie.

finneck = finock.

finner = a generic term for any fish (Scottish dialect).

finnie = a salmon under one year (Scottish dialect).

finning = removal of the fins and discarding of the carcass, e.g. with sharks as the source for Chinese shark fin soup. A single large fin from a basking shark can sell for $13,300 in Asia (in 2003).

finnoch = finnock.

finnock = immature sea trout, Salmo trutta (Scottish dialect). Also spelled finnack, finneck, finnoch, phinnick and phinnock.

finny prey = a synonym for fish.

finny tribe = a synonym for fish.

finrot = in aquarium fish caused by poor environmental conditions, stress and high bacterial levels; initially appearing as red streaks in the fins, followed by fraying, rotting of fins and when reaching the body, death. Salt baths and application of Gentian violet can cure the condition if the causes are removed.

fion = a unit of disapproval.

fiord = a long, deep, narrow inlet of the sea between steep mountainous sides. Of glacial origin. Also spelled fjord. Sometimes used for freshwater lakes carved by glaciers.

fire fishing = attracting or sighting fish by means of light, in this case by a fire. Voyageurs used to build a platform on the bow of a canoe to hold the burning materials. Also called torch fishing.

firmness = a means of assessing the quality of fish by finger pressure when raw or in the mouth when cooked.

first feeding larva = a larval fish that has used up all, or almost all, of its yolk and is capable of feeding.

first fry pond = nursery pond (a pond system intermediate between the hatchery and grow-out stages in aquaculture).

first rearing pond = nursery pond (a pond system intermediate between the hatchery and grow-out stages in aquaculture).

first reviser = the person who first selects one of two or more simultaneously published names that (s)he believes represent the same taxon, or who selects which one of two or more taxa for which identical names have been simultaneously published, the name will apply to. This is done in the interest of nomenclatural stability.

first species method = in nomenclature, the automatic selection of the first named species as the type of the name of a genus. Not now an accepted means of typification.

first uroneural = caudal bony plate (any ossified plate helping to support the tail fin. A name given to the first larger pair of uroneurals, situated on the curve of the upturned posterior end of the vertebral column. Preferably called first uroneural).

first-level consumer = a fish that feeds on the lowest level of a community's food web, namely plants. Also called primary consumer.

firth = a long, narrow indentation of the coastline.

Fischfrikadellen = cod, coalfish or other white fish made into rissoles by mixing with binding materials and spices, then roasted, fried or hot-smoked, after cooling. Also packed in cans or glass jars usually with vinegar and spices (Germany). Marketed as semi-preserves or canned. Also called Brisoletten.

Fischsülze = cooked fish, minced and mixed with cucumbers, onion, spices and other ingredients, packed in jelly, and dissolved by heat. This German product is similar to corned beef. The minimum fish content is 60%.

fish = 1) any chordate below the tetrapods. A poikilothermic aquatic chordate breathing by means of gills throughout life (accessory organs may be used) and having limbs, if any, in the form of fins. For convenience, lancelets, lampreys and hagfishes are considered fishes along with sharks, rays, chimaeras and bony fishes. The word fish has been used in popular English for a almost a thousand years (A.D. 1010). Where one species of fish is involved the plural is fish, where several species of fish are involved the plural is fishes. This practice is not always strictly adhered to. Fish is also used in a broad sense of aquatic animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, particularly those which are fished for, such as whales and molluscs, as well as ordinary fishes (see below). To distinguish the true fishes in this context the term finfish is used.

fish- = many words have been combined with fish as a prefix or modifier. These words may, or may not, be hyphenated or joined. Often, but not always, the hyphenated word is an adjective; but frequently this is mis-used. All variants may need to be searched although most are entered here. Note that any term preceded by fish may occur alone, e.g. fish garth may appear simply as garth.

-fish = many words have been combined with fish as a suffix. These words may, or may not, be hyphenated or joined and can be found under the appropriate letter heading.

The word fish is found in all languages and some examples follow (not all scripts translate across platforms):-
Abenaki = namas, Afrikaans = vis, Ainu = ceh, cep, Aklanon = isda, Alabama = ɬaɬo, Albanian = peshk, Anglo-Saxon = fisc, Arabic = سمك (samak), Aramaic = נון (nun), Armenian = ձուկ (łowk) or tsoug, Assyrian = nooynaa, Asturian = pexe, Avestan = masyô, Ayapathu = nga'a, Aymara = chawlla, Azeri = balıq, Basque = arrain, Bavarian = fiisch, Bemba = isabi, Bengali = machh, Bergamasco = pès, Blackfoot = mamíí, Bolognese = pass, Bosnian = riba; Brazilian = peixe, fish, Breton = pesk, Bulgarian = риба (ryba), Byelorussian = рыба, Calabrese = pisciu, pisci, Caló = maché, machó, Cambodian (Khmer) = t'ray, Cantonese = 魚 (yue), Catalan = peix, Catawba = yie`, Cebuano = isda, Chamorro = guihan, Chechen = ch'cara, Cherokee = a tsa di, Cheyenne = noma'ne, Cornish = pisk, Croatian = riba, Czech = ryba, Dagespregos = peisko, Danish = fisk, Dutch = vis, Dzoratâi = pèsson, Esperanto = fiŝo, Estonian = kala, Faeroese = fiskur, Farsi = ماهي (mahi), Finnish = kala, Fijian = ika, Flemish = vis, French = poisson, Frisian = fisk, Fulani = liingu, Galician = peixe, Gan = 鱼 (enlei), Georgian = თევზი (tevzi), German = Fisch, Greek = ιχθύς (ichthos, ancient), ψάρι, (psari, modern), Griko Salentino = atzàri, Guarani = pira, ipirã, Gujarati = માછલું (macchi), Hainanese = 鱼 (hu), Haitian creole = pwason, Hakka = 魚 (ng), Hausa = kifi, Hawaiian = i'a, Hebrew = דג (dag), Hindi = मछली (machali), Hmong = ntses, Hungarian = hal, Huron (Wyandot) = ye,ent,so, Ibo = azu, Icelandic = fiskur, Ido = fisho, Ilocano = lames, Indonesian = ikan, Interlingua = pisce, Inuktituk = iqaluk, Inupiaq = iqaluk, Irish = iasc, Italian = pesce, Japanese = 魚 (さかな) (sakana), Javanese = iwak, Judeo-Spanish = peshe, peshkado, Kankonian = tairak, Khmer = t'ray, Kongo = mbizi amaza, mbizi a maza, Konkani = nishtem, Korean = 물고기 (seng-son), Kunza = cacchi, Kurdish Kurmanji = masî, Kurdish Sorani = ماسی (masi), Ladino = pësc, Lao = ປາ (bpa), Lappish/Saame = guöllé, Latin = piscis, Latvish = fisribe, fisdogim, Leonese = peixe, Limburgian = vèsj, vösj, Lingala = mbisi, Lithuanian = žuvis, Loglan = ficli, Lombardo Occidentale = pès, Luxembourgish = Fësch, Maasai = osinkirri, Macedonian РИБА (ryba), Mahratta = māsolī, Malagasy = haza, trondro, Malay = ikan, Maliseeet-Passamaquoddy = nûm-es', Maltese = huta, Mandarin = 魚 (Pīnyīn: yú), Mantuan = pes, Manx = eeast, Maori = ika, ngobi, Mapunzugun = chajwa, Marathi = मासळी (?), Marshallese = ik, Mayan = kay, Mikmaq = nméj, Mongolian = загас (zagas), Mudnés = pass, Nahuatl = michin, Neapolitan = pesce, Norwegian = fisk, Novial = fishe, Occitan = peisson, Old Tamil = min, Papago = watopi, Papiamen = piska, Parmigiano = pess, Pashtu = kab, Piemontese = pess, Pig latin = ishfay, Polish = ryba, Portuguese = peixe, Potawatomi = gigos, Provencal = peis, Pugliese = pesc, Punjabi = ਮਛੀ (machi), Quechua = suchi, chaulla, Rapanui = ika, ma'ito, Reggiano = pèss, Romagnola = pès, Romanian = peşte, Romansh = pesch, Romany = macshò, Ruanda = ifi, Russian = рыба (r'yba), Saanich = pis, Samoan = i'a, Sanskrit = मत्स्य (matsya), Sardinian (Limba Sarda Unificada) = pische, Sardinian Campidanesu = piscau, pisci, Sardu = písche, Scots Gaelic = iasg, Seneca (Mingo) = këtsö, Sepedi = hiapi, Serbo-Croatian = riba, Shona = hove, Sicilian = pisci, Sinhalese = ma-lu, Slovak = ryba, Slovene = ribe, Somali = kalluun, Spanish = pez, plural peces, pescado, plural pescados, Sranan = fisi, Sumerian = kua, Sundanese = lauk, ikan, Swahili = samaki, Swazi = ín-hlanti, Swedish = fisk, Swiss German = Fisch, Tagalog = isda, Tahitian = i'a, Telegu = kakka, Thai = ปลา (plaa), Tibetan = ཉ་ (ña), Tok Pisin = pis, Triestino = pesse, Tupinambá = pirá, Turkish = balık, Turkmen = balyk, Ukrainian = риба (ryba), Urdu = مچھلی (machhli), Valencian = peix, Venetian = pesse, Vietnamese = cá, Vogul = xul, Wallon = pexhon, Welsh = pysgodyn, Yiddish = fish, Yucatec = kay, Zeneize = pescio, Zulu = inhlanzi.

fish = 2) a whale; used in the historical whale fisheries.

fish = 3) slang for microfiche; a cabinet of microfiches is called a fish tank.

fish = 4) the flesh of fish used as food.

fish = 5) a gullible person.

fish = 6) a card game.

fish = 7) a counter or marker at cards, often fish-shaped.

fish = 8) pieces cut out of garments to make them fit closely.

fish = 9) a piece of timber used to strengthen a mast or spar when sprung, often somewhat fish-shaped.

fish = 10) a machine for hoisting the flukes of the anchor to the bow.

fish = 11) a prostitute; probably from the resemblance of the word to flesh.

fish = 12) a corpse, especially one taken from water.

fish = 13) to splice as rails, with a fish-joint.

fish = 14) to seek to obtain by artifice, in a sly or indirect way, e.g. fish for compliments.

fish = 15) to search for loot.

fish = 16) slang for a torpedo; in full tin fish.

fish = 17) slang for a new prisoner.

fish = 18) a dance done to fox trot music in 4/4 time.

fish = 19) to pull or draw out (as out of a pocket or out of boiling water, or wires in walls).

fish = 20) a person deficient in some way (a poor fish, a queer fish).

fish = 21) the twelfth sign of the zodiac (about 19 February to 20 March).

Fish = 22) a surname.

fish = 23) a type of wide surfboard with a swallow tail.

FISH = 24) abbreviation for fluorescence in situ hybridisation, the use of fluorescent tags to detect hybridisation of probes with metaphase chromosomes and with the less-condensed somatic interphase chromatin.

FISH = 25) First In, Still Here, a facetious extension of FIFO (first in, first out) used in accounting.

FISH = 26) Friends in Service Here, a service agency assisting the low income, elderly or handicapped.

fish = 27) a bad poker player.

fish = 28) Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, once such a mainstay of the economy and life in Atlantic Canada that is was referred to simply as fish. See also 79 below.

fish = 29) slang for a dollar.

fish = 30) meat having the qualities of fish, e.g. a beaver tail is fish but an otter tail is flesh or meat.

fish = 31) applied figuratively to a person whom it is desirable to catch or hook.

fish = 32) the first incarnation of Vishnu in Hindu mythology.

fish = 33) to lead an internal halyard or messenger through a mast.

fish = 34) an attractive male human; a hot guy.

fish = 35) surreal or random. From the joke "How many surrealists does it take to change a light bulb?" "How many?" "Fish".

fish = 36) life mate; from the proverb "there are more fish in the sea".

fish = 37) used as an exclamation of anger to replace potentially offensive words; presumably from "By God's flesh".

fish = 38) freshman.

fish = 39) novice, beginner.

fish = 40) newcomer.

fish = 41) foreigner.

fish = 42) as a verb, to catch fishes, marine mammals, and invertebrates; the act of fishing.

fish = 43) <>< - as an e-mail symbol.

fish = 44) ghoti (pronounced as fish; an indication of the complexity and inconsistency of the English language attributed to George Bernard Shaw - gh as in cough, o as in women and ti as in nation means ghoti can be pronounced as fish (and other words have been cited such as trough, rough, laugh, station, etc., the original has not been tracked down)).

fish = 45) according to the Fisheries Act in Canada, fish includes fish, shellfish, crustaceans, marine animals and any parts of fish, shellfish, crustaceans or marine animals, and the eggs, sperm, spawn, larvae, spat and juvenile stages of fish, shellfish, crustaceans and marine animals.

fish = 46) a turtle in the West Indies, so called by dealers in the capture of them in the past.

fish = 47) a submarine.

fish = 48) a victim that someone is trying to catch or hook, e.g. in a carnival game. See clean the fish.

fish = 49) a person (poor fish, queer fish, cold fish, loose fish, etc.).

fish = 50) an acronym for Fibonacci shrinking, a software cipher. Sometimes spelled FISH.

fish = 51) British code name for German teleprinter ciphers in the Second World War. From Fibonacci shrinking. See also tunny and sturgeon.

fish = 52) stage name for Derek William Dick, a Scottish rock singer, writer and actor.

fish = 53) to search for something under water by dredging, diving or some other method.

fish = 54) to draw or pull out of water.

fish = 55) to curry favour or ingratiate oneself.

fish = 56) to use as bait in fishing.

fish = 57) to search for something.

fish = 58) to cover land with fish remains as a fertiliser.

fish = 59) to provide good or bad sport for anglers, e.g. the river continues to fish badly.

fish = 60) to make use of for fishing, such as a small boat or gear, e.g. this rod is easier to fish.

fish = 61) to take part in a fishing competition, e.g. members of the club will fish a match tomorrow.

fish = 62) the act of attaching a piece of timber used to strengthen a mast or spar when sprung.

fish = 63) the act of joining with a fish joint.

fish = 64) a flat plate of iron or wood set across a joint to strengthen it, as in railway construction; a fish plate, q.v.

fish = 65) a yellow, oilskin raincoat or slicker. So-named because of a trademark.

fish = 66) a seaman. See also scaly fish.

fish = 67) a woman; probably from the resemblance of the word to flesh.

fish = 68) a heterosexual female in homosexual slang in the twentieth century.

Fish = 69) the Australian train between Sydney and Blue Mountain communities. Apparently several of the first crew had names related to fish.

fish = 70) female pudenda (slang).

fish = 71) the penis (slang).

fish = 72) a Roman Catholic, in a derogatory sense since they ate fish every Friday for religious reasons. See also fish-eater.

FISh = 73) an array programming language.

FISH = 74) files transferred over shell protocol is a protocol to transfer files between computers and manage remote files.

fish = 75) a UNIX command shell, being an acronym for friendly interactive shell.

FISH = 76) an unofficial acronym for urban warfare, meaning fighting in someone's house.

fish = 77) American English slang for an African American.

fish = 78) to crib or copy someone else's work.

fish = 79) used for salmon and sea trout in Scotland as these are important fish See also 28 above.

fish = 80) slang for a sailor.

fish = 81) a toady sycophant or lickspittle. See also fisher.

fish = 82) slang for a heavy drinker.

fish = 83) a sauce accompanying a starchy staple, not necessarily containing fish.

fish = 84) a derogatory term for a Newfoundlander as fish were a staple product of the province.

fish = 85) slang for money, often U.S.$1.00.

fish a man appeal = a contribution to the Second World War effort by Newfoundland fishermen who donated one salt-dried cod, the proceeds from the sale of which went to provide comforts for Newfoundland servicemen overseas and their families at home.

fish advisory = not addressed to fish but to the public when high concentrations of chemical contaminants have been found in local fish.

fish aggregating device = artificial or natural floating objects placed on the ocean surface, anchored to the bottom or drifting, to attract several schooling fish species underneath, thus increasing their catchability. Used with tuna, for example. Also called fish attracting device. Abbreviated as FAD.

fish allergy = humans can be allergic to fish (BWC, personal experience; last fish meal an uninteresting fish finger, q.v.) although not to other seafoods such as crustaceans and molluscs. Gadus morhua allergy has been studied the most and other species are believed to be similar although not all fish species may trigger a reaction. Gad c l, a parvalbumin, is the major cod allergen. Symptoms appear within minutes to a few hours of eating fish and include swelling of the lips, tongue or throat, hoarseness, cough, hives, rashes, runny nose and watering eyes, and asthma. Potentially fatal if the throat constricts. Symptoms may be limited to nausea, vomiting or cramping diarrhoea.

fish and brewis = salt cod and hard bread (or hardtack) soaked in water overnight and then fried and garnished with salt pork and molasses in Newfoundland. Brewis is Middle English for bread soaked in drippings.

fish and chipper = 1) a shop selling fish and chips.

fish and chipper = 2) an inept cyclist, one not riding to their full potential.

fish and chips = fried fish and fried chipped potatoes. See also grockle fodder.

fish and chip mob = socially unacceptable (from Sandhurst, U.K., unfashionable regiments).

fish and chip shop = a shop selling fish and chips. Note that the fish is often dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and better types of fish, such as cod and haddock, cost extra.

fish and chip shop names = this type of business readily lends itself to puns and joke names such as The Fish Plaice, Frying Nemo (see Nemo), A Fish Called Rhondda (after the valley in Wales - see Fish Called Wanda), The Codfather, Oh My Cod, A Salt and Battery, Battersea Cod's Home, Frying Scotsman, etc.

fish and chip van = a vehicle which is used to sell fish and chips from; often not particularly mobile as a licensed spot on a street is where the vehicle is stationed or it may be converted and permanently fixed in a location.

fish and chips = 1) battered fish served with sliced potatoes cooked in oil or fat. A staple of the English, better than it sounds.

fish and chips = 2) also, elliptically, for a shop where this item may be bought.

fish and find out = an evasive reply to an unwelcome question.

fish and flesh = a proverb, you must not make fish of one and flesh of the other, meaning you must treat both alike. Fish is deemed an inferior sort of animal food to flesh. Used for its alliterative quality.

fish and scrunchions = Dutch mess (salt cod and potatoes with browned onions. Garnished with scrunchions (the crunchy bits remaining after pork fat is rendered). Also called house bankin' or hugger-in-buff).

fish and shrimp = pimp (U.S. rhyming slang).

fish and tank = bank (rhyming slang).

fish and vang = cod and salty and fat pork chunks cooked together (Newfoundland).

fish 'n' taters = laters (Cockney slang for seeing someone later).

fish apartment house = a Japanese fish shelter comprising a concrete block about a metre cube with a 30 cm window on each side wall. About a 100 of these are deposited in a suitable area where they attract fish that can be caught by angling, longlines and bottom gill nets set nearby.

fish art = see fish in art.

fish attracting device = fish aggregating device.

fish attractor = any structure placed in the water to create habitat for fishes.

fish au naturel = a canned product prepared by cooking fish in its own juice (United Kingdom) or light brine, sometimes with vinegar and flavouring agents added (France).

fish avoidance = various cultures do not eat fish, e.g. ancient Syrians believed fish to be holy and did not eat them (see Atargatis); the Bechuana and certain Bantu tribes in Africa. Often associated with social status among pastoralists, only lower class groups consuming fish, or with religion such as the Hindu belief in non-violence to sentient beings and the resulting vegetarianism. Also, certain bodies of water are sacred and fish from there are not eaten.

fish bagger = a suburban tradesman's term for those who live in good areas but without spending more than rent money; derisory. Also derived from someone working in the City (London, in business) carrying a briefcase supposedly for important papers but used to bring home cheap food such as fish.

fish ball = fish don't have balls but are sometimes made into them. A ball of shredded white fish or cod and mashed potatoes, flour or other binding material, usually fried. Also called fish dumpling. See also canned fish ball, catfish ball and ball.

fish bar = 1) fish plate (1).

fish bar = 2) a restaurant serving fish, often sushi, with seats at a bar.

fish barrel = a rounded wooden container used to pack fish. A barrel of fish can be 200 pounds or 90.72 kg in the U.S.A. while a barrel of herrings used to be 32 pounds or 14.51 kg in England.

fish barrier = weir (nets or fences set in streams or along the coast to direct fish into a holding container for easy capture. Some weirs take advantage of the falling tide to capture fish while others catch upstream migrating adults).

fish barrow = a flat, rectangular wooden frame with handles at each corner, made for two men to carry cod.

fish basil = a herb, basil used in fish dishes.

fish basket = 1) a device to catch fish moving in a stream; made of wickerwork or wooden slats and usually trapping downstream migrants.

fish basket = 2) keepnet (a net lacking knots and supported with plastic or metal hoops, designed to hold fish caught by angling, usually in contests so the fish can later be weighed and released, or to keep fish fresh before transport and eating).

fish basket = 3) a basket used for carrying fish; a creel.

fish bat = fishing bat.

fish beach = an area of beach levelled for drying of salt cod (Newfoundland).

fish beam = 1) a beam one of whose sides (usually the ventral one) swells out like the belly of a fish.

fish beam = 2) a scale for weighing dried cod (Newfoundland).

fish bed = a stratum rich in fish fossils.

fish bee = a bluebottle fly (Scottish dialect).

fish beetle = the rove beetle (Staphylinus villosus) which swarmed in older fish processing sheds. Also called fish fly.

fish before the net = to be premature in anticipating something.

fish begonia = an ornamental Brazilian plant (Begonia maculata) with fishtail-shaped, spotty leaves.

fish belly = 1) anything white like a fish belly including certain plants where leaves are white on the underside and turned up in the wind.

fish belly = 2) derogatory Black slang for white people based on their white bellies.

fish belly sill = a side or central sill used in railroad car construction; named for its fish shape.

fish berry = a plant used to kill or stupefy fish when placed in water as an extract, e.g. Levant berry (Cocculus indicus (an older name) or Anamirta paniculata) crushed and scattered on the water surface by Indian fisherman.

fish bird = the Atlantic black-legged kittiwake or the northern common tern, birds whose appearance heralded the beginning of the fishery in Newfoundland.

fish biscuit = 1) a large, fish-flavoured treat used for rewarding animals in zoos such as bears.

fish biscuit = 2) a term for any reward that does not meet expectations. Based on the TV series "Lost" where one of the characters (Sawyer) spent most of an episode locked up and trying to solve a puzzle only to be rewarded with a fish-shaped biscuit.

fish bits = that part of a mullet haircut that hangs down at the back.

fish bladder = 1) the storage sac for urine.

fish bladder = 2) a figure composed of two equal and symmetrically placed circular arcs. See also vesica piscis.

fish bladder = 3) gas bladder (a thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be connected to the gut by a tube, the ductus pneumaticus (then called physostomous) or unconnected (then called physoclistous). May function as one or more of:- hydrostatic organ, sound producing organ, sound receptor, respiratory organ. Often lacking in bottom fishes. Sometimes called swim bladder or air bladder, less appropriate terms).

fish blanket = hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum), an aquatic, perennial plant with whorled leaves.

fish block = 1) a block of frozen fish flesh, containing no skin and no bones.

fish block = 2) equipment to raise the flukes of an anchor to the gunwale. Also called fish tackle.

fish block = 3) a mechanism used with fish-tackle for raising heavy objects. Consists of a wheel with a groove in which a rope can run to change the direction or point of application of a force applied to the rope.

fish board = a wooden platform used as a table on Newfoundland fishing boats. Cod, salt meat and potatoes were cooked in a pot and thrown on the fish board. Each fisherman took a seat around the board and ate away until it was all finished.

fish boat = a boat from which fish are caught.

fish boil = 1) a mass of fish attacking food or bait just below the surface. Also called boiling school.

fish boil = 2) fish, potatoes and onions boiled in salted water, usually at a picnic.

fish boil = 3) a skin eruption found on fishermen in prolonged contact with salt water.

fish boiler = 1) a fish kettle.

fish boiler = 2) a Norwegian (slang).

fish bolt = a bolt for securing a fish plate.

fish bomb = a home-made bomb made from an empty glass bottle filled with fertiliser and kerosene used to stun fish on coral reefs for capture and sale in the aquarium trade.

fish bombing = use of explosives or cyanide to collect fish for food.

fish bone diagram = a graph used in quality control to identify possible problem causes.

fish bone meal = ground bones of animals and fish, high in calcium and phosphorus, and used in fish feeds and as a plant fertiliser. May pollute waters because of the high phosphorus content and so not used as extensively as in the past.

fish bone stitch = a series of diagonal, single-purl stitches zig-zagged across an unmarked line.

fish bone thistle = fish thistle.

fish bone tree = Panax crassifolium, a small tree from New Zealand.

fish bones = oscillations in soft x-ray emissions which have the appearance of fish bones.

fish book = a record of fish captures, e.g. a dealer's records of fish received from a fisherman in the cod fishery of Newfoundland.

fish bowl = 1) a round glass bowl used for keeping ornamental or pet fish.

fish bowl = 2) a situation where one's activities are constantly observed, scrutinised, commented on, etc.

fish bowl = 3) jail.

fish bowl granuloma = localised nodular skin inflammation (small reddish raised areas of skin) caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium marinum. Usually acquired by occupational or recreational exposure to salt or fresh water, often resulting from minor trauma during caring for aquaria.

fish box = 1) a box for storing and transporting fish, usually 15-50 kg.

fish box - 2) a wooden sailing vessel carrying dried cod to foreign markets (Newfoundland).

fish brain = in inline skating a slide where the skater grabs one skate with the hand closest to it.

fish breast = a plump fillet.

fish breath = halitosis in cats eating a diet of fish.

fish breeches = cod fish roe (Newfoundland).

fish brine = fish sauce.

fish broth = water (slang).

fish burger = a hamburger with the patty made from fish.

fish business = slang for pandering.

fish cadger = a fish hawker (Scottish dialect).

fish cake = 1) fish flesh mixed with potatoes, seasoning and sometimes eggs, butter and onions and formed into cakes or patties and fried in fat. Fish content may be 35-50% by weight and include such species as cod and haddock. Marketed cooked, cooked and frozen, frozen ready for frying, and canned.

fish cake = 2) fish before drying in the manufacturing process for fish meal.

(A) Fish Called Wanda = the title of a 1988 movie about a jewel theft. One character, looking for the diamonds, tortures another by eating his pet fish, leaving the one called Wanda for last.

fish camp = a camp used as a base for angling by a group of people; may be very simple or have accommodation and other facilities.

fish car = a railroad car with water tanks for transportation of live fish.

fish carle = a fisherman.

fish carrier = 1) a boat used to transport a catch of fishes from a vessel to the shore.

fish carrier = 2) a container used to keep fish alive during transportation.

fish carver = a carving knife used for fish. May be paired with a fork.

fish cask = a wooden barrel for the export of dried and salted cod (Newfoundland). See also fish drum.

fish catching box = a fry trap placed behind the monk, q.v., to catch fish when a pond is drained.

fish census = a survey over time of fish species, numbers and relative abundance.

fish chip = a delicatessen potato chip-like product made of equal parts of fish and potato.

fish chorusing = sound production in fishes associated with reproduction. Various websites have recordings of the sounds made.

fish chowder = a thick soup mix of cooked fish and/or shellfish and potatoes in a broth made from pork, flour, seasonings and fish stock.

fish clamp = a type of fish spear with several prongs that hold a fish without excessive injury. The prongs may be pointed and barbed too but the purpose of the clamp is to secure the fish with little damage.

fish cleaning = the act of cleaning a fish for food. See fish cleaning in Symbols.

fish climber = a plant (?) whose red and black-kernelled beans when bruised and thrown into water will stupefy fish.

fish clip = fish clamp.

fish club = 1) a device used to stun or kill a fish when captured on hook and line or in a trap. Can be a simple piece of wood or intricately shaped and carved as with the Haida fish clubs of western Canada.

fish club = 2) an association of individuals devoted to angling. See also anglers association.

fish club = 3) an association of individuals devoted to keeping fish in aquaria.

fish cocktail = ceviche (raw white fish marinated in lemon or lime juice and served with sweet limes, avocados, onion rings, garlic, cilantro, chilies, boiled corn and t